Results for 'biotechnology'

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  1. Biotechnology: An Agricultural Revolution.Public Acceptability of Agricultural Biotechnology - 1995 - In T. B. Mepham, G. A. Tucker & J. Wiseman (eds.), Issues in Agricultural Bioethics. Nottingham University Press.
     
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  2. Biotechnology and Monstrosity: Why We Should Pay Attention to the "Yuk Factor".Mary Midgley - 2000 - Hastings Center Report 30 (5):7-15.
    We find our way in the world partly by means of the discriminatory power of our emotions. The gut sense that something is repugnant or unsavory—the sort of feeling that many now have about various forms of biotechnology—sometimes turns out to be rooted in articulable and legitimate objections, which with time can be spelled out, weighed, and either endorsed or dismissed. But we ought not dismiss the emotional response at the outset as “mere feeling.”.
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  3.  1
    Biotechnology - the Making of a Global Controversy.M. W. Bauer & G. Gaskell (eds.) - 2002 - Cambridge University Press.
    Biotechnology is one of the fastest-growing areas of scientific, technical and industrial innovation and one of the most controversial. As developments have occurred such as genetic test therapies and the breeding of genetically modified food crops, so the public debates have become more heated and grave concerns have been expressed about access to genetic information, labelling of genetically modified foods and human and animal cloning. Across Europe, public opinion has become a crucial factor in the ability of governments and (...)
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  4.  60
    Biotechnology and Naturalness in the Genomics Era: Plotting a Timetable for the Biotechnology Debate. [REVIEW]Hub Zwart - 2009 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (6):505-529.
    Debates on the role of biotechnology in food production are beset with notorious ambiguities. This already applies to the term “biotechnology” itself. Does it refer to the use and modification of living organisms in general, or rather to a specific set of technologies developed quite recently in the form of bioengineering and genetic modification? No less ambiguous are discussions concerning the question to what extent biotechnology must be regarded as “unnatural.” In this article it will be argued (...)
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  5. 'Our Posthuman Future': Biotechnology as a Threat to Human Nature.Francis Fukuyama - 2002 - fsgbooks.
    In a sense, all technology is biotechnology: machines interacting with human organisms. Technology is designed to overcome the frailties and limitations of human beings in a state of nature -- to make us faster, stronger, longer-lived, smarter, happier. And all technology raises questions about its real contribution to human welfare: are our lives really better for the existence of the automobile, television, nuclear power? These questions are ethical and political, as well as medical; and they even reach to the (...)
     
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  6.  30
    How Biotechnology Regulation Sets a Risk/Ethics Boundary.Les Levidow & Susan Carr - 1997 - Agriculture and Human Values 14 (1):29-43.
    In public debate over agricultural biotechnology, at issue hasbeen its self-proclaimed aim of further industrializingagriculture. Using languages of ’risk‘, critics and proponentshave engaged in an implicit ethics debate on the direction oftechnoscientific development. Critics have challenged thebiotechnological R&D agenda for attributing socio-agronomicproblems to genetic deficiencies, while perpetuating the hazardsof intensive monoculture. They diagnosed ominous links betweentechnological dependency and tangible harm from biotechnologyproducts.In response to scientific and public concerns, theEuropean Community enacted precautionary legislation for theintentional release of genetically modified organisms. (...)
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  7.  23
    Biotechnology and the New Right: Neoconservatism's Red Menace.Jonathan D. Moreno & Sam Berger - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (10):7 – 13.
    Although the neoconservative movement has come to dominate American conservatism, this movement has its origins in the old Marxist Left. Communists in their younger days, as the founders of neoconservatism, inverted Marxist doctrine by arguing that moral values and not economic forces were the primary movers of history. Yet the neoconservative critique of biotechnology still borrows heavily from Karl Marx and owes more to the German philosopher Martin Heidegger than to the Scottish philosopher and political economist Adam Smith. Loath (...)
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  8.  10
    The Sanctity of Life in a Brave New World: A Manifesto on Biotechnology and Human Dignity.U. S. A. Council for Biotechnology Policy - 2003 - Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 9 (2):36.
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  9. Biotechnology, Justice and Health.Ruth Faden & Madison Powers - 2013 - Journal of Practical Ethics 1 (1):49-61.
