Results for 'beauty'

1000+ found
Order:
  1.  17
    This Beauty: A Philosophy of Being Alive.Nick Riggle - 2022 - New York City: Basic Books.
    An acclaimed philosopher argues that living life to the fullest requires seeing life through the lens of beauty Say you and your friend often go hiking. One day, they propose that you go skydiving instead. You're wavering, and they deliver a rousing speech. They tell you, Come on, you only live once! You relent. Why? In This Beauty, philosopher Nick Riggle investigates the things we say to inspire each other and ourselves: seize the day, treat yourself, you only (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2. Beauty in African Thought: Critical Perspectives on the Western Idea of Development.Bolaji Bateye, Mahmoud Masaeli, Louise Müller & A. C. M. Roothaan (eds.) - 2023 - Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books.
    This collection contributes to the understanding of the idea of development from Africa-based perspectives. African(ist) thinkers investigate the notion of beauty as a source for alternative approaches to pressing global issues such as poverty, inequality, and climate change.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3.  4
    On Beauty of Artworks as Aesthetic True Representations of Reality: A Collection of Pragmaticist Inquires Into the Epistemology of Artistic Creation and Evaluation of Artworks.Dan Nesher - 2022 - Hamilton Books.
    This book is a collection of pragmatist inquiries into the epistemology of artistic creation and evaluation of artworks. It offers a new concept of aesthetics and beauty of artworks. Aesthetics is the mode of artistic representation of reality, and artworks are beautiful when proven aesthetic true representations of reality.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4. Beauty, Art and the Western Tradition.Derek Allan - 2020 - In Rohan Curnow, Robert Andrews & Matthew Del Nevo (eds.), Beauty and the Christian Tradition. Sydney: St Paul's Publications. pp. 1-21.
    Examines the birth of art-as-beauty in Western art and the concomitant birth of the idea of art itself. Also discusses the death of art-as-beauty from Manet onward and certain implications for aesthetics (the philosophy of art). Includes relevant reproductions. (The essay is a longer version of my paper "The Birth and Death of Beauty in Western Art" also listed on PhilPapers.).
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5. Beauty, Art and the Western Tradition.Derek Allan - manuscript
    From the Renaissance onwards, the Western tradition singled out the term beauty for a unique and highly prestigious role. As Christian belief began its gradual decline, Renaissance art invented a rival transcendence in the form of an exalted world of nobility, harmony and beauty – the world exemplified by the works of painters such as Raphael, Titian and Poussin. Beauty in this sense quickly became the ruling ideal of Western art, subsequently underpinning the explanations of the nature (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6. Beauty Matters. [REVIEW]Suzanne Jaeger - 2001 - Dialogue 40 (3):641-644.
    In the foreword to Beauty Matters, Eleanor Heartney tells us that the concept of beauty, especially physical beauty, embraces ambiguous, sometimes conflicting elements. The cover picture, a poster photograph of the Kitchen Table series by Carrie Mae Weems, along with the insightful reading of it in Peg Zeglin Brand’s introduction to the book, gives testimony to the wider social, economic, and political implications of beautification practices that are discussed in the book’s essays.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7.  12
    Beauty within the pseudo-dyonisian rythm of the procession/conversion.Filipa Afonso - 2010 - Trans/Form/Ação 33 (2):1-10.
    In the scope of Medieval Metaphysics, «beauty» has been pondered as an ambiguous concept: either attributed to God, or to the World. The aim of this article is to clarify the meaning of this ambiguity within the philosophy of the Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite. If, therefore, the concept of «beauty» is primarily withdrawn from its sensible and mundane feature in order to be appropriated to the divine nature, it is secondly apposed to creation itself so that it may designate (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8. On Beauty.Gernot Böhme - 2010 - Nordic Journal of Aesthetics 21 (39).
    Beauty was once the main or even exclusive topic of aesthetics. Now, two hundred years after Karl Rosenkranz’s Aesthetics of Ugliness and a formidable development of fine arts in which many atmospheres beyond the edge of beauty were produced, it may be time again to ask the fundamental question of what the beautiful is like. But putting this question we notice that since the 18th century our aesthetical experience has deeply changed, so that the concept of traditional (...) must be changed itself. (shrink)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9. Brain, Beauty, and Art: Essays Bringing Neuroaesthetics Into Focus.Anjan Chatterjee & Eileen R. Cardillo (eds.) - 2022 - New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    When I first started to think about the neural basis of aesthetic experiences in the late 1990s, little was written on the topic. Unlike other domains of psychology, such as attention, or perception, or memory, aesthetics had not gained purchase in cognitive neuroscience. In fact, aesthetics was barely visible in psychology itself despite being rooted in Fechner's writings over a hundred years earlier. In 1999, papers by Zeki (1999) and Ramachandran and Hirstein (1999) were initial forays into scientific aesthetics by (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10. Sleeping Beauty: Reply to Elga.David Lewis - 2001 - Analysis 61 (3):171–76.
