Results for 'access to innovation'

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  1.  7
    Joo-Young Lee: A Human Rights Framework for Intellectual Property, Innovation and Access to Medicines.Daniele Ruggiu - 2019 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 40 (2):161-163.
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  2.  12
    Faster Access to New Drugs: Fault Lines Between Health Canada's Regulatory Intent and Industry Innovation Practices.Janice Graham - forthcoming - Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine.
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  3.  49
    Intellectual Property and Global Health: From Corporate Social Responsibility to the Access to Knowledge Movement.Cristian Timmermann & Henk van den Belt - 2013 - Liverpool Law Review 34 (1):47-73.
    Any system for the protection of intellectual property rights (IPRs) has three main kinds of distributive effects. It will determine or influence: (a) the types of objects that will be developed and for which IPRs will be sought; (b) the differential access various people will have to these objects; and (c) the distribution of the IPRs themselves among various actors. What this means to the area of pharmaceutical research is that many urgently needed medicines will not be developed at (...)
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  4. Limiting and Facilitating Access to Innovations in Medicine and Agriculture: A Brief Exposition of the Ethical Arguments.Cristian Timmermann - 2014 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 10 (1):1-20.
    Taking people’s longevity as a measure of good life, humankind can proudly say that the average person is living a much longer life than ever before. The AIDS epidemic has however for the first time in decades stalled and in some cases even reverted this trend in a number of countries. Climate change is increasingly becoming a major challenge for food security and we can anticipate that hunger caused by crop damages will become much more common. -/- Since many of (...)
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  5.  34
    Raising the Barriers to Access to Medicines in the Developing World – The Relentless Push for Data Exclusivity.Diependaele Lisa, Cockbain Julian & Sterckx Sigrid - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1):11-21.
    Since the adoption of the WTO-TRIPS Agreement in 1994, there has been significant controversy over the impact of pharmaceutical patent protection on the access to medicines in the developing world. In addition to the market exclusivity provided by patents, the pharmaceutical industry has also sought to further extend their monopolies by advocating the need for additional ‘regulatory’ protection for new medicines, known as data exclusivity. Data exclusivity limits the use of clinical trial data that need to be submitted to (...)
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  6. An Assessment of Prominent Proposals to Amend Intellectual Property Regimes Using a Human Rights Framework.Cristian Timmermann - 2014 - la Propiedad Inmaterial 18:221-253.
    A wide range of proposals to alleviate the negative effects of intellectual property regimes is currently under discussion. This article offers a critical evaluation of six of these proposals: the Health Impact Fund, the Access to Knowledge movement, prize systems, open innovation models, compulsory licenses and South-South collaborations. An assessment on how these proposals target the human rights affected by intellectual property will be provided. The conflicting human rights that will be individually discussed are the rights: to benefit (...)
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  7.  59
    Incentivizing Access and Innovation for Essential Medicines: A Survey of the Problem and Proposed Solutions.Michael Ravvin - 2008 - Public Health Ethics 1 (2):110-123.
    Michael Ravvin, Department of Political Science, Columbia University, 420 W. 118th Street, New York, NY 10027 Email: mer2133{at}columbia.edu ' + u + '@' + d + ' '//--> Abstract The existing intellectual property regime discourages the innovation of, and access to, essential medicines for the poor in developing countries. A successful proposal to reform the existing system must address these challenges of access and innovation. This essay will survey the problems in the existing pharmaceutical patent system (...)
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  8.  12
    Medical Negligence Determinations, the “Right to Try,” and Expanded Access to Innovative Treatments.Denise Meyerson - 2017 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 14 (3):385-400.
    This article considers the issue of expanded access to innovative treatments in the context of recent legislative initiatives in the United Kingdom and the United States. In the United Kingdom, the supporters of legislative change argued that the common law principles governing medical negligence are a barrier to innovation. In an attempt to remove this perceived impediment, two bills proposed that innovating doctors sued for negligence should be able to rely in their defence on the fact that their (...)
