Results for 'behavior genetics'

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  1.  14
    Building causal knowledge in behavior genetics.James W. Madole & K. Paige Harden - 2023 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 46:e182.
    Behavior genetics is a controversial science. For decades, scholars have sought to understand the role of heredity in human behavior and life-course outcomes. Recently, technological advances and the rapid expansion of genomic databases have facilitated the discovery of genes associated with human phenotypes such as educational attainment and substance use disorders. To maximize the potential of this flourishing science, and to minimize potential harms, careful analysis of what it would mean for genes to be causes of human (...)
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  2. Behavior genetics and postgenomics.Evan Charney - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (5):331-358.
    The science of genetics is undergoing a paradigm shift. Recent discoveries, including the activity of retrotransposons, the extent of copy number variations, somatic and chromosomal mosaicism, and the nature of the epigenome as a regulator of DNA expressivity, are challenging a series of dogmas concerning the nature of the genome and the relationship between genotype and phenotype. According to three widely held dogmas, DNA is the unchanging template of heredity, is identical in all the cells and tissues of the (...)
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  3.  62
    Behavioural Genetics: Why Eugenic Selection is Preferable to Enhancement.Julian Savulescu, Melanie Hemsley, Ainsley Newson & Bennett Foddy - 2006 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (2):157-171.
    Criminal behaviour is but one behavioural tendency for which a genetic influence has been suggested. Whilst this research certainly raises difficult ethical questions and is subject to scientific criticism, one recent research project suggests that for some families, criminal tendency might be predicted by genetics. In this paper, supposing this research is valid, we consider whether intervening in the criminal tendency of future children is ethically justifiable. We argue that, if avoidance of harm is a paramount consideration, such an (...)
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  4.  4
    Behavior genetics: Causality as a dialectical pursuit.Livio Tarchi, Giuseppe Pierpaolo Merola, Giovanni Castellini & Valdo Ricca - 2023 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 46:e203.
    The overarching theme of causality in behavioral genetics is discussed on epistemological grounds. Evidence is offered in favor of a continuum spectrum in causality, in contrast to discrimination between causal factors and associations. The risk of invalidating exploratory studies in behavior genetics is discussed, especially for the potential impact on those fields of medicine interested in complex behaviors.
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  5.  17
    Behavior Genetics and Agent Responsibility.Wendy Johnson, Rüdiger Bittner & Joachim Wündisch - 2019 - Zeitschrift Für Ethik Und Moralphilosophie 2 (1):21-34.
    Recent evidence from psychological science and genetics suggests that genetic influences underlie all behavior as well as the most worrisome social inequalities. This may be considered to call into question traditional conceptions of agency and agent responsibility. They could be thought to be undermined if gene-environment transactions were sufficiently potent in influencing behaviors. Here we identify the theoretical parameters that require investigation and the conceptual challenges to agent responsibility that arise from research in behavior genetics. We (...)
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  6.  43
    Behavioural Genetics in Criminal Cases: Past, Present and Future.Nita Farahany & William Bernet - 2006 - Genomics, Society and Policy 2 (1):72-79.
    Researchers studying human behavioral genetics have made significant scientific progress in enhancing our understanding of the relative contributions of genetics and the environment in observed variations in human behavior. Quickly outpacing the advances in the science are its applications in the criminal justice system. Already, human behavioral genetics research has been introduced in the U.S. criminal justice system, and its use will only become more prevalent. This essay discusses the recent historical use of behavioral genetics (...)
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  7.  22
    Behavior Genetic Frameworks of Causal Reasoning for Personality Psychology.Daniel Briley, Jonathan Livengood & Jaime Derringer - 2018 - European Journal of Personality 32 (3).
    Identifying causal relations from correlational data is a fundamental challenge in personality psychology. In most cases, random assignment is not feasible, leaving observational studies as the primary methodological tool. Here, we document several techniques from behavior genetics that attempt to demonstrate causality. Although no one method is conclusive at ruling out all possible confounds, combining techniques can triangulate on causal relations. Behavior genetic tools leverage information gained by sampling pairs of individuals with assumed genetic and environmental relatedness (...)
