Results for 'authority'

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  1. Democratic Authority: A Philosophical Framework.David M. Estlund - 2008 - Princeton University Press.
    Democracy is not naturally plausible. Why turn such important matters over to masses of people who have no expertise? Many theories of democracy answer by appealing to the intrinsic value of democratic procedure, leaving aside whether it makes good decisions. In Democratic Authority, David Estlund offers a groundbreaking alternative based on the idea that democratic authority and legitimacy must depend partly on democracy's tendency to make good decisions.Just as with verdicts in jury trials, Estlund argues, the authority (...)
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  2. Authority and Estrangement: An Essay on Self-Knowledge.Richard Moran - 2001 - Princeton University Press.
    Since Socrates, and through Descartes to the present day, the problems of self-knowledge have been central to philosophy's understanding of itself. Today the idea of ''first-person authority''--the claim of a distinctive relation each person has toward his or her own mental life--has been challenged from a number of directions, to the point where many doubt the person bears any distinctive relation to his or her own mental life, let alone a privileged one. In Authority and Estrangement, Richard Moran (...)
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  3.  31
    Author's Response.Review author[S.]: Philip S. Kitcher - 1995 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (3):653-673.
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  4.  22
    There’s Something About Authority.Casey Doyle - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Research 46:363-374.
    Barz contends that there is no specification of the phenomenon of first-person authority that avoids falsity or triviality. This paper offers one. When a subject self-ascribes a current conscious mental state in speech, there is a presumption that what she says is true. To defeat this presumption, one must be able to explain how she has been led astray.
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  5.  6
    Authority and the Individual.Vol. IIIndependence, Convergence, and Borrowing in Institutions, Thought, and Art.Vol. III.E. A. J. Johnson & Various Authors - 1938 - Philosophical Review 47 (4):442.
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  6.  2
    Authority Argument Schemes, Types, and Critical Questions.Frank Zenker & Shiyang Yu - forthcoming - Argumentation:1-27.
    Authority arguments generate support for claims by appealing to an agent’s authority status, rather than to reasons independent of it. With few exceptions, the current literature on argument schemes acknowledges two basic authority types. The epistemic type grounds in knowledge, the deontic type grounds in power. We review how historically earlier scholarship acknowledged an attractiveness-based and a majority-based authority type as equally basic type. Crossing these with basic speech act types thus yields authority argument sub-schemes. (...)
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  7. Epistemic Authority: A Theory of Trust, Authority, and Autonomy in Belief.Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski - 2012 - Oup Usa.
    In this book Zagzebski gives an extended argument that the self-reflective person is committed to belief on authority. Epistemic authority is compatible with autonomy, but epistemic self-reliance is incoherent. She argues that epistemic and emotional self-trust are rational and inescapable, that consistent self-trust commits us to trust in others, and that among those we are committed to trusting are some whom we ought to treat as epistemic authorities, modeled on the well-known principles of authority of Joseph Raz. (...)
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  8. Authority, Cooperation, and Accountability.Saba Bazargan-Forward - 2022 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
    How should we decide a single employee's accountability in a corporation that commits egregious wrongs? What about a single solider fighting in an unjust war? Or a single participant in a lynching? We need a way to make sense of individual moral accountability in cases where multiple individuals are cooperating in a way that results in a wrongful harm. -/- Authority, Cooperation, and Accountability develops a novel strategy for addressing this issue. Saba Bazargan-Forward makes the case for thinking that (...)
     
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  9. The Authority of Formality.Jack Woods - 2018 - Oxford Studies in Metaethics 13.
    Etiquette and other merely formal normative standards like legality, honor, and rules of games are taken less seriously than they should be. While these standards are not intrinsically reason-providing in the way morality is often taken to be, they also play an important role in our practical lives: we collectively treat them as important for assessing the behavior of ourselves and others and as licensing particular forms of sanction for violations. This chapter develops a novel account of the normativity of (...)