    New biotechnologies have the potential to both dramatically improve human well-being and dramatically widen inequalities in well-being. This paper addresses a question that lies squarely on the fault line of these two claims: When as a matter of justice are societies obligated to include a new biotechnology in a national healthcare system? This question is approached from the standpoint of a twin aim theory of justice, in which social structures, including nation-states, have double-barreled theoretical objectives with regard to human (...)
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  10.  68
    Biotechnology is Not Compatible with Sustainable Agriculture.Martha L. Crouch - 1995 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 8 (2):98-111.
    Biotechnology increases commercialization of food production, which competes with food for home use. Most people in the world grow their own food, and are more secure without the mediation of the market. To the extent that biotechnology enhances market competitiveness, world food security will decrease. This instability will result in a greater gap between rich and poor, increasing poverty of women and children, less ability and incentive to protect the environment, and greater need for militarization to maintain order. (...)
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  11.  21
    Cyborgs, Biotechnologies, and Informatics in Health Care - New Paradigms in Nursing Sciences.Ana Paula Teixeira de Almeida Vieir Monteiro - 2016 - Nursing Philosophy 17 (1):19-27.
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  12.  1
    From Biotechnology to Nanotechnology: What Can We Learn From Earlier Technologies?Michael D. Mehta - 2004 - Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society 24 (1):34-39.
    Using Canada as a case study, this article argues that regulating biotechnology and nanotechnology is made unnecessarily complex and inherently unstable because of a failure to consult the public early and of-ten enough. Furthermore, it is argued that future regulators of nanotechnology may learn valuable lessons from the mistakes made in regulating biotechnology.
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  13.  19
    Biotechnology and Commodification Within Health Care.Mark J. Hanson - 1999 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 24 (3):267 – 287.
    The biotechnology industry's intellectual property claims contribute to a subtle but not insignificant encroachment of commodification within health care. Drawing on the conceptual framework of Margaret Jane Radin, I argue that patent claims on human biological materials may commodify that with which our personhood and individuality is intertwined but that such commodification is broad and incomplete. Patents on nonhuman biological organisms contribute to a more materialistic understanding of them but do not significantly change our relationship to them. The systemic (...)
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  14.  27
    Biotechnology, Ethics, and the Structure of Agriculture.Jeffrey Burkhardt - 1988 - Agriculture and Human Values 5 (3):53-60.
    The “new” agricultural biotechnologies are presently high-priority items on the national research agenda. The promise of increased efficiency and productivity resulting from products and processes derived from biotech is thought to justify the commitment to R&D. Nevertheless, critics challenge the environmental safety as well as political-economic consequences of particular products of biotech, notably, ice-nucleating bacteria and the bovine growth hormone. In this paper the critics' arguments are analyzed in explicitly ethical terms, and assessed as to their relative merits. In some (...)
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  15.  36
    Biotechnology is Compatible with Sustainable Agriculture.Donald N. Duvick - 1995 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 8 (2):112-125.
    Biotechnology can provide appropriate new tools for use in solution of specific problems in sustainable agriculture. Its usefulness will depend in large part on the degree to which sustainable agriculturists understand the utility of biotechnology and apply it toward ends they deem important. Biotechnology can give little assistance to sustainable agriculture in the short term. It can be more useful in the medium term, and it could be highly useful in the long term as an integral part (...)
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  16.  33
    Agricultural Biotechnology and the Future Benefits Argument.Jeffrey Burkhardt - 2001 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14 (2):135-145.
    In the face of criticisms about the current generationof agricultural biotechnology products, some proponents ofagricultural biotechnology offer a ``future benefitsargument''''(FBA), which is a utilitarian ethical argument thatattempts to justify continued R&D. This paper analyzes severallogical implications of the FBA. Among these are that acceptanceof the FBA implies (1) acceptance of a precautionary approach torisk, (2) the need for a more proportional and equitabledistribution of the benefits of agricultural biotechnology, andmost important, (3) the need to reorient and restructurebiotechnology (...)
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  17.  50
    Animals as Biotechnology: Ethics, Sustainability and Critical Animal Studies.Richard Twine - 2010 - Earthscan.
