Results for 'balance scale task'

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  1. Interpreting the Internal Structure of a Connectionist Model of the Balance Scale Task.Michael R. W. Dawson & Corinne Zimmerman - 2003 - Brain and Mind 4 (2):129-149.
    One new tradition that has emerged from early research on autonomous robots is embodied cognitive science. This paper describes the relationship between embodied cognitive science and a related tradition, synthetic psychology. It is argued that while both are synthetic, embodied cognitive science is antirepresentational while synthetic psychology still appeals to representations. It is further argued that modern connectionism offers a medium for conducting synthetic psychology, provided that researchers analyze the internal representations that their networks develop. The paper then provides a (...)
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  2.  14
    Modeling Developmental Transitions on the Balance Scale Task.Hedderik Rijn, Maarten Someren & Han Maas - 2003 - Cognitive Science 27 (2):227-257.
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  3.  43
    Rule Transition on the Balance Scale Task: A Case Study in Belief Change.Brenda R. J. Jansen, Maartje E. J. Raijmakers & Ingmar Visser - 2007 - Synthese 155 (2):211-236.
    For various domains in proportional reasoning cognitive development is characterized as a progression through a series of increasingly complex rules. A multiplicative relationship between two task features, such as weight and distance information of blocks placed at both sides of the fulcrum of a balance scale, appears difficult to discover. During development, children change their beliefs about the balance scale several times: from a focus on the weight dimension (Rule I) to occasionally considering the distance (...)
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  4.  17
    A Connectionist Model of a Continuous Developmental Transition in the Balance Scale Task.Anna C. Schapiro & James L. McClelland - 2009 - Cognition 110 (3):395-411.
  5.  4
    Modeling Developmental Transitions on the Balance Scale Task.Hedderik van Rijn, Maarten van Someren & Han van der Maas - 2003 - Cognitive Science 27 (2):227-257.
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  6. Modeling Developmental Transitions on the Balance Scale Task.H. Vanrijn, M. VansoMeren & H. Vandermaas - 2003 - Cognitive Science 27 (2):227-257.
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  7.  15
    Re-Thinking Stages of Cognitive Development: An Appraisal of Connectionist Models of the Balance Scale Task.Philip T. Quinlan, Han L. J. van der Maas, Brenda R. J. Jansen, Olaf Booij & Mark Rendell - 2007 - Cognition 103 (3):413-459.
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  8.  17
    Rule Following and Rule Use in the Balance-Scale Task.Thomas R. Shultz & Yoshio Takane - 2007 - Cognition 103 (3):460-472.
  9.  11
    Towards Better Computational Models of the Balance Scale Task: A Reply to Shultz and Takane.Han L. J. van der Maas, Philip T. Quinlan & Brenda R. J. Jansen - 2007 - Cognition 103 (3):473-479.
  10.  19
    Modeling Acquisition of a Torque Rule on the Balance-Scale Task.Fredéric Dandurand & Thomas R. Shultz - 2009 - In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. pp. 1541--6.
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  11.  6
    Solutions to Gender Balance in STEM Fields Through Support, Training, Education and Mentoring: Report of the International Women in Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering Task Group.Gilda Barabino, Monique Frize, Fatimah Ibrahim, Eleni Kaldoudi, Lenka Lhotska, Loredana Marcu, Magdalena Stoeva, Virginia Tsapaki & Eva Bezak - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-18.
    The aim of this article is to offer a view of the current status of women in medical physics and biomedical engineering, while focusing on solutions towards gender balance and providing examples of current activities carried out at national and international levels. The International Union of Physical and Engineering Scientists in Medicine is committed to advancing women in science and health and has several initiatives overseen by the Women in Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering Task Group. Some of (...)
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  12.  8
    Optimizing the Balance Between Task Automation and Human Manual Control in Simulated Submarine Track Management.I. Chen Stephanie, A. W. Visser Troy, Huf Samuel & Loft Shayne - 2017 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 23 (3):240-262.
