Results for 'advance directives'

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  1. Authority Without Identity: Defending Advance Directives Via Posthumous Rights Over One’s Body.Govind Persad - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (4):249-256.
    This paper takes a novel approach to the active bioethical debate over whether advance medical directives have moral authority in dementia cases. Many have assumed that advance directives would lack moral authority if dementia truly produced a complete discontinuity in personal identity, such that the predementia individual is a separate individual from the postdementia individual. I argue that even if dementia were to undermine personal identity, the continuity of the body and the predementia individual’s rights over (...)
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  2.  81
    End‐of‐Life Care in the 21st Century: Advance Directives in Universal Rights Discourse.Violeta Beširević - 2010 - Bioethics 24 (3):105-112.
    ABSTRACTThis article explores universal normative bases that could help to shape a workable legal construct that would facilitate a global use of advance directives. Although I believe that advance directives are of universal character, my primary aim in approaching this issue is to remain realistic. I will make three claims. First, I will argue that the principles of autonomy, dignity and informed consent, embodied in the Oviedo Convention and the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, (...)
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  3.  28
    Advance Directives in English and French Law: Different Concepts, Different Values, Different Societies. [REVIEW]Ruth Judith Horn - 2012 - Health Care Analysis (1):1-14.
    In Western societies advance directives are widely recognised as important means to extend patient self-determination under circumstances of incapacity. Following other countries, England and France have adopted legislation aiming to clarify the legal status of advance directives. In this paper, I will explore similarities and differences in both sets of legislation, the arguments employed in the respective debates and the socio-political structures on which these differences are based. The comparison highlights how different legislations express different concepts (...)
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  4. A Direct Advance on Advance Directives.David Shaw - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (5):267-274.
    Advance directives (ADs), which are also sometimes referred to as ‘living wills’, are statements made by a person that indicate what treatment she should not be given in the event that she is not competent to consent or refuse at the future moment in question. As such, ADs provide a way for patients to make decisions in advance about what treatments they do not want to receive, without doctors having to find proxy decision-makers or having recourse to (...)
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  5.  68
    A Dead Proposal: Levi and Green on Advance Directives.Angus Dawson & Anthony Wrigley - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (4):23 – 24.
    NThere are many problems with Levi and Green’s (2010) suggestion that a computer-based decision aid will overcome the major objections to advance directives (ADs). We focus on just two here. First, we argue that the key assumption underlying Levi and Green’s paper, that autonomy always ought to take priority over other values, is false. Second, we argue that the paper misses the point of the most telling objections to the use of ADs: they lack the relevant moral authority (...)
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  6.  45
    Interpreting Advance Directives: Ethical Considerations of the Interplay Between Personal and Cultural Identity. [REVIEW]Silke Schicktanz - 2009 - Health Care Analysis 17 (2):158-171.
    In many industrialized countries ethicists and lawyers favour advance directives as a tool to guarantee patient autonomy in end-of-life-decisions. However, most citizens seem reluctant to adopt the practice; the number of patients who have an advance directive is low across most countries. The article discusses the key argument for seeing such documents as an instrument of self-interpretation and life-planning, which ultimately have to be interpreted by third parties as well. Interpretation by third parties and the process of (...)
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  7.  56
    Perspectives on Advance Directives in Japanese Society: A Population-Based Questionnaire Survey. [REVIEW]Akira Akabayashi, Brian Taylor Slingsby & Ichiro Kai - 2003 - BMC Medical Ethics 4 (1):1-9.
    Background In Japan, discussion concerning advance directives (ADs) has been on the rise during the past decade. ADs are one method proposed to facilitate the process of communication among patients, families and health care providers regarding the plan of care of a patient who is no longer capable of communicating. In this paper, we report the results of the first in-depth survey on the general population concerning the preferences and use of ADs in Japan. Method A self-administered questionnaire (...)