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  10.  2
    Who Authored On Liberty? Stylometric Evidence on Harriet Taylor Mill's Contribution.Christoph Schmidt-Petri, Michael Schefczyk & Lilly Osburg - 2022 - Utilitas 34 (2):120-138.
    It is well known that John Stuart Mill repeatedly acknowledges Harriet Taylor Mill's substantial contribution to On Liberty. After her death, however, he decides to publish the book under his name only. Are we justified in continuing this practice, initiated by JSM, of refusing unequivocal co-authorship status to HTM? Drawing on stylometric analyses, we make a preliminary case that JSM did not write On Liberty all by himself and that HTM had a hand in formulating it. Drawing on plausible standards (...)
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  11.  14
    Authority and Estrangement: An Essay on Self-Knowledge.Richard Moran - 2001 - Princeton University Press.
    Since Socrates, and through Descartes to the present day, the problems of self-knowledge have been central to philosophy's understanding of itself. Today the idea of ''first-person authority''--the claim of a distinctive relation each person has toward his or her own mental life--has been challenged from a number of directions, to the point where many doubt the person bears any distinctive relation to his or her own mental life, let alone a privileged one. In Authority and Estrangement, Richard Moran (...)
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  12.  19
    Human Morality's Authority.Review author[S.]: Stephen Darwall - 1995 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (4):941-948.
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  13.  12
    Volume Contents and Author Index.[No Author Name Available] - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 26 (4):471-475.
  14.  99
    The Authority of Reason.Jean E. Hampton - 1998 - Cambridge University Press.
    This challenging and provocative book argues against much contemporary orthodoxy in philosophy and the social sciences by showing why objectivity in the domain of ethics is really no different from the objectivity of scientific knowledge. Many philosophers and social scientists have challenged the idea that we act for objectively authoritative reasons. Jean Hampton takes up the challenge by undermining two central assumptions of this contemporary orthodoxy: that one can understand instrumental reasons without appeal to objective authority, and that the (...)
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  15. The Authority of Law: Essays on Law and Morality.Joseph Raz - 1979 - Oxford University Press.
    Legitimate authority -- The claims of law -- Legal positivism and the sources of law -- Legal reasons, sources, and gaps -- The identity of legal systems -- The institutional nature of law -- Kelsen's theory of the basic norm -- Legal validity -- The functions of law -- Law and value in adjudication -- The rule of law and its virtue -- The obligation to obey the law -- Respect for law -- A right to dissent? : civil (...)
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  16. Epistemic Authority, Preemptive Reasons, and Understanding.Christoph Jäger - 2016 - Episteme 13 (2):167-185.
    One of the key tenets of Linda Zagzebski’s book " Epistemic Authority" is the Preemption Thesis. It says that, when an agent learns that an epistemic authority believes that p, the rational response for her is to adopt that belief and to replace all of her previous reasons relevant to whether p by the reason that the authority believes that p. I argue that such a “Hobbesian approach” to epistemic authority yields problematic results. This becomes especially (...)
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  17. Annexe.No Author - 2022 - Philosophia Scientiae 26.
    Traduction de [Twardowski 1927, 446–447] Thèses formulées d’après la conférence intitulée : Le Concept d’imputabilité pénale à la lumière de la psychologie, prononcée lors d’une réunion de la Société juridique de Lvov, le 25 mars 1899 L’imputation au sens du droit pénal est un cas particulier de l’imputation prise au sens large, c’est-à-dire de l’imputation morale. L’imputation morale contient une évaluation éthique de l’acte imputé, le qualifiant ou bien d’interdit, ou bien de permis, ou bie...
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  18. Epistemic authority.Linda Zagzebski - 2017 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 53 (3):92-107.