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  13.  5
    The Actomyosin Cytoskeleton Drives Micron‐Scale Membrane Remodeling In Vivo Via the Generation of Mechanical Forces to Balance Membrane Tension Gradients.Seham Ebrahim, Jian Liu & Roberto Weigert - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (9):1800032.
    The remodeling of biological membranes is crucial for a vast number of cellular activities and is an inherently multiscale process in both time and space. Seminal work has provided important insights into nanometer‐scale membrane deformations, and highlighted the remarkable variation and complexity in the underlying molecular machineries and mechanisms. However, how membranes are remodeled at the micron‐scale, particularly in vivo, remains poorly understood. Here, we discuss how using regulated exocytosis of large (1.5–2.0 μm) membrane‐bound secretory granules in the (...)
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  14.  56
    When the Goal Gets in the Way: The Interaction of Goal Specificity and Task Difficulty.Jean E. Pretz & Corinne Zimmerman - 2009 - Thinking and Reasoning 15 (4):405-430.
    In three experiments we tested hypotheses derived from the goal specificity literature using a real-world physics task. In the balance-scale paradigm participants predict the state of the apparatus based on a configuration of weights at various distances from the fulcrum. Non-specific goals (NSG) have been shown to encourage hypothesis testing, which facilitates rule discovery, whereas specific goals (SG) do not. We showed that this goal specificity effect depends on task difficulty. The NSG strategy led to rule (...)
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  15.  7
    Corrigendum: The Binocular Balance at High Spatial Frequencies as Revealed by the Binocular Orientation Combination Task.Yonghua Wang, Zhifen He, Yunjie Liang, Yiya Chen, Ling Gong, Yu Mao, Xiaoxin Chen, Zhimo Yao, Daniel P. Spiegel, Jia Qu, Fan Lu, Jiawei Zhou & Robert F. Hess - 2019 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 13.
  16.  10
    Non-Physical Practice Improves Task Performance in an Unstable, Perturbed Environment: Motor Imagery and Observational Balance Training.Wolfgang Taube, Michael Lorch, Sibylle Zeiter & Martin Keller - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  17.  5
    The Binocular Balance at High Spatial Frequencies as Revealed by the Binocular Orientation Combination Task.Yonghua Wang, Zhifen He, Yunjie Liang, Yiya Chen, Ling Gong, Yu Mao, Xiaoxin Chen, Zhimo Yao, Daniel P. Spiegel, Jia Qu, Fan Lu, Jiawei Zhou & Robert F. Hess - 2019 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 13.
  18.  8
    Effects of Single Compared to Dual Task Practice on Learning a Dynamic Balance Task in Young Adults.Rainer Kiss, Dennis Brueckner & Thomas Muehlbauer - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  19.  4
    Single- and Dual-Task Balance Training Are Equally Effective in Youth.Benjamin Lüder, Rainer Kiss & Urs Granacher - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  20.  9
    Changes in Balance Strategy and Neuromuscular Control During a Fatiguing Balance Task—A Study in Perturbed Unilateral Stance.Ramona Ritzmann, Kathrin Freyler, Amelie Werkhausen & Albert Gollhofer - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  21.  9
    Similarity in Stimulus Material and Stimulus Task on the Formation of a New Scale of Judgment.M. E. Tresselt - 1965 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (3):241.
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  22.  3
    Higher Balance Task Demands Are Associated with an Increase in Individual Alpha Peak Frequency.Thorben Hülsdünker, Andreas Mierau & Heiko K. Strüder - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  23. Visual Search and Foraging Compared in an Automated Large-Scale Search Task.A. D. Smith, I. D. Gilchrist & B. M. Hood - 2004 - In Robert Schwartz (ed.), Perception. Malden Ma: Blackwell. pp. 147-147.
  24. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Facilitate Dynamic Balance Task Learning in Healthy Old Adults.Elisabeth Kaminski, Maike Hoff, Viola Rjosk, Christopher J. Steele, Christopher Gundlach, Bernhard Sehm, Arno Villringer & Patrick Ragert - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11.