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  8.  47
    Advance Directives in Turkey's Cultural Context: Examining the Potential Benefits for the Implementation of Patient Rights.Tolga Guven & Gurkan Sert - 2010 - Bioethics 24 (3):127-133.
    Advance directives are not a part of the healthcare service in Turkey. This may be related with the fact that paternalism is common among the healthcare professionals in the country, and patients are not yet integrated in the decision-making process adequately. However, starting from the enactment of the Regulation of Patient Rights in 1998, this situation started to change. While the paternalist tradition still appears to be strong in Turkey, the Ministry of Health has been taking concrete measures (...)
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  9.  16
    The Time Frame of Preferences, Dispositions, and the Validity of Advance Directives for the Mentally Ill.Julian Savulescu & Donna Dickenson - 1998 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 5 (3):225-246.
  10.  9
    Descendants and Advance Directives.Christopher Buford - 2014 - Monash Bioethics Review 32 (3-4):217-231.
    Some of the concerns that have been raised in connection to the use of advance directives are of the epistemic variety. Such concerns highlight the possibility that adhering to an advance directive may conflict with what the author of the directive actually wants at the time of treatment. However, at least one objection to the employment of advance directives is metaphysical in nature. The objection to be discussed here, first formulated by Rebecca Dresser and labeled (...)
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  11.  33
    Do Spanish Hospital Professionals Educate Their Patients About Advance Directives?María Pérez, Benjamín Herreros, Mª Dolores Martín, Julia Molina, Jack Kanouzi & María Velasco - 2016 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (2):295-303.
    It is unknown whether hospital-based medical professionals in Spain educate patients about advance directives. The objective of this research was to determine the frequency of hospital-based physicians’ and nurses’ engagement in AD discussions in the hospital and which patient populations merit such efforts. A short question-and-answer-based survey of physicians and nurses taking care of inpatients was conducted at a university hospital in Madrid, Spain. In total, 283 surveys were collected from medical professionals, of whom 71 per cent were (...)
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  12.  74
    A Korean Perspective on Developing a Global Policy for Advance Directives.Soyoon Kim, Ki-Hyun Hahm, Hyoung Wook Park, Hyun Hee Kang & Myongsei Sohn - 2010 - Bioethics 24 (3):113-117.
    Despite the wide and daunting array of cross-cultural obstacles that the formulation of a global policy on advance directives will clearly pose, the need is equally evident. Specifically, the expansion of medical services driven by medical tourism, just to name one important example, makes this issue urgently relevant. While ensuring consistency across national borders, a global policy will have the additional and perhaps even more important effect of increasing the use of advance directives in clinical settings (...)
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    Self-Determination, Dignity and End-of-Life Care: Regulating Advance Directives in International and Comparative Perspective.Stefania Negri (ed.) - 2012 - M. Nijhoff.
    By providing an interdisciplinary reading of advance directives regulation in international, European and domestic law, this book offers new insights into the most controversial legal issues surrounding the debate over dignity and autonomy ...
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  14.  5
    An Actual Advance in Advance Directives: Moving From Patient Choices to Patient Voices in Advance Care Planning.Virginia L. Bartlett & Stuart G. Finder - 2018 - Asian Bioethics Review 10 (1):21-36.
    Since the concept of the living wills emerged nearly 50 years ago, there have been practical challenges in translating the concept of an advance directive into documents that are clinically useful across various healthcare settings and among different patient populations and cultures. Especially, challenging has been the reliance in most ADs on pre-selected “choices” about specific interventions which either revolve around broad themes or whether or not to utilize particular interventions, both of which about most laypersons know little and, (...)
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    Anorexia Nervosa, Advance Directives, and the Law: A British Perspective.Eric C. Ip - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (8):931-936.
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    Would They Follow What has Been Laid Down? Cancer Patients' and Healthy Controls' Views on Adherence to Advance Directives Compared to Medical Staff.Stefan Sahm, R. Will & G. Hommel - 2005 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 8 (3):297-305.