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  8.  23
    Behavior genetics and randomized controlled trials: A misleading analogy.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Kevin Andrew Bird - 2023 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 46:e193.
    Madole & Harden argue that just as the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) represent gains in causal knowledge and are useful, despite their limitations, so too are the findings of human behavior genetics. We argue that this analogy is misleading. Unlike RCTs, the results of human behavior genetics research cannot suggest efficacious interventions, nor point toward future research.
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  9.  13
    Human behavioural genetics of cognitive abilities and disabilities.Robert Plomin & Ian Craig - 1997 - Bioessays 19 (12):1117-1124.
    Although neither the genome nor the environment can be manipulated in research on human behaviour, some of the new tools of molecular genetics can be brought to bear on human behavioural disorders (e.g. cognitive disabilities) and quantitative traits (e.g. cognitive abilities). The inability to manipulate the human genome experimentally has had the positive effect of focusing attention on naturally occuring genetic variation responsible for behavioural differences among individuals in all their complex multifactorial splendour. Genes in such complex multiple‐gene systems (...)
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  10.  13
    Presenting behavioural genetics: spin, ideology, and our narrative interests.N. C. Manson - 2004 - Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (6):601-604.
    A short review is given of the Nuffield Council’s report on behavioural genetics. This review is used as an entry point to a discussion of the factors that influence the presentation of behavioural genetics in the media and in the popular scientific press. It is argued that our interest in formulating narrative explanations of our individual lives puts pressure on publishers and editors to present behavioural genetics in a selective, misleading, way. Some other influences on presentation are (...)
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  11.  8
    Building causal knowledge in behavior genetics without racial/ethnic diversity will result in weak causal knowledge.Moin Syed - 2023 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 46:e202.
    Behavior genetics often emphasizes methods over the underlying quality of the psychological information to which the methods are applied. A core aspect of this quality is the demographic diversity of the samples. Building causal genetic models based only on European-ancestry samples compromises their generalizability. Behavior genetics researchers must spend additional time and resources diversifying their samples before emphasizing causation.
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  12.  59
    Behavioural genetics: Why eugenic selection is preferable to enhancement.Julian Savulescu, Melanie Hemsley & Ainsley Newson Andbennett Foddy - 2006 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (2):157–171.
    We consider whether intervening in the criminal tendency of future children is ethically justifiable. We argue that, if avoidance of.
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  13.  9
    Behavior genetics.S. A. Barnett - 1961 - The Eugenics Review 53 (1):45.
  14.  11
    Behavioural Genetics.Julian K. Christians - 2005 - Bioessays 27 (6):664-666.
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  15.  20
    Behavior-genetic analysis versus ontogenetic imperialism.Jerry Hirsch - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (4):635-636.
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  16.  15
    Behavior genetics moves beyond percentages – at last.Robert J. Sternberg - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (1):40-40.
  17.  34
    Bias in behaviour genetics: An ecological perspective.Wim J. van der Steen - 1998 - Acta Biotheoretica 46 (4):369-377.
    Research in behaviour genetics uncovers causes of behaviour at the population level. For inferences about individuals we also need to know how genes and the environment affect phenotypes. Behaviour genetics fosters a biased view of individual behaviour since it identifies the environment with psychosocial factors and disregards ecology.
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  18.  80
    The nature and significance of behavioural genetic information.Ainsley Newson - 2004 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 25 (2):89-111.
    In light of the human genome project, establishing the genetic aetiology of complex human diseases has become a research priority within Western medicine. However, in addition to the identification of disease genes, numerous research projects are also being undertaken to identify genes contributing to the development of human behavioural characteristics, such as cognitive ability and criminal tendency. The permissibility of this research is obviously controversial: will society benefit from this research, or will it adversely affect our conceptions of ourselves and (...)
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  19.  47
    My Genes Made Me Do It? The Implications of Behavioural Genetics for Responsibility and Blame.Mairi Levitt & Neil Manson - 2007 - Health Care Analysis 15 (1):33-40.