  25. The Validity of the Oculus Rift to Assess Postural Changes During a Balance Task.Jonathan Marchetto & W. Wright - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
  26. Motivations of the Ethical Consumer.Oliver M. Freestone & Peter J. McGoldrick - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 79 (4):445-467.
    There are strong indications that many consumers are switching towards more socially and environmentally responsible products and services, reflecting a shift in consumer values indicated in several countries. However, little is known about the motives that drive some toward, or deter others from, higher levels of ethical concern and action in their purchasing decisions. Following a qualitative investigation using ZMET and focus group discussions, a questionnaire was developed and administered to a representative sample of consumers; nearly 1,000 usable questionnaires were (...)
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  27.  24
    To Appraise Developmental Difficulty or Mental Demand, Relational Complexity is Not Enough.Juan Pascual-Leone - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (6):843-844.
    Two assertions of Halford et al. are critiqued: their claim of priority in relational complexity analysis and the sufficiency for cognitive development of their relational-complexity analysis of tasks. Critical discussion of concrete task analyses (i.e., the relational complexity of proportionality problems, of balance scale problems, and the Tower of Hanoi) serves, by way of counterexamples, to highlight problems in their method.
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  28.  15
    Climate-Ready GM Crops, Intellectual Property and Global Justice.Cristian Timmermann, Henk van den Belt & Michiel Korthals - 2010 - In Carlos Maria Romeo Casabona, Leire Escajedo San Epifanio & Aitziber Emaldi Cirión (eds.), Global food security: ethical and legal challenges. Wageningen Academic Publishers. pp. 153-158.
    So-called climate-ready GM crops can be of great help in adapting to a changing climate. Climate change, caused in great part by anthropogenic greenhouse gases released in the atmosphere since the industrial revolution by the developed world, is felt much stronger in the developing world, causing unexpected droughts and floods that will cause large harvest loss, leading to more hunger and malnutrition, rising death tolls and disease vulnerability. The current intellectual property regime (IPR) strikes an unfair balance between profit (...)
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  29.  67
    Balance or Trade-Off? Online Security Technologies and Fundamental Rights.Mireille Hildebrandt - 2013 - Philosophy and Technology 26 (4):357-379.
    In this contribution, I will argue that the image of a balance is often used to defend the idea of a trade-off. To understand the drawbacks of this line of thought, I will explore the relationship between online security technologies and fundamental rights, notably privacy, nondiscrimination, freedom of speech and due process. After discriminating between three types of online security technologies, I will trace the reconfiguration of the notion of privacy in the era of smart environments. This will lead (...)
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  30.  23
    From Medical Rationing to Rationalizing the Use of Human Resources for Aids Care and Treatment in Africa: A Case for Task Shifting.Jessica Price & Agnes Binagwaho - 2010 - Developing World Bioethics 10 (2):99-103.
    With a global commitment to scaling up AIDS care and treatment in resource-poor settings for some of the most HIV-affected countries in Africa, availability of antiretroviral treatment is no longer the principal obstacle to expanding access to treatment. A shortage of trained healthcare personnel to initiate treatment and manage patients represents a more challenging barrier to offering life-saving treatment to all patients in need. Physician-centered treatment policies accentuate this challenge. Despite evidence that task shifting for nurse-centered AIDS patient care (...)
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  31.  30
    Weed Control Practices on Costa Rican Coffee Farms: Is Herbicide Use Necessary for Small-Scale Producers? [REVIEW]Angelina Sanderson Bellamy - 2011 - Agriculture and Human Values 28 (2):167-177.
    This paper presents research conducted during two coffee farming seasons in Costa Rica. The study examined coffee farmers’ weed management practices and is presented in the form of a case study of small-scale farmers’ use of labor and herbicides in weed management practices. Over 200 structured interviews were conducted with coffee farmers concerning their use of hired labor and family labor, weed management activities, support services, and expectations about the future of their coffee production. ANOVA and regression analyses describe (...)