  17.  36
    Advance Directives in the Netherlands: An Empirical Contribution to the Exploration of a Cross-Cultural Perspective on Advance Directives.Matthijs P. S. van Wijmen, Mette L. Rurup, H. Roeline W. Pasman, Pam J. Kaspers & Bregje D. Onwuteaka-philipsen - 2010 - Bioethics 24 (3):118-126.
    Research Objective: This study focuses on ADs in the Netherlands and introduces a cross-cultural perspective by comparing it with other countries. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to a panel comprising 1621 people representative of the Dutch population. The response was 86%. Results: 95% of the respondents didn't have an AD, and 24% of these were not familiar with the idea of drawing up an AD. Most of those familiar with ADs knew about the Advanced Euthanasia Directive (AED, 64%). Both low (...)
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  18. Advance Directives in Medicine.Chris Hackler, Ray Moseley & Dorothy E. Vawter (eds.) - 1989 - Praeger.
  19. Advance Directives for Euthanasia.Eric Vogelstein - 2017 - In Michael J. Cholbi (ed.), Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: Global Views on Choosing to End Life. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger. pp. 327-350.
  20.  54
    Advance Research Directives in Germany: A Proposal for a Disclosure Standard.Matthé Scholten - 2018 - GeroPsych: The Journal of Gerontopsychology and Geriatric Psychiatry 31 (2):77-86.
    The fourth amendment to the German Medicinal Products Act (Arzneimittelgesetz) states that nontherapeutic research in incompetent populations is permissible under the condition that potential research participants expressly declare their wish to participate in scientific research in an advance research directive. This article explores the implementation of advance research directives in Germany against the background of the international legal and ethical framework for biomedical research. In particular, it addresses a practical problem that arises from the disclosure requirement for (...)
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  21.  54
    Advance Medical Directives: A Proposed New Approach and Terminology From an Islamic Perspective. [REVIEW]Hamdan Al-Jahdali, Salim Baharoon, Abdullah Al Sayyari & Ghiath Al-Ahmad - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (2):163-169.
    Advance directives are specific competent consumers’ wishes about future medical plans in the event that they become incompetent. Awareness of a patient’s autonomy particularly, in relation to their right to refuse or withdraw treatment, a right for the patient to die from natural causes and interest in end of life issues were among the main reasons for developing and legalizing advance medical directives in developed countries. However, in many circumstances cultural and religious aspects are among many (...)
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  22.  69
    Advance Directives in Spain. Perspectives From a Medical Bioethicist Approach: Country Report.Pablo Simon-Lorda - 2008 - Bioethics 22 (6):346-354.
    Spain is one of the most advanced European countries in terms of the legislative and administrative development of ADs. Article 11 of Law 41/2002, concerning Patient Autonomy, regulates 'advance directives' and has prompted various Autonomous Regions to develop legislation in this area. Nevertheless, whilst the variety of legislations in different territories presents advantages, the disparity of criteria also presents problems. Despite significant legislative development, only 23,000 Spanish citizens have filled in an AD. Clearly, AD use is confined to (...)
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  23. Advance Directives in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease; Ethical and Clinical Considerations.J. Vollmann - 2001 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (2):161-167.
    Advance patient directives are various forms of anticipatory medical directives made by competent individuals for the eventuality of future incompetence. They are therefore appropriate instruments for competent patients in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease to document their self-determined will in the advanced stages of dementia. Theoretical objections have been expressed against the concept of advance patient directives (problems of authenticity and identity) which, however, cannot negate the fundamental moral authority of advance patient (...). Therefore, patients, family members, and physicians should make use of the appropriate form of advance directive as part of common treatment and care planning. Advance directives, when utilized intelligently, represent appropriate instruments for shared decision-making by patient, family members and physician. They should be utilized to a greater extent, particularly for the treatment planning of demented patients. (shrink)
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  24. Music Therapy and Dementia: Rethinking the Debate Over Advance Directives.Steve Matthews - 2014 - Ethics Education 20:18-35.