    Contemporary defenders of autonomy and traditional defenders of authority generally assume that they have so little in common as to make it hopeless to attempt a dialogue on the defensibility of epistemic, moral, or religious authority. In this paper I argue that they are mistaken. Under the assumption that the ultimate authority over the self is the self, I defend authority in the realm of belief on the same grounds as Joseph Raz uses in his well-known (...)
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  19.  69
    The Authority of the State.Leslie Green - 1988 - Clarendon Press.
    The modern state claims supreme authority over the lives of all its citizens. Drawing together political philosophy, jurisprudence, and public choice theory, this book forces the reader to reconsider some basic assumptions about the authority of the state. Various popular and influential theories - conventionalism, contractarianism, and communitarianism - are assessed by the author and found to fail. Leslie Green argues that only the consent of the governed can justify the state's claims to authority. While he denies (...)
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  20. The Authority of Desire.Dennis W. Stampe - 1987 - Philosophical Review 96 (July):335-81.
    The Aristotelian dictum that desire is the starting point of practical reasoning that ends in action can of course be denied. Its denial is a commonplace of moral theory in the tradition of Kant. But in this essay I am concerned with that issue only indirectly. I shall not contend that rational action always or necessarily does involve desire as its starting point; nor shall I deny it. My question concerns instead the possibility of its ever beginning in desire. For (...)
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  21. Authority and Justification.Joseph Raz - 1985 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 14 (1):3-29.
  22.  56
    Authority and Gender: Flipping the F-Switch.Lynne Tirrell - 2018 - Feminist Philosophy Quarterly 4 (3).
    The very rules of our language games contain mechanisms of disregard. Philosophy of language tends to treat speakers as peers with equal discursive authority, but this is rare in real, lived speech situations. This paper explores the mechanisms of discursive inclusion and exclusion governing our speech practices, with a special focus on the role of gender attribution in undermining women’s authority as speakers. Taking seriously the metaphor of language games, we must ask who gets in the game and (...)
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  23. Authority and Reason‐Giving1.David Enoch - 2014 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 89 (2):296-332.
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  24.  79
    Epistemic Authority: Preemption or Proper Basing?Katherine Dormandy - 2018 - Erkenntnis 83 (4):773-791.
    Sometimes it is epistemically beneficial to form a belief on authority. When you do, what happens to other reasons you have for that belief? Linda Zagzebski’s total-preemption view says that these reasons are “preempted”: you still have them, but you do not use them to support your belief. I argue that this situation is problematic, because having reasons for a belief while not using them forfeits you doxastic justification. I present an alternative account of belief on authority, the (...)
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  25. Epistemic authority: preemption through source sensitive defeat.Jan Constantin & Thomas Grundmann - 2020 - Synthese 197 (9):4109-4130.
    Modern societies are characterized by a division of epistemic labor between laypeople and epistemic authorities. Authorities are often far more competent than laypeople and can thus, ideally, inform their beliefs. But how should laypeople rationally respond to an authority’s beliefs if they already have beliefs and reasons of their own concerning some subject matter? According to the standard view, the beliefs of epistemic authorities are just further, albeit weighty, pieces of evidence. In contrast, the Preemption View claims that, when (...)
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  26. The Authority of Pleasure.Keren Gorodeisky - 2021 - Noûs 55 (1):199-220.
    The aim of the paper is to reassess the prospects of a widely neglected affective conception of the aesthetic evaluation and appreciation of art. On the proposed picture, the aesthetic evaluation and appreciation of art are non-contingently constituted by a particular kind of pleasure. Artworks that are valuable qua artworks merit, deserve, and call for a certain pleasure, the same pleasure that reveals (or at least purports to reveal) them to be valuable in the way that they are, and constitutes (...)
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  27. Epistemic Authority, Testimony and the Transmission of Knowledge†.Arnon Keren - 2007 - Episteme 4 (3):368-381.