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  32.  18
    Extending SME to Handle Large‐Scale Cognitive Modeling.Kenneth D. Forbus, Ronald W. Ferguson, Andrew Lovett & Dedre Gentner - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (5):1152-1201.
    Analogy and similarity are central phenomena in human cognition, involved in processes ranging from visual perception to conceptual change. To capture this centrality requires that a model of comparison must be able to integrate with other processes and handle the size and complexity of the representations required by the tasks being modeled. This paper describes extensions to Structure-Mapping Engine since its inception in 1986 that have increased its scope of operation. We first review the basic SME algorithm, describe psychological evidence (...)
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  33.  16
    Response to Vogelstein: How the 2012 AAP Task Force on Circumcision Went Wrong.Robert S. Van Howe - 2018 - Bioethics 32 (1):77-80.
    Vogelstein cautions medical organizations against jumping into the fray of controversial issues, yet proffers the 2012 American Academy of Pediatrics' Task Force policy position on infant male circumcision as ‘an appropriate use of position-statements.’ Only a scratch below the surface of this policy statement uncovers the Task Force's failure to consider Vogelstein's many caveats. The Task Force supported the cultural practice by putting undeserved emphasis on questionable scientific data, while ignoring or underplaying the importance of valid contrary (...)
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  34.  32
    Subjective Measures of Consciousness in Artificial Grammar Learning Task.Michał Wierzchoń, Dariusz Asanowicz, Borysław Paulewicz & Axel Cleeremans - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1141-1153.
    Consciousness can be measured in various ways, but different measures often yield different conclusions about the extent to which awareness relates to performance. Here, we compare five different subjective measures of awareness in the context of an artificial grammar learning task. Participants expressed their subjective awareness of rules using one of five different scales: confidence ratings , post-decision wagering , feeling of warmth , rule awareness , and continuous scale . All scales were equally sensitive to conscious knowledge. (...)
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  35. Identifying and Individuating Cognitive Systems: A Task-Based Distributed Cognition Alternative to Agent-Based Extended Cognition.Jim Davies & Kourken Michaelian - 2016 - Cognitive Processing 17 (3):307-319.
    This article argues for a task-based approach to identifying and individuating cognitive systems. The agent-based extended cognition approach faces a problem of cognitive bloat and has difficulty accommodating both sub-individual cognitive systems ("scaling down") and some supra-individual cognitive systems ("scaling up"). The standard distributed cognition approach can accommodate a wider variety of supra-individual systems but likewise has difficulties with sub-individual systems and faces the problem of cognitive bloat. We develop a task-based variant of distributed cognition designed to (...) up and down smoothly while providing a principled means of avoiding cognitive bloat. The advantages of the task-based approach are illustrated by means of two parallel case studies: re-representation in the human visual system and in a biomedical engineering laboratory. (shrink)
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  36.  39
    The Balance of Reason.Marcelo Dascal - unknown
    If we had a balance of reasons, where the arguments presented in favor and against the case were weighed precisely and the verdict could be pronounced in favor of the most inclined scale ... [we would have] a more valuable art than that miraculous science of producing gold.
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  37.  5
    Finding balance in normative toolkits.Allen Alvarez, May Thorseth & Siri Granum Carson - 2019 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 1:1-4.
    This issue provides readers the opportunity to broaden understanding of methods used in applied ethics. We hope you will be inspired to decide on which method, or a combination of different ones, to use towards achieving reflective balance that can enhance understanding of all considerations relevant to deciding what should be done. Like tools, methods are used because they are well suited to the task we seek to accomplish.
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  38.  38
    Response to Comment on "Log or Linear? Distinct Intuitions on the Number Scale in Western and Amazonian Indigene Cultures".Stanislas Dehaene, Véronique Izard, Pierre Pica & Elizabeth Spelke - 2009 - Science 323 (5910):38.