    The idea of individual responsibility for action is central to our conception of what it is to be a person. Behavioural genetic research may seem to call into question the idea of individual responsibility with possible implications for the criminal justice system. These implications will depend on the understandings of the various agencies and professional groups involved in responding to violent and anti-social behaviour, and, the result of negotiations between them over resulting practice. The paper considers two kinds of approaches (...)
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  20.  41
    Heritability estimates in behavior genetics: Wasn't that station passed long ago?Wim E. Crusio - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (5):361-362.
    Charney describes several mechanisms that will bias estimates of heritability in unpredictable directions. In addition, the mechanisms described by Charney explain the puzzling fact that research in human-behavior genetics routinely reports higher heritabilities than animal studies do. However, I argue that the concept of heritability has no real place in human research anyway.
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  21.  11
    Behavioural genetics and risk of 'criminality' : Commentary.Mairi Levitt - 2006 - .
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  22. Behavior genetics: psychological aspect. М.M. S. Egorova - forthcoming - Logos. Anales Del Seminario de Metafísica [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, España].
     
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  23. Genopolitics : Behavioural Genetics and the End of Politics.Martin G. Weiss - 2016 - In Sergei Prozorov & Simona Rentea (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Biopolitics. New York, NY: Routledge.
     
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  24.  10
    A cultural evolutionary behavior genetics will need a more sophisticated conceptualization of cultural traits.Moin Syed & Phuong Linh L. Nguyen - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45:e176.
    A framework that brings together cultural perspectives and behavior genetics has long been needed. To be successful, however, we need sophistication in the conceptualization of culture. Here, we highlight three imperatives to this end: the need for a clear definition of cultural traits, inclusion of the role of societal power, and recognizing the distinction between traits and characteristic adaptations.
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  25.  21
    Causal dispositionalism in behaviour genetics.María Cerezo - 2023 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 46:e188.
    Causal dispositionalism developed in metaphysics of science offers a useful tool to conceptualize shallow causes in behaviour genetics, in a way such that (a) it accounts for complex aetiology and heterogeneity of effects, and (b) genetic causal contribution can be considered to be explanatory. Genes are thus causal powers that make a difference.
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  26.  55
    Field Analysis and Interdisciplinary Science: Scientific Capital Exchange in Behavior Genetics.Aaron L. Panofsky - 2011 - Minerva 49 (3):295-316.
    This paper uses Pierre Bourdieu’s field theory to develop tools for analyzing interdisciplinary scientific fields. Interdisciplinary fields are scientific spaces where no single form of scientific capital has a monopoly and therefore multiple forms of scientific capital constitute the structures and stakes of scientific competition. Scientists compete to accumulate and define forms of scientific capital and also to set the rates of exchange between them. The paper illustrates this framework by applying it to the interdisciplinary field of behavior (...). Most behavior geneticists envision their participation in the field as a means to compete for scientific capital in other fields. However, the scientific capital of behavior genetics has different values for scientists attempting to deploy it in different neighboring fields. These values depend on situations in each field and the ways behavior genetics mediates relationships among them. The pattern of relationships of exchange helps explain the social hierarchy and several features of knowledge production within behavior genetics. (shrink)
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  27.  12
    Cultural evolution and behavior genetic modeling: The long view of time.Kristian E. Markon, Robert F. Krueger & Susan C. South - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45:e170.
    We advocate for an integrative long-term perspective on time, noting that culture changes on timescales amenable to behavioral genetic study with appropriate design and modeling extensions. We note the need for replications of behavioral genetic studies to examine model invariance across long-term timescales, which would afford examination of specified as well as unspecified cultural moderators of behavioral genetic effects.
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  28.  9
    Cultural evolutionary theory is not enough: Ambiguous culture, neglect of structure, and the absence of theory in behavior genetics.Callie H. Burt - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45:e157.
    Uchiyama et al. propose a unified model linking cultural evolutionary theory to behavior genetics (BG) to enhance generalizability, enrich explanation, and predict how social factors shape heritability estimates. A consideration of culture evolution is beneficial but insufficient for purpose. I submit that their proposed model is underdeveloped and their emphasis on heritability estimates misguided. I discuss their ambiguous conception of culture, neglect of social structure, and the lack of a general theory in BG.