  11.  21
    Queer Beauty: Sexuality and Aesthetics From Winckelmann to Freud and Beyond. [REVIEW]Christopher S. Lewis - 2013 - The European Legacy 18 (2):239-240.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12.  10
    The Beautiful Risk of Education.Tyson E. Lewis - 2014 - Educational Theory 64 (3):303-309.
  13.  32
    Beauty and Transcendence: From Plato to the Ideal.Paul Crowther - 2016 - Estetika: The European Journal of Aesthetics 53 (2):132-148.
    The Greek notion of beauty encompasses not only nature and artifice, but also the Good. This paper explains the connection by interpreting Plato in a way that allows his theory to be developed beyond the confines of his philosophy. It is argued that we could read his theory of beauty as based on fineness of appearance. This arises when a sensory particular transcends itself and suggests the presence of its sustaining Form, or when sophrosynē in human agency discloses (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14. Beauty Matters.Peg Zeglin Brand (ed.) - 2000 - Indiana University Press.
    Beauty has captured human interest since before Plato, but how, why, and to whom does beauty matter in today's world? Whose standard of beauty motivates African Americans to straighten their hair? What inspires beauty queens to measure up as flawless objects for the male gaze? Why does a French performance artist use cosmetic surgery to remake her face into a composite of the master painters' version of beauty? How does beauty culture perceive the disabled (...)
  15. Sleeping Beauty's Evidence.Jeffrey Sanford Russell - forthcoming - In Maria Lasonen-Aarnio & Clayton M. Littlejohn (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Evidence. Routledge.
    What degrees of belief does Sleeping Beauty's evidence support? That depends.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16. Beauty.Rafael De Clercq - 2013 - In Berys Gaut Gaut & Dominic Lopes (eds.), Routledge Companion to Aesthetics 3rd Edition. Routledge.
    This survey chapter focuses on two questions concerning the nature of beauty. First, can “beauty” be defined, and if so, how? Second, what is the relation between beauty and the mind; for example, between being beautiful and being judged beautiful, or between being beautiful and being the object of pleasure?
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  17. Beauty and Love.Nick Riggle - 2014 - In Michael Kelly (ed.), Oxford Encyclopedia of Aesthetics. Oxford University Press.
    A brief history, overview, and assessment of the thesis that beauty is the object of love.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  18. Beauty.Jennifer A. McMahon - 2020 - Oxford Encyclopedia of Literature.
    Literary beauty was once understood as intertwining sensations and ideas, and thus as providing subjective and objective reasons for literary appreciation. However, as theory and philosophy developed, the inevitable claims and counterclaims led to the view that subjective experience was not a reliable guide to literary merit. Literary theory then replaced aesthetics as did philosophy’s focus on literary truth. Along with the demise of the relevance of sensations, literary form also took a back seat. This suggested to some that (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  19.  39
    Beautiful Philosophy.Dominic McIver Lopes - 2022 - Bloomsbury Contemporary Aesthetics.
    Provides an account of what it is for works of academic philosophy to be beautiful in their content or in their mode of expression.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20. Buddhism, Beauty, and Virtue.David Cooper - 2017 - In Kathleen J. Higgins, Shakirsaeed Shakirsaeed & Sonia Sonia (eds.), Artistic Visions and the Promise of Beauty,. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 123-138.
    The chapter challenges hyperbolic claims about the centrality of appreciation of beauty to Buddhism. Within the texts, attitudes are more mixed, except for a form of 'inner beauty' - the beauty found in the expression of virtues or wisdom in forms of bodily comportment. Inner beauty is a stable presence throughout Buddhist history, practices, and art.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  21. Dependent Beauty and Perfection in Kant's Aesthetics.Michael Fletcher - 2005 - Philosophical Writings (29).
