Results for 'behavior'

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  1. Explaining Behavior: Reasons in a World of Causes.Fred Dretske - 1988 - MIT Press.
    In this lucid portrayal of human behavior, Fred Dretske provides an original account of the way reasons function in the causal explanation of behavior.
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  2.  88
    Linguistic Behaviour.Jonathan Francis Bennett - 1976 - Cambridge University Press.
    First published in 1976, this book presents a view of language as a matter of systematic communicative behaviour.
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  3.  25
    Verbal Behavior.B. F. Skinner - 1957 - Appleton-Century-Crofts.
    Covert behavior may also be strong behavior which cannot be overtly emitted because the proper circumstances are lacking. When we are strongly inclined to go skiing, although there is no snow, we say I would like to go skiing. It is not very  ...
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  4.  39
    Behavior Therapy: Scientific, Philosophical and Moral Foundations.Edward Erwin - 1978 - Cambridge University Press.
    Edward Erwin's clear analysis addresses some of the fundamental questions on behavior therapy that remained in 1978, when this book was first published.
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  5.  11
    Behavior and Mind: The Roots of Modern Psychology.Howard Rachlin - 1994 - Oxford University Press.
    This book attempts to synthesize two apparently contradictory views of psychology: as the science of internal mental mechanisms and as the science of complex external behavior. Most books in the psychology and philosophy of mind reject one approach while championing the other, but Rachlin argues that the two approaches are complementary rather than contradictory. Rejection of either involves disregarding vast sources of information vital to solving pressing human problems--in the areas of addiction, mental illness, education, crime, and decision-making, to (...)
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  6. Movement Behaviours and Anxiety Symptoms in Chinese College Students: A Compositional Data Analysis.Luomeng Chao, Rui Ma & Weiwei Jiang - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    In the current research, sleep duration, sedentary behaviour, physical activity, and their relationship with several anxiety symptoms among college students were examined. This study was a cross-sectional study, and study respondents were recruited from college students. A total of 1,475 of college students were included for analysis. Sedentary behaviours and physical activity were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form, while sleep duration was assessed by the Chinese version Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. To assess the anxiety symptoms of (...)
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  7.  9
    Rational Behaviour and Bargaining Equilibrium in Games and Social Situations.John C. Harsanyi - 1977 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is a paperback edition of a major contribution to the field, first published in hard covers in 1977. The book outlines a general theory of rational behaviour consisting of individual decision theory, ethics, and game theory as its main branches. Decision theory deals with a rational pursuit of individual utility; ethics with a rational pursuit of the common interests of society; and game theory with an interaction of two or more rational individuals, each pursuing his own interests in a (...)
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  8.  8
    Philosophies of Social Behavior Research: Meta-Analytic Review.Vardgues Pogosyan - 2018 - Wisdom 11 (2):85-92.
    This essay addresses critical and cohesive research philosophies regarding social theory in an effort to increase awareness thereof social changes as well as considers the features of social behaviour through the prism of various methodological approaches. Using logical and comparative methods, the author analyzes the adequacy of the theoretical and philosophical foundations of the concept of social action for the modern situation. The circumstances that contribute to the structuring of social actions, as well as the relationship of social changes with (...)
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  9.  88
    Behavior, Purpose and Teleology.Arturo Rosenblueth, Norbert Wiener & Julian Bigelow - 1943 - Philosophy of Science 10 (1):18-24.
    This essay has two goals. The first is to define the behavioristic study of natural events and to classify behavior. The second is to stress the importance of the concept of purpose.Given any object, relatively abstracted from its surroundings for study, the behavioristic approach consists in the examination of the output of the object and of the relations of this output to the input. By output is meant any change produced in the surroundings by the object. By input, conversely, (...)
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  10.  29
    Explaining Behaviour: Reasons in a World of Causes.Andy Clark - 1990 - Philosophical Quarterly 40 (158):95-102.
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  11. Behavior Matching in Multimodal Communication is Synchronized.Max M. Louwerse, Rick Dale, Ellen G. Bard & Patrick Jeuniaux - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (8):1404-1426.