    The performance of the Mundurucu on the number-space task may exemplify a general competence for drawing analogies between space and other linear dimensions, but Mundurucu participants spontaneously chose number when other dimensions were available. Response placement may not reflect the subjective scale for numbers, but Cantlon et al.'s proposal of a linear scale with scalar variability requires additional hypotheses that are problematic.
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  39.  17
    Hemispheric Laterality and Dissociative Tendencies: Differences in Emotional Processing in a Dichotic Listening Task.P. Enriquez & E. Bernabeu - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (1):267-275.
    The present work investigates whether the hemispheric processing of both verbal and emotional stimuli, studied by means of a dichotic listening task, differs between normal high and low dissociators as assessed by the Dissociative Experiences Scale . Development, reliability and validity of a dissociation scale. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 727–735). Two groups of subjects , participated in the experiment. The task consisted in identifying both verbal and emotional stimulus-targets, respectively, on successive sessions. Reaction (...)
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  40.  11
    Conflict-Driven Adaptive Control is Enhanced by Integral Negative Emotion on a Short Time Scale.Qian Yang & Gilles Pourtois - 2018 - Cognition and Emotion 32 (8):1637-1653.
    ABSTRACTNegative emotion influences cognitive control, and more specifically conflict adaptation. However, discrepant results have often been reported in the literature. In this study, we broke down negative emotion into integral and incidental components using a modern motivation-based framework, and assessed whether the former could change conflict adaptation. In the first experiment, we manipulated the duration of the inter-trial-interval to assess the actual time-scale of this effect. Integral negative emotion was induced by using loss-related feedback contingent on task performance, (...)
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  41.  6
    Ethics of Task Shifting in the Health Workforce: Exploring the Role of Community Health Workers in HIV Service Delivery in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.Hayley Mundeva, Jeremy Snyder, David Paul Ngilangwa & Angela Kaida - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):71.
    Task shifting is increasingly used to address human resource shortages impacting HIV service delivery in low- and middle-income countries. By shifting basic tasks from higher- to lower-trained cadres, such as Community Health Workers, task shifting can reduce overhead costs, improve community outreach, and provide efficient scale-up of essential treatments like antiretroviral therapies. Although there is rich evidence outlining positive outcomes that CHWs bring into HIV programs, important questions remain over their place in service delivery. These challenges often (...)
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  42.  16
    Scientific Contribution – Medicine as Task – Karl E. Rothschuh’s Philosophy of Medicine.Daniela Mergenthaler - 2004 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (3):253-260.
    Karl E. Rothschuh is one of the most important,but, on an international scale, relativelyunknown representatives of German philosophy ofmedicine in the 20th century. This paperpresents and discusses his central conceptssystematically, especially those ofanthropology, theories of health and disease.Rothschuh distinguishes two methodologicalapproaches to anthropology: a causal analysisthat considers human organism as complex causalsystems, and a so-called bionomicalinvestigation that clarifies the meaning orfunction of single processes in respect to thewhole organism. These two perspectivescomplement each other. From a naturalisticpoint of view, Rothschuh (...)
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  43.  3
    Employers' satisfaction over the fulfillment of the social task of graduates of wide access master degree courses.Zoila del Socorro López Díaz - 2017 - Humanidades Médicas 17 (2):338-353.
    Las relaciones entre el mundo de la educación y el trabajo tienen objetivos diversos, relacionados con la pertinencia, la formación recibida, el ejercicio profesional, la eficiencia universitaria y la repercusión social; de manera que resulta valiosa la información sobre el cumplimiento del encargo social del profesional, al tiempo que se convierte en instrumento de gestión universitaria. Objetivo: determinar la satisfacción alcanzada por el cumplimento del encargo social de egresados de maestrías ejecutadas en la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas "Manuel Fajardo". Métodos: (...)
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  44. Nietzsche’s Task: An Interpretation of “Beyond Good and Evil.”. [REVIEW]Paul Kirkland - 2003 - Review of Metaphysics 56 (3):659-660.