    I present an account of what it is to trust a speaker, and argue that the account can explain the common intuitions which structure the debate about the transmission view of testimony. According to the suggested account, to trust a speaker is to grant her epistemic authority on the asserted proposition, and hence to see her opinion as issuing a second order, preemptive reason for believing the proposition. The account explains the intuitive appeal of the basic principle associated with (...)
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  28. Between Authority and Interpretation: On the Theory of Law and Practical Reason.Joseph Raz (ed.) - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    Can there be a theory of law? -- Two views of the nature of the theory of law : a partial comparison -- On the nature of law -- The problem of authority : revisiting the service conception -- About morality and the nature of law -- Incorporation by law -- Reasoning with rules -- Why interpret? -- Interpretation without retrieval -- Intention in interpretation -- Interpretation : pluralism and innovation -- On the authority and interpretation of constitutions (...)
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  29. Rational Authority and Social Power: Towards a Truly Social Epistemology.Miranda Fricker - 1998 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 98 (2):159–177.
    This paper explores the relation between rational authority and social power, proceeding by way of a philosophical genealogy derived from Edward Craig's Knowledge and the State of Nature. The position advocated avoids the errors both of the 'traditionalist' (who regards the socio-political as irrelevant to epistemology) and of the 'reductivist' (who regards reason as just another form of social power). The argument is that a norm of credibility governs epistemic practice in the state of nature, which, when socially manifested, (...)
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  30.  5
    Living Images and Authors of Virtue: Theodore of Stoudios on Plato of Sakkoudion and Gregory of Nazianzus on Basil.Neogräzistik Byron MacDougallCorresponding authorInstitut für Byzantinistik und, Wien Universität & Scholar Austriaemailother Articles by This Author:De Gruyter Onlinegoogle - 2017 - Byzantinische Zeitschrift 110 (3).
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  31.  6
    Morality, Authority, and Law: Essays in Second-Personal Ethics I.Stephen Darwall - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    Stephen Darwall presents a series of essays that explore the view that morality is second-personal, entailing mutual accountability and the authority to address demands. He illustrates the power of the second-personal framework to illuminate a wide variety of issues in moral, political, and legal philosophy.
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  32. Authority and Expertise.Daniel Viehoff - 2016 - Journal of Political Philosophy 24 (4):406-426.
    Call “epistocracy” a political regime in which the experts, those who know best, rule; and call “the epistocratic claim” the assertion that the experts’ superior knowledge or reliability is “a warrant for their having political authority over others.” Most of us oppose epistocracy and think the epistocratic claim is false. But why is it mistaken? Contemporary discussions of this question focus on two answers. According to the first, expertise could, in principle, be a warrant for authority. What bars (...)
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  33.  2
    Authority, Responsibility and Education.Richard Stanley Peters - 1959 - New York: Eriksson.
  34.  66
    Authority, Illocutionary Accommodation, and Social Accommodation.N. P. Adams - 2020 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 98 (3):560-573.
    By appeal to the phenomenon of presupposition accommodation, Rae Langton and others have proposed that speakers can gain genuine authority over their audiences when they implicitly claim such autho...
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  35. Legitimacy, Authority, and the Political Value of Explanations.Seth Lazar - manuscript
    Here is my thesis (and the outline of this paper). Increasingly secret, complex and inscrutable computational systems are being used to intensify existing power relations, and to create new ones (Section II). To be all-things-considered morally permissible, new, or newly intense, power relations must in general meet standards of procedural legitimacy and proper authority (Section III). Legitimacy and authority constitutively depend, in turn, on a publicity requirement: reasonably competent members of the political community in which power is being (...)
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  36.  43
    Epistemic authority and rhetorical strategies in crisis circumstances.Ljiljana Radenović & Petar Nurkić - 2021 - In Nenad Cekić (ed.), Етика и истина у доба кризе. Belgrade: pp. 153-180.