    A variety of theoretical frameworks predict the resemblance of behaviors between two people engaged in communication, in the form of coordination, mimicry, or alignment. However, little is known about the time course of the behavior matching, even though there is evidence that dyads synchronize oscillatory motions (e.g., postural sway). This study examined the temporal structure of nonoscillatory actions—language, facial, and gestural behaviors—produced during a route communication task. The focus was the temporal relationship between matching behaviors in the interlocutors (e.g., (...)
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  12. Behavior Genetics and Postgenomics.Evan Charney - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (5):331-358.
    The science of genetics is undergoing a paradigm shift. Recent discoveries, including the activity of retrotransposons, the extent of copy number variations, somatic and chromosomal mosaicism, and the nature of the epigenome as a regulator of DNA expressivity, are challenging a series of dogmas concerning the nature of the genome and the relationship between genotype and phenotype. According to three widely held dogmas, DNA is the unchanging template of heredity, is identical in all the cells and tissues of the body, (...)
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  13.  6
    See Also Perspective Taking Differential Ability Scales (DAS), 200 Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD), 72, 155 Distal Cause, 323, 332–333, 338, 343, 346–. [REVIEW]Child Behavior Checklist Cbc - 2003 - In B. Repacholi & V. Slaughter (eds.), Individual Differences in Theory of Mind: Implications for Typical and Atypical Development. Hove, E. Sussex: Psychology Press. pp. 363.
  14. Behavior Change or Empowerment: On the Ethics of Health-Promotion Strategies. [REVIEW]P. -A. Tengland - 2012 - Public Health Ethics 5 (2):140-153.
    There are several strategies to promote health in individuals and populations. Two general approaches to health promotion are behavior change and empowerment. The aim of this article is to present those two kinds of strategies, and show that the behavior-change approach has some moral problems, problems that the empowerment approach (on the whole) is better at handling. Two distinct ‘ideal types’ of these practices are presented and scrutinized. Behavior change interventions use various kinds of theories to target (...)
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  15.  15
    Explaining Behavior: Bringing the Brain Back In.S. Skarda - 1986 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 29 (June):187-201.
    What is needed today is a biologically grounded explanation of behavior, one that moves beyond the so?called mind?body problem. Yet no solution will be found by philosophers who refuse to learn about how brains and bodies work, or by neuroscientists pursuing experimental research based on outmoded or blatantly anti?biological theories. Churchland's book proposes a solution: to come by a unified theory of the mind?brain philosophers have to work together with neuroscientists. Yet Churchland's vision of a unified theory is based (...)
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  16.  24
    The Behavioural Constellation of Deprivation: Causes and Consequences.Gillian V. Pepper & Daniel Nettle - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40:1-72.
    Socioeconomic differences in behaviour are pervasive and well documented, but their causes are not yet well understood. Here, we make the case that a cluster of behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status, which we call “the behavioural constellation of deprivation.” We propose that the relatively limited control associated with lower SES curtails the extent to which people can expect to realise deferred rewards, leading to more present-oriented behaviour in a range of domains. We illustrate this idea using the specific (...)
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  17.  71
    Language and Human Behavior.Derek Bickerton - 1995 - Seattle: University Washington Press.
    According to Bickerton, the behavioral sciences have failed to give an adequate account of human nature at least partly because of the conjunction and mutual reinforcement of two widespread beliefs: that language is simply a means of communication and that human intelligence is the result of the rapid growth and unusual size of human brains. Bickerton argues that each of the properties distinguishing human intelligence and consciousness from that of other animals can be shown to derive straightforwardly from properties of (...)
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  18.  4
    Disobedient Institutional Behavior.Vojtěch Zachník - 2022 - Journal of Social Ontology 8 (1):94-117.
    The paper aims to explain different cases of disobedient institutional behavior using the attitude-based model. The issue of how to analyze and capture the faces of disobedience in a simple model is approached in three steps: first, misbehavior is defined as a certain lack in normative attitudes; second, these attitudes are distinguished in terms of normative acceptance and normative guidance; and third, combinations of these attitudes represent basic types of disobedience: opposing, transgressing and conforming. These three categories constitute an (...)
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  19. Ethical Behavior of Marketing Managers.David J. Fritzsche & Helmut Becker - 1983 - Journal of Business Ethics 2 (4):291 - 299.