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  29.  24
    Estimating heritabilities in quantitative behavior genetics: A station passed.Wim E. Crusio - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1):127-128.
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  30.  5
    More than 15 years of human behaviour genetic research at the University of Warsaw.Wlodzimierz Oniszczenko - 2009 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 40 (3):117-120.
    More than 15 years of human behaviour genetic research at the University of Warsaw Human behaviour genetic research has been conducted at the University of Warsaw for more than 15 years. The main focus of this work have been the origins of individual differences in temperament and other personality traits. Other areas of interest include attitudes, risk factors for human health, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The majority of the research is conducted using quantitative genetic methods although recently work using molecular (...)
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  31.  24
    Galton Lecture: Behaviour genetic studies of intelligence, yesterday and today: the long journey from plausibility to proof.Thomas J. Bouchard - 1996 - Journal of Biosocial Science 28 (4):527-555.
  32.  44
    Some misunderstandings and misinterpretations about sociobiology and behavior genetics in lifelines by Steven rose.Stephen C. Maxson - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):898-899.
    Lifelines by Steven Rose is supposed to present a new perspective on biology replacing an emphasis on genes with one on organisms. However, much of the book is a highly biased critique of sociobiology and behavior genetics. Some of the flaws in Rose's description and depiction of these fields are presented and refuted. Also, it would appear that these aspects of the book and many others are, in fact, related more to Rose's perennial concern for the ideology, social (...)
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  33.  65
    A developmental science commentary on Charney's “Behavior genetics and postgenomics”.George F. Michel - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (5):371-372.
    Charney's target article convincingly demonstrates the need for the discipline of quantitative human behavior genetics to discard its false assumptions and to employ the techniques, assumptions, and research program characteristic of modern developmental psychobiology.
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  34.  40
    Comentarios sobre "Demographic Behaviour and Behaviour Genetics o Comportement démographique et génetique du comportement", de Atam Vetta y Daniel Courgeau.Viviana Masciadri - 2006 - Astrolabio: Nueva Época 2.
    Comentarios sobre "Demographic Behaviour and Behaviour Genetics o Comportement démographique et génetique du comportement", de Atam Vetta y Daniel Courgeau*.
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  35.  50
    Implications for behavior genetics research: No shared environment left?Dorret I. Boomsma & Peter C. M. Molenaar - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (3):389-389.
  36.  47
    Galton's Quincunx: Probabilistic causation in developmental behavior genetics.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Eric Turkheimer - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 88 (C):60-69.
  37.  5
    Interpreting and reinterpreting heritability estimates in educational behavior genetics.Sally A. Larsen - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45:e168.
    Interpreting heritability estimates through the lens of cultural evolution presents two broad and interlinking problems for educational behavior genetics. First, the problem of interpreting high heritability of educational phenotypes as indicators of the genetic basis of traits, when these findings also reflect cultural homogeneity. Second, the problem of extrapolating from genetic research findings in education to policy and practice recommendations.
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  38.  9
    Causal complexity in human research: On the shared challenges of behavior genetics, medical genetics, and environmentally oriented social science.James W. Madole & K. Paige Harden - 2023 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 46:e206.
    We received 23 spirited commentaries on our target article from across the disciplines of philosophy, economics, evolutionary genetics, molecular biology, criminology, epidemiology, and law. We organize our reply around three overarching questions: (1) What is a cause? (2) How are randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and within-family genome-wide association studies (GWASs) alike and unalike? (3) Is behavior genetics a qualitatively different enterprise? Throughout our discussion of these questions, we advocate for the idea that behavior genetics shares (...)
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  39.  7
    Addressing genetic essentialism: Sharpening context in behavior genetics.Brian Byrne & Richard K. Olson - 2023 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 46:e187.