    Laurence Lampert has written an engaging, bold, and insightful book that should stand above much recent Nietzsche scholarship for its attention to Nietzsche’s purposes and its care with Nietzsche’s text. Nietzsche’s Task offers the first book length exegesis of Nietzsche’s Beyond Good and Evil, attending to its structure and offering commentary on each section, or aphorism, of the book. Lampert provides a valuable contribution to Nietzsche scholarship, an extraordinary guide to the major issues of political philosophy, and a fine (...)
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  45.  37
    The “Ghosts” of Iras Past and the Changing Cultural Context of Religion and Science.Karl E. Peters - 2015 - Zygon 50 (2):329-360.
    Beginning with our cosmic ancestors and the 1950s ancestors of Institute on Religion in an Age of Science, this essay highlights the wider, post-World War II cultural context, including other science and religion organizations, in which IRAS was formed. It then considers eight challenges from today's context. From the context of science there are the challenge of scale that leads us to question our place in the scheme of things and can lead to a challenge to morale concerning whether (...)
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  46. The Problem of Evaluating Automated Large-Scale Evidence Aggregators.Nicolas Wüthrich & Katie Steele - 2019 - Synthese (8):3083-3102.
    In the biomedical context, policy makers face a large amount of potentially discordant evidence from different sources. This prompts the question of how this evidence should be aggregated in the interests of best-informed policy recommendations. The starting point of our discussion is Hunter and Williams’ recent work on an automated aggregation method for medical evidence. Our negative claim is that it is far from clear what the relevant criteria for evaluating an evidence aggregator of this sort are. What is the (...)
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  47.  37
    Uncertainty and Exploration in a Restless Bandit Problem.Maarten Speekenbrink & Emmanouil Konstantinidis - 2015 - Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):351-367.
    Decision making in noisy and changing environments requires a fine balance between exploiting knowledge about good courses of action and exploring the environment in order to improve upon this knowledge. We present an experiment on a restless bandit task in which participants made repeated choices between options for which the average rewards changed over time. Comparing a number of computational models of participants’ behavior in this task, we find evidence that a substantial number of them balanced exploration (...)
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  48.  58
    Sex Discrimination, Gender Balance, Justice and Publicity in Admissions.Ben Saunders - 2010 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (1):59-71.
    This paper examines the problem of selecting a number of candidates to receive a good (admission) from a pool in which there are more qualified applicants than places. I observe that it is rarely possible to order all candidates according to some relevant criterion, such as academic merit, since these standards are inevitably somewhat vague. This means that we are often faced with the task of making selections between near-enough equal candidates. I survey one particular line of response, which (...)
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  49.  59
    Mind-Wandering as Spontaneous Thought: A Dynamic Framework.Christoff Kalina, Irving Zachary C., Fox Kieran, Spreng Nathan & Andrews-Hanna Jessica - 2016 - Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17:718–731.
    Most research on mind-wandering has characterized it as a mental state with contents that are task unrelated or stimulus independent. However, the dynamics of mind-wandering—how mental states change over time—have remained largely neglected. Here, we introduce a dynamic framework for understanding mind-wandering and its relationship to the recruitment of large-scale brain networks. We propose that mind-wandering is best understood as a member of a family of spontaneous-thought phenomena that also includes creative thought and dreaming. This dynamic framework can (...)
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  50.  68
    To Balance a Pencil on its Tip: On the Passive Approach to Quantum Error Correction.Amit Hagar - manuscript
    Quantum computers are hypothetical quantum information processing (QIP) devices that allow one to store, manipulate, and extract information while harnessing quantum physics to solve various computational problems and do so putatively more efficiently than any known classical counterpart. Despite many ‘proofs of concept’ (Aharonov and Ben–Or 1996; Knill and Laflamme 1996; Knill et al. 1996; Knill et al. 1998) the key obstacle in realizing these powerful machines remains their scalability and susceptibility to noise: almost three decades after their conceptions, experimentalists (...)
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