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  9.  19
    Access to High Cost Cancer Medicines Through the Lens of an Australian Senate Inquiry—Defining the “Goods” at Stake.Narcyz Ghinea, Miles Little & Wendy Lipworth - 2017 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 14 (3):401-410.
    Cancer is a major burden on populations and health systems internationally. The development of innovative cancer medicines is seen as a significant part of the solution. These new cancer medicines are, however, expensive, leading to limited or delayed access and disagreements among stakeholders about which medicines to fund. There is no obvious resolution to these disagreements, with stakeholders holding firmly to divergent positions. Access to cancer medicines was recently explored in Australia in a Senate Inquiry into the Availability (...)
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  10.  17
    The Right to Health and Medicines: The Case of Recent Multilateral Negotiations on Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property.German Velasquez - 2014 - Developing World Bioethics 14 (2):67-74.
    The negotiations of the intergovernmental group known as the ‘IGWG’, undertaken by the Member States of the WHO, were the result of a deadlock in the World Health Assembly held in 2006 where the Member States of the WHO were unable to reach an agreement on what to do with the 60 recommendations in the report on ‘Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property Rights submitted to the Assembly in the same year by a group of experts designated by the (...)
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  11.  11
    Locating Responsible Research and Innovation Within Access and Benefit Sharing Spaces of the Convention on Biological Diversity: The Challenge of Emerging Technologies.Sarah A. Laird & Rachel P. Wynberg - 2016 - NanoEthics 10 (2):189-200.
    This paper reviews the location of Responsible Research and Innovation approaches within the access and benefit sharing policy spaces of the Convention on Biological Diversity and Nagoya Protocol. We describe how a range of dialogues on ethical research practices found a home, almost inadvertently, within the ABS policy process. However, more recent RRI dialogues around emerging technologies have not been similarly absorbed into ABS policy, due in part to the original framing of ABS and associated definitional and scope (...)
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  12.  56
    The Health Impact Fund and the Right to Participate in the Advancement of Science.Cristian Timmermann - 2012 - European Journal of Applied Ethics 1 (1).
    Taking into consideration the extremely harsh public health conditions faced by the majority of the world population, the Health Impact Fund (HIF) proposal seeks to make the intellectual property regimes more in line with human rights obligations. While prioritizing access to medicines and research on neglected diseases, the HIF makes many compromises in order to be conceived as politically feasible and to retain a compensation character that makes its implementation justified solely on basis of negative duties. Despite that current (...)
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  13.  9
    Access to Justice and the Public Interest in the Administration of Justice.Lucinda Vandervort - 2012 - University of New Brunswick Law Journal 63:124-144.
    The public interest in the administration of justice requires access to justice for all. But access to justice must be “meaningful” access. Meaningful access requires procedures, processes, and institutional structures that facilitate communication among participants and decision-makers and ensure that judges and other decision-makers have the resources they need to render fully informed and sound decisions. Working from that premise, which is based on a reconceptualization of the objectives and methods of the justice process, the author (...)
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  14.  96
    Dilemmas in Access to Medicines: A Humanitarian Perspective – Authors' Reply.Ezekiel J. Emanuel & Govind Persad - 2017 - Lancet 387 (10073):1008-1009.
    Our Viewpoint argues that expanding access to less effective or more toxic treatments is supported not only by utilitarian ethical reasoning but also by two other ethical frameworks: those that emphasise equality and those that emphasise giving priority to the patients who are worst off. The inadequate resources available for global health reflect not only natural constraints but also unwise social and political choices. However, pitting efforts to reduce inequality and better fund global health against efforts to put available (...)
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  15.  13
    Access to Assisted Reproductive Technologies in France: The Emergence of the Patients' Voice. [REVIEW]Véronique Fournier, Denis Berthiau, Julie D’Haussy & Philippe Bataille - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (1):55-68.
    Is there any ethical justification for limiting the reproductive autonomy and not make assisted reproductive technologies available to certain prospective parents? We present and discuss the results of an interdisciplinary clinical ethics study concerning access to assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in situations which are considered as ethically problematic in France (overage or sick parents, surrogate motherhood). The study focused on the arguments that people in these situations put forward when requesting access to ART. It shows that requester’s arguments (...)