    In this paper we will examine how experts from certain epistemic networks behave in the circumstances of a crisis. Our main goal is to show rhetorical strategies experts use to strengthen their own epistemic authority. We will do that by analysing experts’ strategies used in two pandemics: the one caused by A h1n1 virus in 2009 and the current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. There are four different, but interrelated, rhetorical strategies, that epistemic experts use to consolidate their epistemic (...). Two are internally oriented and consist of 1) experts providing additional reasons for why the measures they propose in the time of crises are rational and (2) experts emphasising their own responsibilities in the crises. Experts also use two externally oriented rhetorical strategies by which they (3) challenge the expertise of other experts and (4) raise doubts about the motives of other epistemic experts. (shrink)
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  37.  8
    The Authority of the Common Morality.Griffin Trotter - 2020 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 45 (4-5):427-440.
    In the third and subsequent editions of Principles of Biomedical Ethics, Tom Beauchamp and James Childress articulate a series of ethical norms that they regard as “derived” from, and hence carrying, the “authority” of the common morality. Although Beauchamp and Childress do not claim that biomedical norms they derive from the common morality automatically become constituents of the common morality, or that every detail of their account carries the authority of the common morality, they regard these derived norms (...)
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  38. Conceptualising ‘Authority’.C. Naomi Osorio-Kupferblum - 2015 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 23 (2):223-236.
    This paper attempts a conceptualisation of authority intended to be useful across all areas where the concept is relevant. It begins by setting off authority against power, on the one hand, and respect, on the other, and then spells out S1’s authority as consisting in S2’s voluntary action performed in the belief that S1 would approve of it. While this definition should hold for authority generally, a distinction is made between three different kinds of authority (...)
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  39. The Authority of Democracy.Thomas Christiano - 2004 - Journal of Political Philosophy 12 (3):266–290.
  40.  5
    Constructing Authorities: Reason, Politics and Interpretation in Kant's Philosophy.Onora O'Neill - 2015 - Cambridge University Press.
    This collection of essays brings together the central lines of thought in Onora O'Neill's work on Kant's philosophy, developed over many years. Challenging the claim that Kant's attempt to provide a critique of reason fails because it collapses into a dogmatic argument from authority, O'Neill shows why Kant held that we must construct, rather than assume, the authority of reason, and how this can be done by ensuring that anything we offer as reasons can be followed by others, (...)
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  41.  42
    Epistemic Authority, Testimony and the Transmission of Knowledge.Arnon Keren - 2007 - Episteme: A Journal of Social Epistemology 4 (3):368-381.
    I present an account of what it is to trust a speaker, and argue that the account can explain the common intuitions which structure the debate about the transmission view of testimony. According to the suggested account, to trust a speaker is to grant her epistemic authority on the asserted proposition, and hence to see her opinion as issuing a second order, preemptive reason for believing the proposition. The account explains the intuitive appeal of the basic principle associated with (...)
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  42. Authority Without Identity: Defending Advance Directives Via Posthumous Rights Over One’s Body.Govind Persad - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (4):249-256.
    This paper takes a novel approach to the active bioethical debate over whether advance medical directives have moral authority in dementia cases. Many have assumed that advance directives would lack moral authority if dementia truly produced a complete discontinuity in personal identity, such that the predementia individual is a separate individual from the postdementia individual. I argue that even if dementia were to undermine personal identity, the continuity of the body and the predementia individual’s rights over that body (...)
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  43. Governing Through Ignorance: Swedish Authorities’ Treatment of Detained and Non-Deported Migrants During the COVID-19 Pandemic.Annika Lindberg, Anna Lundberg, Elisabet Rundqvist & Sofia Häythiö - 2022 - Feminist Legal Studies 30 (3):309-329.
    Tensions between migration enforcement and migrants’ health and rights have gained renewed urgency during the COVID-19 pandemic. This article critically analyses how the pandemic has affected detained and deportable people in Sweden. Building on an activist methodological approach and collaboration, based on a survey conducted inside Swedish detention centres during the pandemic and the authors’ research and activist engagement with migrants who are detained or legally stranded in Sweden, we argue that migration authorities’ inadequate measures to protect detained and deportable (...)