    This paper attacks an account of Kant's controversial distinction between "free" and "dependent" beauty. I present three problems—The Lorland problem, The Crawford Problem, and the problem of intrinsic relation—that are shown to be a consequence of various interpretations of Kant's distinction. Next, I reconstruct Robert Wicks' well-known account of dependent beauty as "the appreciation of teleological style" and point out a key equivocation in the statement of Wicks' account: the judgment of dependent beauty can be thought to (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  22. Beauty Before the Eyes of Others.Jonathan Fine - 2016 - In Proceedings of the European Society for Aesthetics. Fribourg: The European Society for Aesthetics. pp. 164-176.
    This paper pursues the philosophical significance of a relatively unexplored point of Platonic aesthetics: the social dimension of beauty. The social dimension of beauty resides in its conceptual connection to shame and honour. This dimension of beauty is fundamental to the aesthetic education of the Republic, as becoming virtuous for Plato presupposes a desire to appear and to be admired as beautiful. The ethical significance of beauty, shame, and honour redound to an ethically rich notion of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23. Beauty Unlimited.Peg Zeglin Brand (ed.) - 2013 - Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
    Emphasizing the human body in all of its forms, Beauty Unlimited expands the boundaries of what is meant by beauty both geographically and aesthetically. Peg Zeglin Brand and an international group of contributors interrogate the body and the meaning of physical beauty in this multidisciplinary volume. This striking and provocative book explores the history of bodily beautification; the physicality of socially or culturally determined choices of beautification; the interplay of gender, race, class, age, sexuality, and ethnicity within (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  24. Beauty in Disability: An Aesthetics for Dance and for Life.Aili Bresnahan & Michael Deckard - 2019 - In Karen Bond (ed.), Dance and Quality of Life, Social Indicators Research Series, Vol. 73. Netherlands: pp. 185-206.
    To what extent does dance contribute to an ideal of beauty that can enrich human quality of life? To what extent are standards of beauty predicated on an ideal human body that has no disability? In this chapter, we show how conceptions of proportionality, perfection, and ethereality from the Ancient Greeks through the 19th century can still be seen today in some kinds of dance, particularly in ballet. Disability studies and disability-inclusive dance companies, however, have started to change (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  25.  94
    Sleeping Beauty Goes to the Lab: The Psychology of Self-Locating Evidence.Matteo Colombo, Jun Lai & Vincenzo Crupi - unknown - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 10 (1):173-185.
    Analyses of the Sleeping Beauty Problem are polarised between those advocating the “1/2 view” and those endorsing the “1/3 view”. The disagreement concerns the evidential relevance of self-locating information. Unlike halfers, thirders regard self-locating information as evidentially relevant in the Sleeping Beauty Problem. In the present study, we systematically manipulate the kind of information available in different formulations of the Sleeping Beauty Problem. Our findings indicate that patterns of judgment on different formulations of the Sleeping Beauty (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  26.  78
    Beauty and The End of Art, Wittgenstein, Plurality and Perception.Sonia Sedivy - 2016 - Bloomsbury Academic.
    Beauty and the End of Art shows how a resurgence of interest in beauty and a sense of ending in Western art are challenging us to rethink art, beauty and their relationship. By arguing that Wittgenstein's later work and contemporary theory of perception offer just what we need for a unified approach to art and beauty, Sonia Sedivy provides new answers to these contemporary challenges. These new accounts also provide support for the Wittgensteinian realism and theory (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27.  41
    Sleeping Beauty and De Nunc Updating.Namjoong Kim - 2010 - Dissertation, University of Massachusetts
    About a decade ago, Adam Elga introduced philosophers to an intriguing puzzle. In it, Sleeping Beauty, a perfectly rational agent, undergoes an experiment in which she becomes ignorant of what time it is. This situation is puzzling for two reasons: First, because there are two equally plausible views about how she will change her degree of belief given her situation and, second, because the traditional rules for updating degrees of belief don't seem to apply to this case. In this (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  28. Beauty, Love and Art: The Legacy of Ancient Greece.David Konstan - 2013 - Schole 7 (2):327-339.
    There is a deep problem with beauty. Beauty is commonly equated with sexual attractiveness. Yet there is also the beauty of art, which arouses an aesthetic response of disinterested contemplation. As Roger Scruton writes in his recent book, Beauty : “In the realm of art beauty is an object of contemplation, not desire.” Are there, then, two kinds of beauty? By looking back at the classical Greek conception of beauty, we may see how (...)