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  16. Human Rights and Access to Information.Bartlomiej Lenart & Miranda Koshelek - 2015 - Progressive Librarian (43).
    Unresolved disagreements on issues of access, censorship, and privacy within the information profession can be dangerous when entrepreneurial interests outweigh the public good and as corporations anticipate financial gain from placing limitations on information retrieval and use. The information profession can benefit from a grounding of its core values in a robust moral framework that can coherently place demands on interested parties. We argue that grounding the core values of privacy and ubiquitous access to information in a needs-based (...)
     
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  17.  12
    Conflicts of Interests and Access to Information Resulting From Biomedical Research: An International Legal Perspective. [REVIEW]Judge Christian Byk - 2002 - Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (3):287-290.
    Recently adopted international texts have given a new focus on conflicts of interests and access to information resulting from biomedical research. They confirmed ethical review committees as a central point to guarantee individual rights and the effective application of ethical principles. Therefore specific attention should be paid in giving such committees all the facilities necessary to keep them independent and qualified.
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  18.  2
    Correction To: Do Translocal Networks Matter for Agricultural Innovation? A Case Study on Advice Sharing in Small-Scale Farming Communities in Northeast Thailand.Till Rockenbauch, Patrick Sakdapolrak & Harald Sterly - 2019 - Agriculture and Human Values 36 (4):703-703.
    The article Do translocal networks matter for agricultural innovation? A case study on advice sharing in small scale farming communities in Northeast Thailand, written by Till Rockenbauch, Patrick Sakdapolrak and Harald Sterly, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal on 10 April 2019 without open access.
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  19.  18
    A Victim's Right to Access Justice (text only in Lithuanian).Rima Ažubalytė - 2010 - Jurisprudencija: Mokslo darbu žurnalas 122 (4):221-244.
    The right of a person, who is a victim of a criminal act, to access justice (court) according to the criminal legal order, is analyzed in this article. The right to appeal to a court is analyzed as a constituent part of the principle of accessibility to legal defence. Pre-eminently, the general constitutional fundamentals of the right towards legal defence are estimated. The provisions of the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court of Lithuania, i.e. that the right towards legal defence (...)
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  20.  9
    Access to Elements of a Memorized List.Michael C. Corballis, John Kirby & Avrum Miller - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 94 (2):185.
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  21.  12
    Explaining Inequalities in Access to Treatment in Lung Cancer.Ruth H. Jack, Martin C. Gulliford, Jamie Ferguson & Henrik Møller - 2006 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (5):573-582.
  22.  44
    The Health Impact Fund: Boosting Pharmaceutical Innovation Without Obstructing Free Access.Thomas Pogge - 2009 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 18 (1):78.
    In an earlier piece in these pages, I described the health effects of the still massive problem of global poverty: The poor worldwide face greater environmental hazards than the rest of us, from contaminated water, filth, pollution, worms, and insects. They are exposed to greater dangers from people around them, through traffic, crime, communicable diseases, sexual violence, and potential exploitation by the more affluent. They lack means to protect themselves and their families against such hazards, through clean water, nutritious food, (...)
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  23. Cognitive Phenomenology, Access to Contents, and Inner Speech.Marta Jorba & Agustin Vicente - 2014 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 21 (9-10):74-99.
    In this paper we introduce two issues relevantly related to the cognitive phenomenology debate, which, to our minds, have not been yet properly addressed: the relation between access and phenomenal consciousness in cognition and the relation between conscious thought and inner speech. In the first case, we ask for an explanation of how we have access to thought contents, and in the second case, an explanation of why is inner speech so pervasive in our conscious thinking. We discuss (...)
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  24.  70
    Perception and the Problem of Access to Other Minds.Nivedita Gangopadhyay & Katsunori Miyahara - 2014 - Philosophical Psychology (5):1-20.