    This book concludes by considering whether growing counter calls to reduce our consumption of meat/dairy products in the face of climate change threats are in ...
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  18.  22
    Biotechnology and the Utilitarian Argument for Patents.Michele Svatos - 1996 - Social Philosophy and Policy 13 (2):113.
    Biotechnology surpasses even computer technology in predictions of its potential for revolutionary effects on humankind. It includes agribusiness and phar-maceuticals. The U.S. government began investing heavily in biotechnology research in the 1980s, and by 1987 had spent approximately $2.7 billion to support research and development, including $150 million for agricultural biotechnology. The approximately sixty U.S. biotechnology companies invested $3.2 billion in R and D in 1991 alone, with a total of more than $10 billion spent since (...)
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  19.  25
    Biotechnology, the Limits of Norton's Convergence Hypothesis, and Implications for an Inclusive Concept of Health.M. Saner - 2000 - Ethics and the Environment 5 (2):229-241.
    Bryan Norton proposes a "convergence hypothesis'* stating that anthropocentrists and nonanthropocentrists can arrive at common environmental policy goals if certain constraints are applied. Within his theory he does not, however, address the consideration ofnonconsequentualist issues, and, therefore, does not provide an argument for the convergence between consequentualist and nonconsequentualist ethical positions. In the case of biotechnology, nonconsequentualist issues can dominate the debate in both the fields of environmental ethics and bioethics. I argue that, the convergence hypothesis must be rejected (...)
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  20.  18
    Biotechnology and the Environment: What is at Risk? [REVIEW]Mark Sagoff - 1988 - Agriculture and Human Values 5 (3):26-35.
    This paper argues that the new biotechnologies will affect the natural environment primarily in two ways: by bringing relatively “wild” areas, such as forests and estuaries, under domestication, and by forcing areas now domesticated, such as farms, out of production, because of surpluses. The problem of the safety of biotechnology—the risk of some inadvertent side-effect—seems almost trivial in relation to the social and economic implications of these intentional uses. The paper proposes that we should be more concerned about the (...)
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  21.  21
    Biotechnologies That Empower Transgender Persons to Self-Actualize as Individuals, Partners, Spouses, and Parents Are Defining New Ways to Conceive a Child: Psychological Considerations and Ethical Issues.Agnès Condat, Nicolas Mendes, Véronique Drouineaud, Nouria Gründler, Chrystelle Lagrange, Colette Chiland, Jean-Philippe Wolf, François Ansermet & David Cohen - 2018 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 13:1.
    Today, thanks to biomedical technologies advances, some persons with fertility issues can conceive. Transgender persons benefit also from these advances and can not only actualize their self-identified sexual identities but also experience parenthood. Based on clinical multidisciplinary seminars that gathered child psychiatrists and psychoanalysts interested in the fields of assisted reproduction technology and gender dysphoria, philosophers interested in bioethics, biologists interested in ART, and endocrinologists interested in pubertal suppression, we explore how new biotechnical advances, whether in gender transition or procreation, (...)
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  22.  47
    Biotechnology and the Fear of Frankenstein.Courtney S. Campbell - 2003 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 12 (4):342-352.
    It is a commonplace in the scientific and corporate discourse advocating biotechnology that the public is largely uneducated or scientifically illiterate when it comes to understanding the research methods and goals of biotechnology. Public dissent from biotechnology is, in this understanding, based exclusively in irrational fears. The way to dispel these public fears is for scientists in the research community and among corporate culture to engage in education of the public. At one level, it is argued that (...)
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  23.  30
    Biotechnology and the Normative Significance of Human Nature: A Contribution From Theological Anthropology.Gerald McKenny - 2013 - Studies in Christian Ethics 26 (1):18-36.
    Does human nature possess normative significance? If so, what is it and what implications does it have for biotechnology? This essay critically examines three answers to these questions. One answer focuses on human nature as the ground of natural goods or goods dependent on human nature, another answer finds normative significance in the indeterminacy or malleability of human nature, and a third answer treats human nature as a natural sign of divine grace. Kathryn Tanner, who offers the second answer, (...)
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  24.  17
    Agricultural Biotechnology: Slow Applications by Large Corporations. [REVIEW]Gerd Junne - 1993 - Agriculture and Human Values 10 (2):40-46.