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  29.  3
    Beautiful and Grotesque: Signifiers of Morality and Power in Okpella (Nigeria) Masking Traditions.Jean M. Borgatti - 2020 - Studium 25 (25):265-280.
    Paired masks described as beautiful and grotesque express complementary values in several southern Nigerian art traditions. Beautiful masks represent humans, often women, and serve as metaphors for things associated with civilization and culture. Grotesque masks represent animals or men, and tend to be linked with notions of masculinity and nature. Analysis of masks falling into these categories provides us with a set of formal criteria for this imagery. Mask types that fall into this continuum are used by the Okpella, a (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  30. Beauty: New Essays in Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art.Wolfgang Huemer & Íngrid Vendrell Ferran (eds.) - 2019 - München, Deutschland: Philosophia.
    The notion of beauty has been and continues to be one of the main concerns of aesthetics and art theory. Traditionally, the centrality of beauty in the experience of art was widely accepted and beauty was considered one of the key values in aesthetics. In recent debate, however, the significance of the notion of beauty has been discussed controversially. Especially in the second half of the twentieth century, the role of beauty was strongly challenged both (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  31. From Beautiful Art to Taste.Joâo Lemos - 2017 - Con-Textos Kantianos 5:216-235.
    The first part of the following text does make the map of an answer to the question of knowing if and how it is possible to speak of beautiful art in the context of Immanuel Kant’s Critique of the Power of Judgment. There is an appeal to the conditions of the freedom of the imagination, to an interpretation of representation as exemplification and to a reference to aesthetic purposes and constraints. This way it will be made evident it is possible (...)
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  32.  9
    Natural Beauty by Adorno: In Dependence and Opposition to the World of Domination.Peter Brezňan - 2020 - Espes 9 (1):5-15.
    Th. W. Adorno’s aesthetics represents a comprehensive reflection on a number of important topics in aesthetic research. Among them is the issue of the aesthetic experience generated by the beauty of nature. In the perspective of Adorno’s theory, the experience of natural beauty is described as a quality that forms in an immanent relation to the historical and social reality of humans. In the first place, one can observe the fundamental dependence of natural beauty on the degree (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  33. Physical Beauty, Imagination and Romantic Love.Glenn Parsons - 2017 - In Gary Foster (ed.), Desire, Love & Identity: Philosophy of Sex and Love. Oxford University Press. pp. 207-215.
    Romantic lovers notoriously overestimate the physical attractiveness of their own partners. This phenomenon is typically described as a kind of delusion or 'madness', and ascribed to the irrationality of love. I argue, on the contrary, that it does not involve distortion, error, or irrationality, but rather is an intelligible result of the particular kind of relationship that romantic love involves. In my explanation, I emphasize the critical role of the imagination in lovers' perception of beauty.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34. Sleeping Beauty and the Absent-Minded Driver.Jean Baratgin & Bernard Walliser - 2010 - Theory and Decision 69 (3):489-496.
    The Sleeping Beauty problem is presented in a formalized framework which summarizes the underlying probability structure. The two rival solutions proposed by Elga and Lewis differ by a single parameter concerning her prior probability. They can be supported by considering, respectively, that Sleeping Beauty is “fuzzy-minded” and “blank-minded”, the first interpretation being more natural than the second. The traditional absent -minded driver problem is reinterpreted in this framework and sustains Elga’s solution.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  35. Beauty.Jennifer A. McMahon - 2007 - In Berys Gaut & Dominic Lopes (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Aesthetics. Routledge. pp. 307-319.
    Beauty is evil, a surreptitious diversion of earthly delights planted by the devil, according to the third century theologian-philosopher Tertullian. Beauty is a manifestation of the divine on earth, according to another third century philosopher, Plotinus. Could these two really be talking about the same thing? That beauty evokes an experience of pleasure is probably the only point on which all participants in the continuing debate on beauty agree. But what kinds of pleasure one considers relevant (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  36.  25
    The Meaning of Beauty.A. H. B. Allen - 1955 - Philosophy 30 (113):112 - 130.
    Theories of beauty are often divided into the objective and the subjective. I am doubtful whether a rigid distinction between the two can be maintained. It is difficult for an objective theory to assert that the impression of beauty is received quite passively, without any reaction or co-operation on the part of the subject, which is likely to be similar in the various cases.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37.  46
    Beauty as a Symbol of Morality.Zhengmi Zhouhuang - 2019 - In Das Selbst und die Welt - Denken, Handeln und Hoffen in der Klassischen Deutschen Philosophie. pp. 113-134.