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  44.  13
    Hobbes’s Lesser Evil Argument for Political Authority.Ben Jones & Manshu Tian - forthcoming - Hobbes Studies:1-20.
    This article identifies an argument in Hobbes’s writings often overlooked but relevant to current philosophical debates. Political philosophers tend to categorize his thought as representing consent or rescue theories of political authority. Though these interpretations have textual support and are understandable, they leave out one of his most compelling arguments—what we call the lesser evil argument for political authority, expressed most explicitly in Chapter 20 of Leviathan. Hobbes frankly admits the state’s evils but appeals to the significant disparity (...)
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  45.  3
    Authority and Democracy: A General Theory of Government and Management.Christopher McMahon (ed.) - 1994 - Princeton University Press.
    Should the democratic exercise of authority that we take for granted in the realm of government be extended to the managerial sphere? Exploring this question, Christopher McMahon develops a theory of government and management as two components of an integrated system of social authority that is essentially political in nature. He then considers where in this structure democratic decision making is appropriate. McMahon examines the main varieties of authority: the authority of experts, authority grounded in (...)
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  46.  65
    Political Authority and Political Obligation.Stephen R. Perry - 2013 - In Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Law: Volume 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1-74.
    Legitimate political authority is often said to involve a “right to rule,” which is most plausibly understood as a Hohfeldian moral power on the part of the state to impose obligations on its subjects (or otherwise to change their normative situation). Many writers have taken the state’s moral power (if and when it exists) to be a correlate, in some sense, of an obligation on the part of the state’s subjects to obey its directives. Thus legitimate political authority (...)
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  47.  70
    The Authority of the Fallacies Approach to Argument Evaluation.Catherine Hundleby - 2010 - Informal Logic 30 (3):279-308.
    Popular textbook treatments of the fallacies approach to argument evaluation employ the Adversary Method identified by Janice Moulton (1983) that takes the goal of argumentation to be the defeat of other arguments and that narrows the terms of discourse in order to facilitate such defeat. My analysis of the textbooks shows that the Adversary Method operates as a Kuhnian paradigm in philosophy, and demonstrates that the popular fallacies pedagogy is authoritarian in being unresponsive to the scholarly developments in informal logic (...)
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  48. Political Authority and Unjust Wars.Massimo Renzo - 2019 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 99 (2):336-357.
    Just war theory is currently dominated by two positions. According to the orthodox view, provided that jus in bello principles are respected, combatants have an equal right to fight, regardless of the justice of the cause pursued by their state. According to “revisionists” whenever combatants lack reasons to believe that the war they are ordered to fight is just, their duty is to disobey. I argue that when members of a legitimate state acting in good faith are ordered to fight, (...)
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  49.  15
    The Authority of Reason.Stephen Darwall - 2000 - Philosophical Review 109 (4):583.
    At the time of her death in 1996, Jean Hampton was working on a book on practical reason she had tentatively titled, A Theory of Reasons. The above volume consists of the materials she left, together with useful editorial clues to the state of their relative completeness. Computer file dates make it clear that Hampton was engaged in a significant revision of the text and had gotten as far as Chapter 3 of a nine-chapter book. Revisions of two-thirds of the (...)
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  50. Linguistic Authority and Convention in a Speech Act Analysis of Pornography.Nellie Wieland - 2007 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 85 (3):435 – 456.
    Recently, several philosophers have recast feminist arguments against pornography in terms of Speech Act Theory. In particular, they have considered the ways in which the illocutionary force of pornographic speech serves to set the conventions of sexual discourse while simultaneously silencing the speech of women, especially during unwanted sexual encounters. Yet, this raises serious questions as to how pornographers could (i) be authorities in the language game of sex, and (ii) set the conventions for sexual discourse - questions which these (...)
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