    The ethical behavior of marketing managers was examined by analyzing their responses to a series of different types of ethical dilemmas presented in vignette form. The ethical dilemmas addressed dealt with the issues of (1) coercion and control, (2) conflict of interest, (3) the physical environment, (4) paternalism, and (5) personal integrity. Responses were analyzed to discover whether managers' behavior varied by type of issue faced or whether there is some continuity to ethical behavior which transcends the (...)
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  20. The Natural Behavior Debate: Two Conceptions of Animal Welfare.Heather Browning - 2020 - Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 23 (3):325-337.
    The performance of natural behavior is commonly used as a criterion in the determination of animal welfare. This is still true, despite many authors having demonstrated that it is not a necessary component of welfare – some natural behaviors may decrease welfare, while some unnatural behaviors increase it. Here I analyze why this idea persists, and what effects it may have. I argue that the disagreement underlying this debate on natural behavior is not one about which conditions affect (...)
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  21. Explaining Behaviour.F. Dretske - 1993 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (1):157-165.
     
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  22. Behavior, Cognition and Theories of Choice.Hugh M. Lacey - 1978 - Behavior and Philosophy 6 (2):177.
    Critics have argued that behaviorism must necessarily be inadequate to account for complex human behavior whereas cognitive psychology is adequate to account for such behavior. Recently, Fodor has focused this criticism on certain situations in which humans choose among a set of alternatives. We argue that this criticism applies to forms of behaviorism that are reductionistic but not to non-reductionistic behaviorisms like that of Skinner. Non-reductionistic behaviorism can be used to interpret human choice situations of varying degrees of (...)
     
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  23.  16
    Linguistic Behaviour.Charles E. Caton - 1978 - Philosophical Review 87 (3):468.
  24. Is Behavioural Flexibility Evidence of Cognitive Complexity? How Evolution Can Inform Comparative Cognition.Irina Mikhalevich, Russell Powell & Corina Logan - 2017 - Interface Focus 7.
    Behavioural flexibility is often treated as the gold standard of evidence for more sophisticated or complex forms of animal cognition, such as planning, metacognition and mindreading. However, the evidential link between behavioural flexibility and complex cognition has not been explicitly or systematically defended. Such a defence is particularly pressing because observed flexible behaviours can frequently be explained by putatively simpler cognitive mechanisms. This leaves complex cognition hypotheses open to ‘deflationary’ challenges that are accorded greater evidential weight precisely because they offer (...)
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  25.  53
    Behavioural Artificial Intelligence: An Agenda for Systematic Empirical Studies of Artificial Inference.Tore Pedersen & Christian Johansen - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):519-532.
    Artificial intelligence receives attention in media as well as in academe and business. In media coverage and reporting, AI is predominantly described in contrasted terms, either as the ultimate solution to all human problems or the ultimate threat to all human existence. In academe, the focus of computer scientists is on developing systems that function, whereas philosophy scholars theorize about the implications of this functionality for human life. In the interface between technology and philosophy there is, however, one imperative aspect (...)
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  26.  47
    Genes, Behavior, and Developmental Emergentism: One Process, Indivisible?Kenneth F. Schaffner - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (2):209-252.
    The question of the influence of genes on behavior raises difficult philosophical and social issues. In this paper I delineate what I call the Developmentalist Challenge (DC) to assertions of genetic influence on behavior, and then examine the DC through an indepth analysis of the behavioral genetics of the nematode, C. elegans, with some briefer references to work on Drosophila. I argue that eight "rules" relating genes and behavior through environmentally-influenced and tangled neural nets capture the results (...)
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  27.  49
    Ethical Behavior Among Marketing Researchers: An Assessment of Selected Demographic Characteristics. [REVIEW]S. W. Kelley, O. C. Ferrell & S. J. Skinner - 1990 - Journal of Business Ethics 9 (8):681 - 688.
    This study considers the relationship between perceptions of ethical behavior and the demographic characteristics of sex, age, education level, job title, and job tenure among a sample of marketing researchers. The findings of this study indicate that female marketing researchers, older marketing researchers, and marketing researchers holding their present job for ten years or more generally rate their behavior as more ethical.
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  28.  80
    Hypnotic Behavior: A Social-Psychological Interpretation of Amnesia, Analgesia, and “Trance Logic”.Nicholas P. Spanos - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (3):449-467.