    In opposition to mainstream theory of mind approaches, some contemporary perceptual accounts of social cognition do not consider the central question of social cognition to be the problem of access to other minds. These perceptual accounts draw heavily on phenomenological philosophy and propose that others' mental states are “directly” given in the perception of the others' expressive behavior. Furthermore, these accounts contend that phenomenological insights into the nature of social perception lead to the dissolution of the access problem. (...)
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  25. Reflections on the International Networking Conference “Ethical and Social Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights – Agrifood and Health”, Brussels, September 2011.Michiel Korthals & Cristian Timmermann - 2011 - Synesis 3 (1):G66-73.
    Public goods, as well as commercial commodities, are affected by exclusive arrangements secured by intellectual property (IP) rights. These rights serve as an incentive to invest human and material capital in research and development. Particularly in the life sciences, IP rights regulate objects such as food and medicines that are key to securing human rights, especially the right to adequate food and the right to health. Consequently, IP serves private (economic) and public interests. Part of this charge claims that the (...)
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  26.  40
    Corporate Responsibilities for Access to Medicines.Klaus M. Leisinger - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 85 (S1):3 - 23.
    Today there is a growing wave of demands being placed upon the pharmaceutical industry to contribute to improved access to medicines for poor patients in the developing countries. 1 This article aims to contribute to the development of a systematic approach and broad consensus about shared benchmarks for good corporate practices in this area. A consensus corridor on what constitutes an appropriate portfolio of corporate responsibilities for access to medicines -especially under conditions of 'failing states' and 'market failure' (...)
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  27.  52
    Is the Exclusion of Psychiatric Patients From Access to Physician-Assisted Suicide Discriminatory?Joshua James Hatherley - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2019-105546.
    Advocates of physician-assisted suicide often argue that, although the provision of PAS is morally permissible for persons with terminal, somatic illnesses, it is impermissible for patients suffering from psychiatric conditions. This claim is justified on the basis that psychiatric illnesses have certain morally relevant characteristics and/or implications that distinguish them from their somatic counterparts. In this paper, I address three arguments of this sort. First, that psychiatric conditions compromise a person’s decision-making capacity. Second, that we cannot have sufficient certainty that (...)
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  28.  25
    Restricting Access to ART on the Basis of Criminal Record.Kara Thompson & Rosalind McDougall - 2015 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (3):511-520.
    As assisted reproductive technologies become increasingly popular, debate has intensified over the ethical justification for restricting access to ART based on various medical and non-medical factors. In 2010, the Australian state of Victoria enacted world-first legislation that denies access to ART for all patients with certain criminal or child protection histories. Patients and their partners are identified via a compulsory police and child protection check prior to commencing ART and, if found to have a previous relevant conviction or (...)
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  29.  15
    How Medical Tourism Enables Preferential Access to Care: Four Patterns From the Canadian Context.Jeremy Snyder, Rory Johnston, Valorie A. Crooks, Jeff Morgan & Krystyna Adams - 2017 - Health Care Analysis 25 (2):138-150.
    Medical tourism is the practice of traveling across international borders with the intention of accessing medical care, paid for out-of-pocket. This practice has implications for preferential access to medical care for Canadians both through inbound and outbound medical tourism. In this paper, we identify four patterns of medical tourism with implications for preferential access to care by Canadians: Inbound medical tourism to Canada’s public hospitals; Inbound medical tourism to a First Nations reserve; Canadian patients opting to go abroad (...)
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  30. MRCT Center Post-Trial Responsibilities Framework Continued Access to Investigational Medicines. Guidance Document. Version 1.0, December 2016.Carmen Aldinger, Barbara Bierer, Rebecca Li, Luann Van Campen, Mark Barnes, Eileen Bedell, Amanda Brown-Inz, Robin Gibbs, Deborah Henderson, Christopher Kabacinski, Laurie Letvak, Susan Manoff, Ignacio Mastroleo, Ellie Okada, Usharani Pingali, Wasana Prasitsuebsai, Hans Spiegel, Daniel Wang, Susan Briggs Watson & Marc Wilenzik - 2016 - The Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of the Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard (MRCT Center).