    Evidence of a causal role for genes in human behavior underpins genetic essentialism, the scientifically flawed and socially hazardous idea that heritable characteristics are immutable. Behavior geneticists can challenge this idea by designing research that brings the contextual dependence of heritability estimates into sharper focus, and by incorporating a relevant statement into research reports and public outreach.
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  40.  28
    Estimating the actual subject-specific genetic correlations in behavior genetics.Peter C. M. Molenaar - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (5):373-374.
    Generalization of the standard behavior longitudinal genetic factor model for the analysis of interindividual phenotypic variation to a genetic state space model for the analysis of intraindividual variation enables the possibility to estimate subject-specific heritabilities.
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  41.  10
    Manipulation: ethical boundaries of medical, behavioural & genetic manipulation.Bernhard Häring - 1975 - Slough: St Paul Publications.
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  42.  7
    Cultural dynamics add multiple layers of complexity to behavioural genetics.Laurel Fogarty & Nicole Creanza - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45:e161.
    As emphasized in early cultural evolutionary theory, understanding heritability of human traits – especially, behavioural traits – is difficult. The target article describes important ways that culture can enhance, or obscure, signatures of heritability in genetic studies. Here, we discuss the utility of calculating heritability for behavioural traits influenced by cultural evolution and point to conceptual and technical complications to consider in future models.
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  43.  19
    Attachment: A view from evolutionary biology and behavior genetics.Daniel Pérusse - 1992 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (3):521-522.
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  44.  15
    Genetic effects on “environmental” measures: Consequences for behavior-genetic analysis.Wim E. Crusio - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (3):393-393.
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  45.  49
    Genetics and Criminal Behavior.David Wasserman & Robert Wachbroit (eds.) - 2001 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this 2001 volume a group of leading philosophers address some of the basic conceptual, methodological and ethical issues raised by genetic research into criminal behavior. The essays explore the complexities of tracing any genetic influence on criminal, violent or antisocial behavior; the varieties of interpretations to which evidence of such influences is subject; and the relevance of such influences to the moral and legal appraisal of criminal conduct. The distinctive features of this collection are: first, that it (...)
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  46.  48
    Evolutionary Systems and Society, Vilmos Csanyi, Professor of Ethology and Behavior Genetics, Lorand Eotvos University, Budapest, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1989. 304 pp. $49.50 (cloth). [REVIEW]David Loye, Peter Saunders, Eric Chaisson, Rod Swenson & Michael Ghiselin - 1991 - World Futures 30 (3):191-206.
    (1991). Evolutionary Systems and Society, Vilmos Csányi, Professor of Ethology and Behavior Genetics, Lorand Eotvos University, Budapest, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1989. 304 pp. $49.50 (cloth). World Futures: Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 191-206.
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  47.  12
    Flechsig's rule and quantitative behavior genetics.H. -P. Lipp - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1):139-140.
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  48. Some Dark Sides of Interdisciplinarity : The Case of Behavior Genetics.Aaron Panofsky - 2017 - In Scott Frickel, Mathieu Albert & Barbara Prainsack (eds.), Investigating interdisciplinary collaboration: theory and practice across disciplines. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.
     
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  49.  48
    Population genetical musings on suicidal behavior as a common, harmful, heritable mental disorder.Martin Voracek - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):423-424.
    Suicidal behavior is an interesting blank space in Keller & Miller's (K&M's) population genetical account on explaining the existence and persistence of common, harmful, heritable mental disorders. I argue that suicidal behavior is yet another of these disorders. It may well be consistent with all three evolutionary models considered by K&M. (Published Online November 9 2006).
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  50.  7
    Genetic and environmental influences on behavior: Capturing all the interplay.Wendy Johnson - 2007 - Psychological Review 114 (2):423-440.
    Basic quantitative genetic models of human behavioral variation have made clear that individual differences in behavior cannot be understood without acknowledging the importance of genetic influences. Yet these basic models estimate average, population-level genetic and environmental influences, obscuring differences that might exist within the population and masking systematic transactions between specific genetic and environmental influences. This article discusses a newer, more sophisticated and powerful quantitative genetic model that articulates these transactions. Results from this model highlight the ways in which (...)
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