  29. How the Mind Explains Behavior: Folk Explanations, Meaning, and Social Interaction.Bertram F. Malle - 2004 - MIT Press.
    In this provocative monograph, Bertram Malle describes behavior explanations as having a dual nature -- as being both cognitive and social acts -- and proposes...
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  30.  41
    Verbal Behavior and Problem Solving: Some Effects of Labeling in a Functional Fixedness Problem.Sam Glucksberg & Robert W. Weisberg - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (5):659.
  31.  50
    Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort. An Introduction to Human Ecology. George K. Zipf.Svend Riemer - 1950 - Philosophy of Science 17 (2):204-205.
  32.  66
    Ethical Behaviours in Organizations: Directed by the Formal or Informal Systems? [REVIEW]Loren Falkenberg & Irene Herremans - 1995 - Journal of Business Ethics 14 (2):133 - 143.
    Past research has focused on individual culpability with the assumption that individuals will further their own self interest over that of the organization, given an appropriate opportunity. In contrast, this research shifts the focus from individual motivation to the influence of the formal and informal control systems of organizations on ethical behaviours. An open-ended interview approach was used to collect data. It was found that pressures within the informal system were the dominant influence in the resolution of ethical issues. The (...)
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  33.  33
    Deviant Behavior in a Moderated-Mediation Framework of Incentives, Organizational Justice Perception, and Reward Expectancy.Yehuda Baruch & Shandana Shoaib - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 157 (3):617-633.
    This study introduces the concept of deviant behavior in a moderated-mediation framework of incentives and organizational justice perception. The proposed relationships in the theoretical framework were tested with a sample of 311 academics, using simple random sampling, via causal models and structural equation modeling. The findings suggest that incentives might boost the apparent performance, but not necessarily the intended performance. The results confirm that employees’ affection for incentives has direct, indirect, and conditional indirect effects on their deviant behavior (...)
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  34.  55
    Dividends Behavior in State- Versus Family-Controlled Firms: Evidence From Hong Kong. [REVIEW]Tina T. He, Wilson X. B. Li & Gordon Y. N. Tang - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 110 (1):97-112.
    This study comparatively examines the dividends behavior in state-controlled firms versus family-controlled firms. With the sample of large industrial firms listed on the Main Board of Hong Kong Stock Exchange, we investigate the dividends payment rates, stability of dividends payment, the effects of firm size, profitability and growth opportunity on likelihood to pay dividends, as well as the concentration of dividend in state-controlled versus family-controlled firms. Based on the findings, we derive some ethical implications of dividends policy regarding the (...)
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  35. The Expression of Dispositional Behavior and Psychological Attitudes in the Context of Social Risk.Srbuhi Gevorgyan, Vladimir Karapetyan, Mariam Ispiryan & Alla Dallakyan - 2022 - Wisdom 23 (3):38-46.
    The aim of the research is to reveal the distribution of psychological attitudes of risk specialists according to the structural-operational components of the activity, to reveal the expression of social-psychological attitudes of self-confidence observed in specific situations with six-month changes, to review the connection among needs, situations and unconscious actions. Structural similarities of a person’s dispositional behavior and psychological attitudes are considered by us in terms of requirement, situation and unconscious actions. In a given social situation, the content of (...)
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  36.  18
    Signing Behavior in Apes: A Critical Review.Mark S. Seidenberg & Laura A. Petitto - 1979 - Cognition 7 (2):177-215.
  37.  17
    Sustained Behavior Under Delayed Reinforcement.Charles B. Ferster - 1953 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 45 (4):218.
  38.  62
    How Adaptive Behavior is Produced: A Perceptual-Motivational Alternative to Response Reinforcements.Dalbir Bindra - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (1):41-52.
  39.  9
    Operant Behavior as Adaptation to Constraint.J. E. Staddon - 1979 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 108 (1):48-67.
  40.  91
    Foul Behavior.Victor Kumar - 2017 - Philosophers' Imprint 17.
    Disgust originated as an evolutionary adaptation for avoiding disease, but it has since infiltrated morality. Many philosophers are skeptical of moral disgust. Skeptics argue that disgust is unreliable and harmful, and that we should eliminate or minimize feelings of disgust in moral thought. However, these arguments are unsuccessful. They do not show that disgust is more problematic than other emotions implicated in morality. Moreover, empirical research suggests that disgust supports important norms and values. Disgust is frequently elicited by “reciprocity violations,” (...)