    I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The MRCT Center Post-trial Responsibilities: Continued Access to an Investigational Medicine Framework outlines a case-based, principled, stakeholder approach to evaluate and guide ethical responsibilities to provide continued access to an investigational medicine at the conclusion of a patient’s participation in a clinical trial. The Post-trial Responsibilities (PTR) Framework includes this Guidance Document as well as the accompanying Toolkit. A 41-member international multi-stakeholder Workgroup convened by the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women’s Hospital and (...)
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  31. Ethical Issues in the Music Industry Response to Innovation and Piracy.Robert F. Easley - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 62 (2):163-168.
    The current conflict between the recording industry and a portion of its customers who are involved in illicit copying of music files arose from innovations involving the compression and electronic distribution of files over the internet. This paper briefly describes some of the challenges faced by the recording industry, and examines some of the ethical issues that arise in various industry and consumer responses to the opportunities and threats presented by these innovations. The paper concludes by highlighting the risks associated (...)
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  32. A Lockean Argument for Universal Access to Health Care.Daniel M. Hausman - 2011 - Social Philosophy and Policy 28 (2):166-191.
    This essay defends the controversial and indeed counterintuitive claim that there is a good argument to be made from a Lockean perspective for government action to guarantee access to health care. The essay maintains that this argument is in some regards more robust than the well-known argument in defense of universal health care spelled out by Norman Daniels, which this essay also examines in some detail. Locke's view that government should protect people's lives, property, and freedom–where freedom is understood (...)
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  33.  28
    The Contribution of Tacit Knowledge to Innovation.Jacqueline Senker - 1993 - AI and Society 7 (3):208-224.
    Tacit knowledge is widely acknowledged to be an important component of innovation, but such recognition is rarely accompanied by more detailed explanations about the nature of tacit knowledge, why such knowledge is significant, how it becomes codified or whether there may be limits to codification. This paper attempts to fill some of the gaps, drawing on a recent study of university/industry links in three emerging technologies. It concludes that tacit knowledge, which can only be transmitted through personal interaction, will (...)
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  34.  87
    Reproductive Choice: Screening Policy and Access to the Means of Reproduction.Lucinda Vandervort - 2006 - Human Rights Quarterly 28 (2):438-464.
    The practice of screening potential users of reproductive services is of profound social and political significance. Access screening is inconsistent with the principles of equality and self-determination, and violates individual and group human rights. Communities that strive to function in accord with those principles should not permit access screening, even screening that purports to be a benign exercise of professional discretion. Because reproductive choice is controversial, regulation by law may be required in most jurisdictions to provide effective protection (...)
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  35.  24
    Notes From Small Industry Clusters: Making Sense of Knowledge and Barriers to Innovation[REVIEW]Rahul Varman & Manali Chakrabarti - 2011 - AI and Society 26 (4):393-415.
    It has been well established in literature that small industry clusters (SICs) have an impressive record of innovation and knowledge transmission. This paper explores the possibilities in this regard in third-world clusters through an empirical study of three SICs in India. The paper first examines the essential reasons for the survival and growth of clusters temporally over centuries. Then, it critically assesses the factors that threaten the clusters at present—some of which, it appears, might actually be fatal for these (...)
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  36.  23
    Development Aid: The Moral Obligation to Innovation[REVIEW]Stanislaus J. Dundon - 1991 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 4 (1):31-48.
    The prominent, though not exclusive, role of basic needs strategies to attain ethically acceptable development goals raises the question of the ability of development agencies to find and employ basic needs strategies. The obligation to prevent severe human suffering leads to the obligation to employ basic needs strategies to attain basic needs goals. The history of failure by development agencies in finding and employing basic needs tools leads to a further obligation to cultivate bureaucratic environments which foster profound innovation. (...)
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  37.  31
    A Gap in Nisbett and Wilson’s Findings? A First-Person Access to Our Cognitive Processes.Claire Petitmengin, Anne Remillieux, Béatrice Cahour & Shirley Carter-Thomas - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (2):654-669.