    The predominant position of large companies, while crucial for the acceptance of biotechnology, at the same time slows down the pace of biotechnological development and application. Large agrochemical and food processing companies are characterized by a number of internal barriers against applications of biotechnology in agriculture. They also show a greater sensibility to the external barriers than many small companies. Their takeover of agricultural biotechnology, therefore, has led to a more evolutionary than revolutionary development.
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  25.  39
    Labeling Products of Biotechnology: Towards Communication and Consent.Debra Jackson - 2000 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 12 (3):319-330.
    Both consumers and producers of biotechnology products have insisted that communication between the two be improved. The former demand more democratic participation in the risk assessment process of biotechnology products. The latter seek to correct misinformation regarding alleged risks from these products. One way to resolve these concerns, I argue, is through the use of biotechnology labels. Such labeling fosters consumer autonomy and moves toward more participatory decisionmaking, in addition to ensuring that informed consent from consumers is (...)
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  26.  28
    Bioethics, Biotechnology and Culture: A Voice From the Margins.Godfrey B. Tangwa - 2004 - Developing World Bioethics 4 (2):125–138.
    I argue for the universality of morality as against and in spite of the plurality and inevitable relativity of human cultures. Univer.
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  27.  64
    Eutopia: The Promise of Biotechnology and the Realignment of Western Axiality.Manussos Marangudakis - 2012 - Zygon 47 (1):97-117.
    Abstract. This essay discusses the deep perceptual and social changes that the advanced applications of biotechnology could bring in the West. It examines the probable collapse of a fundamental perceptual bipolarity on which the Western mind and social mobilization have been based since its inception in the West: Athens--Jerusalem. This collapse will quite possibly radically reshape Western perceptions of self and nature and will remodel established constellations and modes of social mobilization and social organization. The radical collapse of the (...)
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  28.  20
    An Error Theory of Biotechnology and the Ethics of Chemical Breakups: It Is the Reasons, Not the Pharmaceuticals, That Are Important in Defending Against Perilous Love.Gavin Enck - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (11):32-34.
    In this commentary, I offer an account of an error theory of biotechnology and apply it to Brian D. Earp, Olga A. Wudarczyk,Anders Sandberg, and Julian Savulescu’s (2013)ethical framework for chemical reakups.
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  29.  17
    Modern Biotechnology, Agriculture, and Ethics.Per Sandin & Payam Moula - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):803-806.
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  30.  10
    Cultural Challenges to Biotechnology: Native American Genetic Resources and the Concept of Cultural Harm.Rebecca Tsosie - 2007 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35 (3):396-411.
    Our society currently faces many complex and perplexing issues related to biotechnology, including the need to define the outer boundaries of genetic research on human beings and the need to protect individual and group rights to human tissue and the knowledge gained from the study of that tissue. Scientists have increasingly become interested in studying so-called “population isolates” to discover the nature and location of genes that are unique to particular groups. Indigenous peoples are often targeted by scientists because (...)
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  31.  1
    Bodies, Commodities, and Biotechnologies: Death, Mourning, and Scientific Desire in the Realm of Human Organ Transfer.Lesley Alexandra Sharp - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    In the United States today, the human body defines a lucrative site of reusable parts, ranging from whole organs to minuscule and even microscopic tissues. Although the medical practices that enable the transfer of parts from one body to another most certainly relieve suffering and extend lives, they have also irrevocably altered perceptions of the cultural values assigned to the body. Organ transfer is rich terrain to investigate—especially in the American context, where sophisticated technological interventions have significantly shaped understandings of (...)
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  32. Me Medicine Vs. We Medicine: Reclaiming Biotechnology for the Common Good.Donna Dickenson - 2013 - New York, USA: Columbia University Press.
    Even in the increasingly individualized American medical system, advocates of 'personalized medicine' claim that healthcare isn't individualized enough. With the additional glamour of new biotechnologies such as genetic testing and pharmacogenetics behind it, 'Me Medicine'-- personalized or stratified medicine-- appears to its advocates as the inevitable and desirable way of the future. Drawing on an extensive evidence base, this book examines whether these claims are justified. It goes on to examine an alternative tradition rooted in communitarian ideals, that of the (...)