    Ronald Dworkin argued that Advance Directives informed by a principle of autonomy ought to guide decisions in relation to the treatment of those in care for dementia. The principle of autonomy in play presupposes a form of competence that is tied to the individual person making the Directive. This paper challenges this individualist assumption. It does so by pointing out that the competence of a patient is inherently relational, and the key illustrative case to make this point is (...)
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  25.  67
    Physician Perspectives and Compliance with Patient Advance Directives: The Role External Factors Play on Physician Decision Making. [REVIEW]Christopher M. Burkle, Paul S. Mueller, Keith M. Swetz, C. Hook & Mark T. Keegan - 2012 - BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):31-.
    Background Following passage of the Patient Self Determination Act in 1990, health care institutions that receive Medicare and Medicaid funding are required to inform patients of their right to make their health care preferences known through execution of a living will and/or to appoint a surrogate-decision maker. We evaluated the impact of external factors and perceived patient preferences on physicians’ decisions to honor or forgo previously established advance directives (ADs). In addition, physician views regarding legal risk, patients’ ability (...)
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  26.  62
    Advance Directives, Dementia, and Physician‐Assisted Death.Paul T. Menzel & Bonnie Steinbock - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (2):484-500.
    Physician-assisted suicide laws in Oregon and Washington require the person's current competency and a prognosis of terminal illness. In The Netherlands voluntariness and unbearable suffering are required for euthanasia. Many people are more concerned about the loss of autonomy and independence in years of severe dementia than about pain and suffering in their last months. To address this concern, people could write advance directives for physician-assisted death in dementia. Should such directives be implemented even though, at the (...)
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  27. Too Soon to Give Up: Re-Examining the Value of Advance Directives.Benjamin H. Levi & Michael J. Green - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (4):3 – 22.
    In the face of mounting criticism against advance directives, we describe how a novel, computer-based decision aid addresses some of these important concerns. This decision aid, Making Your Wishes Known: Planning Your Medical Future , translates an individual's values and goals into a meaningful advance directive that explicitly reflects their healthcare wishes and outlines a plan for how they wish to be treated. It does this by (1) educating users about advance care planning; (2) helping individuals (...)
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  28. Autonomy and the Moral Authority of Advance Directives.Eric Vogelstein - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 41 (5):500-520.
    Although advance directives are widely believed to be a key way to safeguard the autonomy of incompetent medical patients, significant questions exist about their moral authority. The main philosophical concern involves cases in which an incompetent patient no longer possesses the desires on which her advance directive was based. The question is, does that entail that prior expressions of medical choices are no longer morally binding? I believe that the answer is “yes.” I argue that a patient’s (...)
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  29.  22
    Dementia and Advance Directives: Some Empirical and Normative Concerns.Karin R. Jongsma, Marijke C. Kars & Johannes J. M. Van Delden - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (2):92-94.
    The authors of the paper ‘Advance euthanasia directives: a controversial case and its ethical implications’ articulate concerns and reasons with regard to the conduct of euthanasia in persons with dementia based on advance directives. While we agree on the conclusion that there needs to be more attention for such directives in the preparation phase, we disagree with the reasons provided by the authors to support their conclusions. We will outline two concerns with their reasoning by (...)
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  30. Family Consent, Communication, and Advance Directives for Cancer Disclosure: A Japanese Case and Discussion.A. Akabayashi, M. D. Fetters & T. S. Elwyn - 1999 - Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (4):296-301.
    The dilemma of whether and how to disclose a diagnosis of cancer or of any other terminal illness continues to be a subject of worldwide interest. We present the case of a 62-year-old Japanese woman afflicted with advanced gall bladder cancer who had previously expressed a preference not to be told a diagnosis of cancer. The treating physician revealed the diagnosis to the family first, and then told the patient: "You don't have any cancer yet, but if we don't treat (...)
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  31. Advance Directives, Autonomy and Unintended Death.Jim Stone - 1994 - Bioethics 8 (3):223–246.