    Kant uses the concept of the symbol to show the complicated relationship between the autonomy of beauty and its systematic function as a transition from nature to freedom, which are the two most important topics in the third Critique. Beauty’s symbolism of morality lies in the analog between aesthetic reflection and moral disposition; concretely, it lies in the purity or disinterestedness and self-legislation as negative and positive freedom in both subjective states of mind. In this scenario, beauty’s (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  38.  12
    The Beauty of the World in Plato’s Timaeus.Dominic O'Meara - 2014 - Schole 8 (1):24-33.
    In the Timaeus Plato describes the world as the ‘most beautiful’ of generated things. Perhaps indeed this is the first systematic description of the beauty of the world. It is, at any rate, one of the most influential statements of the theme. The Stoics were deeply convinced by it and later, in the third century A.D., at a time when contempt and hate for the world were propagated by Gnostic movements, Plotinus, interpreting the Timaeus, would write magnificent passages on (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39. Beauty.Jennifer A. McMahon - 2019 - Oxford Bibliographies Online: Philosophy.
    This is an 18,500 word bibliography of philosophical scholarship on Beauty which was published online in the Oxford Bibliographies Online. The entry includes an Introduction of 800 words, 21 x 400-word sub-themes and 168 annotated references. INTRODUCTION Philosophical interest in beauty began with the earliest recorded philosophers. Beauty was deemed to be an essential ingredient in a good life and so what it was, where it was to be found and how it was to be included in (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  40.  4
    Beauty, Eh? In Defense of Thirding and (Lewisian) Halfing.Randall G. McCutcheon - manuscript
    Parodic earlier draft of "Sleeping Beauty: why violations of probability laws are `Deal' breakers".
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  41.  37
    Sleeping Beauty: Why Violations of Probability Laws Are `Deal' Breakers.Randall G. McCutcheon - manuscript
    Technical criticism of Jacob Ross's "Sleeping Beauty, Countable Additivity and Rational Dilemmas" and Double Halfing.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42. Sleeping Beauty: A Critical Survey.Randall G. McCutcheon - manuscript
    Rambling, largely unreadable survey of the Sleeping Beauty literature.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43.  6
    Death, Beauty, Struggle: Untouchable Women Create the World by Margaret Trawick.Peter Admirand - 2018 - Human Rights Review 19 (4):505-507.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  44.  9
    Beauty in the Darkness: Aesthetic Education in the Ecological Crisis.Ramsey Affifi - 2020 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 54 (4):1126-1138.
    Journal of Philosophy of Education, EarlyView.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  45.  53
    The Beautiful Society.Francis Akpata - 2002 - The Philosophers' Magazine 19 (19):50-51.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46. Beauty and Other Forms of Value. S. Alexander.C. Delisle Burns - 1934 - International Journal of Ethics 44 (2):259-260.
  47.  27
    Beauty and Other Forms of Value.Samuel Alexander - 1933 - New York: Crowell.
  48.  10
    IX.—Beauty and Greatness in Art.S. Alexander - 1930 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 30 (1):205-228.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  49.  87
    Beauty in Science: A New Model of the Role of Aesthetic Evaluations in Science. [REVIEW]Ulianov Montano - 2013 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (2):133-156.
    In Beauty and Revolution in Science, James McAllister advances a rationalistic picture of science in which scientific progress is explained in terms of aesthetic evaluations of scientific theories. Here I present a new model of aesthetic evaluations by revising McAllister’s core idea of the aesthetic induction. I point out that the aesthetic induction suffers from anomalies and theoretical inconsistencies and propose a model free from such problems. The new model is based, on the one hand, on McAllister’s original model (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  50.  1
    Beauty.Lauren Arrington, Zoe Leinhardt & Philip Dawid (eds.) - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    Beauty challenges conventional approaches to the subject through an interdisciplinary approach that forges connections between the arts, sciences and mathematics. Classical, conventional aspects of beauty are addressed in subtle, unexpected ways: symmetry in mathematics, attraction in the animal world and beauty in the cosmos. This collection arises from the Darwin College Lecture Series of 2011 and includes essays from eight distinguished scholars, all of whom are held in esteem not only for their research but also for their (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
1 — 50 / 1000