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  33.  3
    Biotechnology and the Transformation of Vaccine Innovation: The Case of the Hepatitis B Vaccines 1968–2000.Farah Huzair & Steve Sturdy - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 64:11-21.
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  34.  1
    Agricultural Biotechnology and the Environment: Science, Policy, and Social Issues.Sheldon Krimsky, Roger P. Wrubel & Hugh Lehman - 1996 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 11 (1):66-67.
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  35.  45
    Whose Prometheus? Transhumanism, Biotechnology and the Moral Topography of Sports Medicine.Mike McNamee - 2007 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 1 (2):181 – 194.
    The therapy/enhancement distinction is a controversial one in the philosophy of medicine, yet the idea of enhancement is rarely if ever questioned as a proper goal of sports medicine. This opens up latitude to those who may seek to use elite sport as a vehicle of legitimation for their nature-transcending ideology. Given recent claims by transhumanists to develop our human nature and powers with the aid of biotechnology, I sketch out two interpretations of the myth of Prometheus, in Hesiod (...)
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  36.  40
    Ethics and Patentability in Biotechnology.Rafał Witek - 2005 - Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (1):105-111.
    The systems of patent rights in force in Europe today, both at the level of national law and on the regional level, contain general clauses prohibiting the patenting of inventions whose publication and exploitation would be contrary to “ordre public” or morality. Recent years have brought frequent discussion about limiting the possibility of patent protection for biotechnological inventions for ethical reasons. This is undoubtedly a result of the dynamic development in this field in the last several years. Human genome sequencing, (...)
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  37.  24
    Animal Biotechnology: How Not to Presume.Paul B. Thompson - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (6):49 – 50.
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  38.  28
    Is Biotechnology the New Alchemy?Georgiana Kirkham - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (1):70-80.
    In this article I examine similarities between the science and ethics of biotechnology on the one hand, and those of alchemy on the other, and show that the understanding of nature and naturalness upon which many contemporary ethical responses to biotechnology are predicated is, in fact, significantly similar to the understanding of nature that was the foundation of the practice of alchemy. In doing so I demonstrate that the ethical issues and social responses that are currently arising from (...)
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  39.  36
    Care and the Self: Biotechnology, Reproduction, and the Good Life.Stuart J. Murray - 2007 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 2:6.
    This paper explores a novel philosophy of ethical care in the face of burgeoning biomedical technologies. I respond to a serious challenge facing traditional bioethics with its roots in analytic philosophy. The hallmarks of these traditional approaches are reason and autonomy, founded on a belief in the liberal humanist subject. In recent years, however, there have been mounting challenges to this view of human subjectivity, emerging from poststructuralist critiques, such as Michel Foucault's, but increasingly also as a result of advances (...)
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  40.  24
    How Biotechnology and Society Co-Constitute Each Other.Melentie Pandilovski - 2012 - Technoetic Arts 10 (1):125-130.
  41. The Unexamined Assumptions of Intellectual Property.Biotechnological Innovation - 2004 - Public Affairs Quarterly 18 (4).
  42.  14
    Bioethics, Biotechnology and Culture: A Voice From the Margins1.Godfrey B. Tangwa - 2004 - Developing World Bioethics 4 (2):125-138.
    ABSTRACTIn this paper I argue for the universality of morality as against and in spite of the plurality and inevitable relativity of human cultures. Universalisability is the litmus test of moral authenticity whereas culture tends to impose an egocentric predicament. I argue equally for the equality of cultures qua cultures and of the importance of different cultural perspectives, given the limitations of each and every particular culture, in a balanced and wholesome appreciation of moral issues, particularly issues of cross‐cultural relevance. (...)
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  43.  6
    Biotechnology and Transgenics in Agriculture and Aquaculture: The Perspective From Ecosystem Integrity.L. Westra - 1998 - Environmental Values 7 (1):79-96.
    New agricultural technologies are often justified morally in terms of their expected benefits, e.g., feeding the world's hungry. Such justifications stand or fall, not only on whether such benefits are indeed forthcoming, but on whether or not they are outweighed by attendant dangers. The practical details of easch case are, therefore, all-important. In this paper agriculture and aquaculture are examined from the perspective of ecosystem integrity, and with further reference to the uncertain effects of anthropogenic changes in the earth's atmosphere. (...)