    The well-known experiments of Nisbett and Wilson lead to the conclusion that we have no introspective access to our decision-making processes. Johansson et al. have recently developed an original protocol consisting in manipulating covertly the relationship between the subjects’ intended choice and the outcome they were presented with: in 79.6% of cases, they do not detect the manipulation and provide an explanation of the choice they did not make, confirming the findings of Nisbett and Wilson. We have reproduced this (...)
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  38.  27
    Perceptual Consciousness, Access to Modality and Skill Theories: A Way to Naturalize Phenomenology?Erik Myin & J. Kevin O'Regan - 2002 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (1):27-45.
    We address the thesis recently proposed by Andy Clark, that skill-mediated access to modality implies phenomenal feel. We agree that a skill theory of perception does indeed offer the possibility of a satisfactory account of the feel of perception, but we claim that this is not only through explanation of access to modality but also because skill actually provides access to perceptual property in general. We illustrate and substantiate our claims by reference to the recently proposed 'sensorimotor (...)
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  39.  34
    Inclusion and Exclusion in Women's Access to Health and Medicine.Susan Dodds - 2008 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 1 (2):58-79.
    Women's access to health and medicine in developed countries has been characterized by a range of inconsistent inclusions and exclusions. Health policy has been asymmetrically interested in womens reproductive capacities and has sought to regulate, control, and manage aspects of womens reproductive decision making in a manner unwitnessed in relation to men's reproductive health and reproductive decision making. In other areas, research that addresses health concerns that affect both men and women sometimes is designed so as not to yield (...)
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  40. Life Sciences, Intellectual Property Regimes and Global Justice.Cristian Timmermann - 2013 - Dissertation, Wageningen University
    In this thesis we have examined the complex interaction between intellectual property rights, life sciences and global justice. Science and the innovations developed in its wake have an enormous effect on our daily lives, providing countless opportunities but also raising numerous problems of justice. The complexity of a problem however does not liberate society as a whole from moral responsibilities. Our intellectual property regimes clash at various points with human rights law and commonly held notions of justice.
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  41.  23
    Priority to Organ Donors: Personal Responsibility, Equal Access and the Priority Rule in Organ Procurement.Andreas Brøgger Albertsen - 2017 - Diametros 51:137-152.
    In the effort to address the persistent organ shortage it is sometimes suggested that we should incentivize people to sign up as organ donors. One way of doing so is to give priority in the allocation of organs to those who are themselves registered as donors. Israel introduced such a scheme recently and the preliminary reports indicate increased donation rates. How should we evaluate such initiatives from an ethical perspective? Luck egalitarianism, a responsibility-sensitive approach to distributive justice, provides one possible (...)
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  42.  12
    Expanding Access to Testicular Tissue Cryopreservation: An Analysis by Analogy.Tuua Ruutiainen, Steve Miller, Arthur Caplan & Jill P. Ginsberg - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (3):28 - 35.
    Researchers are developing a fertility preservation technique?testicular tissue cryopreservation (TTCP)?for prepubescent boys who may become infertile as a result of their cancer treatment. Although this technique is still in development, some researchers are calling for its widespread use. They argue that if boys do not bank their tissue now, they will be unable to benefit from any therapies that might be developed in the future. There are, however, risks involved with increasing access to an investigational procedure. This article examines (...)
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  43. Post‐Trial Access to Antiretrovirals: Who Owes What to Whom?Joseph Millum - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (3):145-154.
    ABSTRACTMany recent articles argue that participants who seroconvert during HIV prevention trials deserve treatment when they develop AIDS, and there is a general consensus that the participants in HIV/AIDS treatment trials should have continuing post‐trial access. As a result, the primary concern of many ethicists and activists has shifted from justifying an obligation to treat trial participants, to working out mechanisms through which treatment could be provided. In this paper I argue that this shift frequently conceals an important assumption: (...)
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  44.  45
    Physicians' Access to Ethics Support Services in Four European Countries.Samia A. Hurst, Stella Reiter-Theil, Arnaud Perrier, Reidun Forde, Anne-Marie Slowther, Renzo Pegoraro & Marion Danis - 2007 - Health Care Analysis 15 (4):321-335.