    Advance directives typically have two defects. First, most advance directives fail to enable people to effectively avoid unwanted medical intervention. Second, most of them have the potential of ending your life in ways you never intended, years before you had to die.
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  32.  23
    The Cultural Context of Patient’s Autonomy and Doctor’s Duty: Passive Euthanasia and Advance Directives in Germany and Israel. [REVIEW]Silke Schicktanz, Aviad Raz & Carmel Shalev - 2010 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (4):363-369.
    The moral discourse surrounding end-of-life (EoL) decisions is highly complex, and a comparison of Germany and Israel can highlight the impact of cultural factors. The comparison shows interesting differences in how patient’s autonomy and doctor’s duties are morally and legally related to each other with respect to the withholding and withdrawing of medical treatment in EoL situations. Taking the statements of two national expert ethics committees on EoL in Israel and Germany (and their legal outcome) as an example of this (...)
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  33.  42
    Attitudes Towards and Barriers to Writing Advance Directives Amongst Cancer Patients, Healthy Controls, and Medical Staff.S. Sahm - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (8):437-440.
    Objectives: After years of public discussion too little is still known about willingness to accept the idea of writing an advance directive among various groups of people in EU countries. We investigated knowledge about and willingness to accept such a directive in cancer patients, healthy controls, physicians, and nursing staff in Germany.Methods: Cancer patients, healthy controls, nursing staff, and physicians were surveyed by means of a structured questionnaire.Results: Only 18% and 19% of the patients and healthy controls respectively, and (...)
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  34.  18
    Advance Directives as a Tool to Respect Patients’ Values and Preferences: Discussion on the Case of Alzheimer’s Disease.Corinna Porteri - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):9.
    The proposal of the new criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease based on biomarker data is making possible a diagnosis of AD at the mild cognitive impairment or predementia/prodromal– stage. Given the present lack of effective treatments for AD, the opportunity for the individuals to personally take relevant decisions and plan for their future before and if cognitive deterioration occurs is one the main advantages of an early diagnosis. Advance directives are largely seen as an effective tool (...)
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  35. Advance Directives and Personal Identity: What Is the Problem?E. Furberg - 2012 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 37 (1):60-73.
    Next SectionThe personal identity problem expresses the worry that due to disrupted psychological continuity, one person’s advance directive could be used to determine the care of a different person. Even ethicists, who strongly question the possibility of the scenario depicted by the proponents of the personal identity problem, often consider it to be a very potent objection to the use of advance directives. Aiming to question this assumption, I, in this paper, discuss the personal identity problem’s relevance (...)
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  36.  35
    Perspectives on Advance Directives in Japanese Society: A Population-Based Questionnaire Survey.Akira Akabayashi, Brian T. Slingsby & Ichiro Kai - 2003 - BMC Medical Ethics 4 (1):5.
    BackgroundIn Japan, discussion concerning advance directives has been on the rise during the past decade. ADs are one method proposed to facilitate the process of communication among patients, families and health care providers regarding the plan of care of a patient who is no longer capable of communicating. In this paper, we report the results of the first in-depth survey on the general population concerning the preferences and use of ADs in Japan.MethodA self-administered questionnaire was sent via mail (...)
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  37. Some Reflections on the Problem of Advance Directives, Personhood, and Personal Identity.Helga Kuhse - 1999 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 9 (4):347-364.
    : In this paper, I consider objections to advance directives based on the claim that there is a discontinuity of interests, and of personal identity, between the time a person executes an advance directive and the time when the patient has become severely demented. Focusing narrowly on refusals of life-sustaining treatment for severely demented patients, I argue that acceptance of the psychological view of personal identity does not entail that treatment refusals should be overridden. Although severely demented (...)
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  38. The Impact of Roman Catholic Moral Theology on End-of-Life Care Under the Texas Advance Directives Act.David Zientek - 2006 - Christian Bioethics 12 (1):65-82.