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  41.  17
    Behavior of the Lower Organisms.H. S. Jennings - 1906 - Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 3 (24):658-666.
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  42. Hardwired Behavior: What Neuroscience Reveals About Morality.Laurence Tancredi - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book explores the impact of neuroscience research over the past 20 or more years on brain function as it affects moral decisions. Findings show that the mind and brain are very close, if not the same, and that the brain 'makes' the mind. This is bringing about a change of focus from examining mental activity to the physical activity of the brain to understand thinking and behavior. We are discovering that the physical features of the brain play the (...)
     
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  43.  74
    Collective Behavior.Robert L. Goldstone & Todd M. Gureckis - 2009 - Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (3):412-438.
  44.  83
    Unethical Behavior in Information Systems: The Gender Factor. [REVIEW]Deepak Khazanchi - 1995 - Journal of Business Ethics 14 (9):741 - 749.
    This article reports the findings of a survey examining whether gender differences influence the degree to which individuals recognize unethical conduct in the use and development of information technology. The results show that, on the average, there is a significant gender gap in the recognition of unethical behavior in information systems. Although, women are better able to recognize unethical actions described in information systems scenarios than men, the existence of statistically significant differences varies depending upon the nature of the (...)
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  45.  2
    The Explanation of Behaviour.Charles Taylor - 2021 - Routledge.
    The Explanation of Behaviour was the first book written by the renowned philosopher Charles Taylor. A vitally important work of philosophical anthropology, it is a devastating criticism of the theory of behaviourism, a powerful explanatory approach in psychology and philosophy when Taylor's book was first published. However, Taylor has far more to offer than a simple critique of behaviourism. He argues that in order to properly understand human beings, we must grasp that they are embodied, minded creatures with purposes, plans (...)
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  46.  31
    The Behavioural Effects of Corporate Ethical Codes: Empirical Findings and Discussion.Einar Marnburg - 2000 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 9 (3):200–210.
    The use of corporate ethical codes has been increasing. It is argued that the use of ethical codes solely as an instrument in a company’s image management is morally questionable. Therefore, the introduction and use of ethical codes must have the intention of achieving behavioural change or the maintenance of already superior behaviour. This change or superior behaviour may apply to ethics in general, but also to the different sub‐structures of ethics, namely the areas of reliability ethics, human ethics, capability (...)
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  47.  10
    Animal Behavior, Population Biology and the Modern Synthesis.Jean-Baptiste Grodwohl - 2019 - Journal of the History of Biology 52 (4):597-633.
    This paper examines the history of animal behavior studies after the synthesis period. Three episodes are considered: the adoption of the theory of natural selection, the mathematization of ideas, and the spread of molecular methods in behavior studies. In these three episodes, students of behavior adopted practices and standards developed in population ecology and population genetics. While they borrowed tools and methods from these fields, they made distinct uses that set them relatively apart and led them to (...)
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  48. Does Consciousness Cause Behaviour?Susan Pockett - 2004 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 11 (2):23-40.
  49.  44
    Behavioural Deception and Formal Models of Communication.Gregory McWhirter - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (3):757-780.
    Having a satisfactory definition of behavioural deception is important for understanding several types of evolutionary questions. No definition offered in the literature so far is adequate on all fronts. After identifying characteristics that are important for a definition, a new definition of behavioural deception is offered. The new definition, like some other proposed attempts, relies on formal game-theoretic models of signalling. Unlike others, it incorporates explicit consideration of the population in which the potentially deceptive interactions occur. The general structure of (...)
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  50.  84
    Environmental Behavior of Youth and Sustainable Development.Anna Shutaleva, Nikita Martyushev, Zhanna Nikonova, Irina Savchenko, Sophya Abramova, Vladlena Lubimova & Anastasia Novgorodtseva - 2022 - Sustainability 14 (1):250.
    The relationship between people and nature is one of the most important current issues of human survival. This circumstance makes it necessary to educate young people who are receptive to global challenges and ready to solve the urgent problems of our time. The purpose of the article is to analyze the experience of the environmental behavior of young people in the metropolis. The authors studied articles and monographs that contain Russian and international experience in the environmental behavior of (...)
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