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  44.  12
    Contemporary Biotechnology and the New Green Revolution: Feeding the World with Frankenfoods?Johann A. Klaassen - 2006 - Social Philosophy Today 22:103-113.
    Both the Green Revolution and GE foods have come under persistent attack by social philosophers, environmentalists, and other commentators, who argue that these technologies should be banned. In this essay, I examine five of the most common arguments for banning further development of GE crops, and show how they effectively reduce to two: distress at blurred boundaries, and hazards of a new technology. I will also show that both of these arguments can be addressed and defused—and so we can use (...)
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  45.  15
    Midstream Modulation in Biotechnology Industry: Redefining What is 'Part of the Job' of Researchers in Industry. [REVIEW]Steven M. Flipse, Maarten Ca van der Sanden & Patricia Osseweijer - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1141-1164.
    In response to an increasing amount of policy papers stressing the need for integrating social and ethical aspects in Research and Development (R&D) practices, science studies scholars have conducted integrative research and experiments with science and innovation actors. One widely employed integration method is Midstream Modulation (MM), in which an ‘embedded humanist’ interacts in regular meetings with researchers to engage them with the social and ethical aspects of their work. While the possibility of using MM to enhance critical reflection has (...)
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  46.  18
    Midstream Modulation in Biotechnology Industry: Redefining What is 'Part of the Job' of Researchers in Industry. [REVIEW]Steven M. Flipse, Maarten C. A. Sanden & Patricia Osseweijer - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1141-1164.
    In response to an increasing amount of policy papers stressing the need for integrating social and ethical aspects in Research and Development (R&D) practices, science studies scholars have conducted integrative research and experiments with science and innovation actors. One widely employed integration method is Midstream Modulation (MM), in which an ‘embedded humanist’ interacts in regular meetings with researchers to engage them with the social and ethical aspects of their work. While the possibility of using MM to enhance critical reflection has (...)
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  47. If I Could Just Stop Loving You: Anti-Love Biotechnology and the Ethics of a Chemical Breakup.Brian D. Earp, Olga A. Wudarczyk, Anders Sandberg & Julian Savulescu - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (11):3-17.
    ?Love hurts??as the saying goes?and a certain amount of pain and difficulty in intimate relationships is unavoidable. Sometimes it may even be beneficial, since adversity can lead to personal growth, self-discovery, and a range of other components of a life well-lived. But other times, love can be downright dangerous. It may bind a spouse to her domestic abuser, draw an unscrupulous adult toward sexual involvement with a child, put someone under the insidious spell of a cult leader, and even inspire (...)
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  48.  3
    Biotechnology, Law and Bioethics: Comparative Perspectives.Romeo Casabona & Carlos María (eds.) - 1999 - Bruylant.
    Fornece um panorama sobre os avanços biotecnológicos, dando ênfase aos aspectos jurídicos e éticos do impacto destes na área genética sobre o homem e o meio ambiente.
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  49.  22
    Biotechnologies in the Agro-Food Sector: A Limited Impact. [REVIEW]Roberto Fanfani, Raúl H. Green & Manuel Rodrigues Zuñiga - 1993 - Agriculture and Human Values 10 (2):68-74.
    Within the framework of a general reflection on technical change, this paper is aimed at opposing an approach that assigns a primary role to the progress of biological knowledge in the evolution of the agro-food system. Instead, the importance of the complex and heterogeneous nature of the transformation under way is highlighted. Biotechnological research risks falling into a reductionist rut when it ignores the structural and organizational changes in the agro-food industry and the contribution of other technical innovations, especially in (...)
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  50.  16
    Infertility, Abortion, and Biotechnology.Samuel K. Wasser - 1990 - Human Nature 1 (1):3-24.
    Patterns of reproductive failure described in humans and other mammals suggest that reproductive failure may in many instances be the result of adaptations evolved to suppress reproduction under temporarily harsh conditions. By suppressing reproduction under such conditions, females are able to conserve their time and energy for reproductive opportunities in which reproduction is most likely to succeed. Such adaptations have been particularly important for female mammals, given (a) the amount of time and energy that reproduction requires, and (b) the degree (...)
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