    This essay reviews the Roman Catholic moral tradition surrounding treatments at the end of life together with the challenges presented to that tradition by the Texas Advance Directives Act. The impact on Catholic health care facilities and physicians, and the way in which the moral tradition should be applied under this statute, particularly with reference to the provision dealing with conflicts over end-of-life treatments, will be critically assessed. I will argue, based on the traditional treatment of end-of-life issues, (...)
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  39. Betting Your Life: An Argument Against Certain Advance Directives.C. J. Ryan - 1996 - Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (2):95-99.
    In the last decade the use of advance directives or living wills has become increasingly common. This paper is concerned with those advance directives in which the user opts for withdrawal of active treatment in a future situation where he or she is incompetent to consent to conservative management but where that incompetence is potentially reversible. This type of directive assumes that the individual is able accurately to determine the type of treatment he or she would (...)
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  40.  48
    Advance Directives and Proxies' Predictions About Patients' Treatment Preferences.Inés Barrio-Cantalejo, Adoración Molina-Ruiz, Pablo Simón-Lorda, Carmen Cámara-Medina & Isabel López - 2009 - Nursing Ethics 16 (1):93-109.
    The accuracy of proxies when they interpret advance directives or apply substituted decision-making criteria has been called into question. It therefore became important to know if the Andalusian Advance Directive Form can help to increase the accuracy of proxies' predictions. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of the AADF on the accuracy of proxies' predictions about patients' preferences with that gained from informative and deliberative sessions about end-of-life decision making. A total of 171 (...)
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  41. Advance Directives and the Severely Demented.Martin Harvey - 2006 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 31 (1):47 – 64.
    Should advance directives (ADs) such as living wills be employed to direct the care of the severely demented? In considering this question, I focus primarily on the claims of Rebecca Dresser who objects in principle to the use of ADs in this context. Dresser has persuasively argued that ADs are both theoretically incoherent and ethically dangerous. She proceeds to advocate a Best Interest Standard as the best way for deciding when and how the demented ought to be treated. (...)
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  42.  76
    The Attitude of Canadian Nurses Towards Advance Directives.D. Blondeau, M. Lavoie, P. Valois, E. W. Keyserlingk, M. Hebert & I. Martineau - 2000 - Nursing Ethics 7 (5):399-411.
    This article seeks to shed light on the beliefs that influence nurses’ intention of respecting or not respecting an advance directive document, namely a living will or a durable power of attorney. Nurses’ beliefs were measured using a 44-statement questionnaire. The sample was made up of 306 nurses working either in a long-term care centre or in a hospital centre offering general and specialized care in the province of Québec. The results indicate that nurses have a strong intention of (...)
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  43. Persistent Vegetative State, Prospective Thinking, and Advance Directives.Thomas A. Mappes - 2003 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 13 (2):119-139.
    : This article begins with a discussion of persistent vegetative state (PVS), focusing on concerns related to both diagnosis and prognosis and paying special attention to the 1994 Multi-Society Task Force report on the medical aspects of PVS. The article explores the impact of diagnostic and prognostic uncertainties on prospective thinking regarding the possibility of PVS and considers the closely related question of how prospective thinkers might craft advance directives in order to deal most effectively with this possibility.
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  44. Advance Directives Are the Solution to Dr Campbell's Problem for Voluntary Euthanasia.A. Flew - 1999 - Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (3):245-246.
    Dr Neil Campbell suggests that when patients suffering extremes of protracted pain ask for help to end their lives, their requests should be discounted as made under compulsion. I contend that the doctors concerned should be referred to and then act upon advance directives made by those patients when of sound and calm mind and afflicted by no such intolerable compulsion.
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  45.  88
    Precedent Autonomy, Advance Directives, and End-of-Life Care.John Davis - 2007 - In Bonnie Steinbock (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics. Oxford University Press.