    Clinical ethics support services are developing in Europe. They will be most useful if they are designed to match the ethical concerns of clinicians. We conducted a cross-sectional mailed survey on random samples of general physicians in Norway, Switzerland, Italy, and the UK, to assess their access to different types of ethics support services, and to describe what makes them more likely to have used available ethics support. Respondents reported access to formal ethics support services such as clinical (...)
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  45.  83
    Should Access to Credit Be a Right?Marek Hudon - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 84 (1):17-28.
    Discussion on financial ethics increasingly includes the problem of exclusion of the poorer segments of society from the financial system and access to credit. This paper explores the ethical dimensions surrounding the concept of a human right to credit. If access to credit is directly instrumental to economic development, poverty reduction and the improved welfare of all citizens, then one can proclaim, as Nobel Prize Laureate M. Yunus has done, that it is a moral necessity to establish credit (...)
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  46. Should Patients with Self-Inflicted Illness Receive Lower Priority in Access to Healthcare Resources? Mapping Out the Debate.K. Sharkey & L. Gillam - 2010 - Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (11):661-665.
    The distribution of scarce healthcare resources is an increasingly important issue due to factors such as expensive ‘high tech’ medicine, longer life expectancies and the rising prevalence of chronic illness. Furthermore, in the current healthcare context lifestyle-related factors such as high blood pressure, tobacco use and obesity are believed to contribute significantly to the global burden of disease. As such, this paper focuses on an ongoing debate in the academic literature regarding the role of responsibility for illness in healthcare resource (...)
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  47.  34
    Ethical Justifications for Access to Unapproved Medical Interventions: An Argument for (Limited) Patient Obligations.Mary Jean Walker, Wendy A. Rogers & Vikki Entwistle - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (11):3-15.
    Many health care systems include programs that allow patients in exceptional circumstances to access medical interventions of as yet unproven benefit. In this article we consider the ethical justifications for?and demands on?these special access programs (SAPs). SAPs have a compassionate basis: They give patients with limited options the opportunity to try interventions that are not yet approved by standard regulatory processes. But while they signal that health care systems can and will respond to individual suffering, SAPs have several (...)
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  48.  9
    Patient Involvement in Clinical Ethics Services: From Access to Participation and Membership.G. Neitzke - 2009 - Clinical Ethics 4 (3):146-151.
    Ethics consultation is a novel paradigm in European health-care institutions. In this paper, patient involvement in all clinical ethics activities is scrutinized. It is argued that patients should have access to case consultation services via clearly defined access paths. However, the right of both health-care professionals and patients indicates that patients should not always be notified of a consultation. Ethics education, another well-established function of an ethics committee, should equally be available for patients, lay people and hospital staff. (...)
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  49.  14
    Attitudes Toward Post‐Trial Access to Medical Interventions: A Review of Academic Literature, Legislation, and International Guidelines. [REVIEW]Kori Cook, Jeremy Snyder & John Calvert - 2016 - Developing World Bioethics 16 (2):70-79.
    There is currently no international consensus around post-trial obligations toward research participants, community members, and host countries. This literature review investigates arguments and attitudes toward post-trial access. The literature review found that academic discussions focused on the rights of research participants, but offered few practical recommendations for addressing or improving current practices. Similarly, there are few regulations or legislation pertaining to post-trial access. If regulatory changes are necessary, we need to understand the current arguments, legislation, and attitudes towards (...)
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  50.  57
    Affordable Access to Essential Medication in Developing Countries: Conflicts Between Ethical and Economic Imperatives1.Udo Schüklenk - 2002 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 27 (2):179-195.
    Recent economic and political advances in developing countries on the African continent and South East Asia are threatened by the rising death and morbidity rates of HIV/AIDS. In the first part of this paper we explain the reasons for the absence of affordable access to essential AIDS medication. In the second part we take a closer look at some of the pivotal frameworks relevant for this situation and undertake an ethical analysis of these frameworks. In the third part we (...)
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