    Bioethicists are widely agreed that patients have a right of self-determination over how they are treated. Our duty to respect this is said to be based on the principle of respect for autonomy. In end-of-life care the patient may be incompetent and unable to exercise that right. One solution is to exercise it in advance. Advance directives, which include living wills and powers of attorney for health care, enable people to decide what medical treatment they will receive (...)
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  46.  91
    Survey of the General Public's Attitudes Toward Advance Directives in Japan: How to Respect Patients' Preferences. [REVIEW]Hiroaki Miyata, Hiromi Shiraishi & Ichiro Kai - 2006 - BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):1-9.
    Background Japanese people have become increasingly interested in the expression and enhancement of their individual autonomy in medical decisions made regarding medical treatment at and toward the end of life. However, while many Western countries have implemented legislation that deals with patient autonomy in the case of terminal illness, no such legislation exists in Japan. The rationale for this research is based on the need to investigate patient's preferences regarding treatment at the end of life in order to re-evaluate (...) directives policy and practice. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 418 members of the general middle-aged and senior adults (aged between 40 and 65) in Tokyo, Japan. Respondents were asked about their attitudes toward advance directives, and preferences toward treatment options. Results Over 60% of respondents agreed that it is better to express their wishes regarding advance directives (treatment preferences in writing, appointment of proxy for care decision making, appointment of legal administrator of property, stating preferences regarding disposal of one's property and funeral arrangements) but less than 10% of them had already done so. About 60% of respondents in this study preferred to indicate treatment preferences in broad rather than concrete terms. Over 80% would like to decide treatment preferences in consultation with others (22.2% with their proxy, 11.0% with the doctor, and 47.8% with both their proxy and the doctor). Conclusion This study revealed that many Japanese people indicate an interest in undertaking advance directives. This study found that there is a range of preferences regarding how advance directives are undertaken, thus it is important to recognize that any processes put into place should allow flexibility in order to best respect patients' wishes and autonomy. (shrink)
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  47.  77
    Advance Directives for Non-Therapeutic Dementia Research: Some Ethical and Policy Considerations.R. L. Berghmans - 1998 - Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (1):32-37.
    This paper explores the use of advance directives in clinical dementia research. The focus is on advance consent to participation of demented patients in non-therapeutic research involving more than minimal risks and/or burdens. First, morally relevant differences between advance directives for treatment and care, and advance directives for dementia research are discussed. Then attention is paid to the philosophical issue of dementia and personal identity, and the implications for the moral authority of research (...)
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  48.  32
    Comparison of Patients' and Health Care Professionals' Attitudes Towards Advance Directives.D. Blondeau, P. Valois, E. W. Keyserlingk, M. Hebert & M. Lavoie - 1998 - Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (5):328-335.
    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to identify and compare the attitudes of patients and health care professionals towards advance directives. Advance directives promote recognition of the patient's autonomy, letting the individual exercise a certain measure of control over life-sustaining care and treatment in the eventuality of becoming incompetent. DESIGN: Attitudes to advance directives were evaluated using a 44-item self-reported questionnaire. It yields an overall score as well as five factor scores: autonomy, beneficence, justice, external (...)
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  49.  94
    Prospective Autonomy and Critical Interests: A Narrative Defense of the Moral Authority of Advance Directives.Ben A. Rich - 1997 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 6 (2):138-.
    In the mid to late 1980s a debate arose over the moral and legal authority of advance medical directives. At the center of this debate were two point-counterpoint law journal articles by Rebecca Dresser and Nancy Rhoden. What appeared to have the makings of an ongoing critical dialogue ended with the untimely death of Nancy Rhoden. Rebecca Dresser, however, has continued her challenge of advance directives in numerous publications, most recently in a critique of Ronald Dworkin's (...)
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  50. Advance Directives, Self-Determination, and Personal Identity.Rebecca Dresser - 1989 - In Chris Hackler, Ray Moseley & Dorothy E. Vawter (eds.), Advance Directives in Medicine. Praeger. pp. 155--70.
     
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