Results for 'buridan's ass'

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  1.  96
    The Beliefs and Intentions of Buridan's Ass.Nathaniel Sharadin & Finnur Dellsén - 2017 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 3 (2):209-226.
    The moral of Buridan's Ass is that it can sometimes be rational to perform one action rather than another even though one lacks stronger reason to do so. Yet it is also commonly believed that it cannot ever be rational to believe one proposition rather than another if one lacks stronger reason to do so. This asymmetry has been taken to indicate a deep difference between epistemic and practical rationality. According to the view articulated here, the asymmetry should instead (...)
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  2.  43
    A Solution for Buridan’s Ass.Eugene Chislenko - 2016 - Ethics 126 (2):283-310.
    Buridan’s Ass faced a choice between two identical bales of hay; governed only by reason, the donkey starved, unable to choose. It seems clear that we face many such cases, and resolve them successfully. Our success seems to tell against any view on which action and intention require evaluative preference. I argue that these views can account for intention and intentional action in cases like that of Buridan’s Ass. A decision to act nonintentionally allows us to resolve these cases without (...)
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  3.  47
    Buridan's Ass and Reducible Intentions.Joe Mintoff - 2001 - Journal of Philosophical Research 26:207-221.
    Unlike Buridan’s ass, most of us have the capacity to deal with situations in which there is more than one maximally preferable option. According to supporters of a prominent conception of intention, making a decision in this type of case involves coming to prefer, or judge preferable, one of the relevant options over the other. The purpose of this paper is to argue that accounts that reduce intentions to preferences or preferability judgments cannot explain how it is possible to rationally (...)
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  4. Religious Pluralism and the Buridan's Ass Paradox.Jonathan L. Kvanvig - 2009 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 1 (1):1-26.
    The paradox of ’Buridan’s ass’ involves an animal facing two equally adequate and attractive alternatives, such as would happen were a hungry ass to confront two bales of hay that are equal in all respects relevant to the ass’s hunger. Of course, the ass will eat from one rather than the other, because the alternative is to starve. But why does this eating happen? What reason is operative, and what explanation can be given as to why the ass eats from, (...)
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  5.  26
    Buridan's Ass: Is there Wisdom in the Story?Sharon M. Kaye - 2005 - Dialogue and Universalism 15 (3-4):137-146.
    This paper discusses Buridan’s Ass as a thought experiment that has been misunderstood. First, the thought experiment is presented in its traditional form and typical objections to it are discussed. Then the author argues that William of Ockham supplies the background necessary for a more meaningful formulation. Buridan’s Ass is designed to show that each individual must choose how to value the value we discover in the world and that, in so doing, we create individual preferences.
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  6.  31
    Paradoxes 3: Buridan's Ass.Michael Clark - 2003 - Think 1 (3):69-70.
    In this regular series, Michael Clark, editor of Analysis, presents some of the most intriguing philosophical paradoxes. Here we examine the paradox of Buridan's ass.
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  7.  45
    Buridan's Ass and Other Dilemmas.Guillermo Barron - 2000 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 7 (2/3):21-31.
    The dilemma confronted by Buridan’s Ass leads into a problem about nil-preference situations, to which there is a solution in the literature that is inspired by Alan Turing: we have evolved with a computational module in our brains that comes into play in such situations by picking a random action among the alternatives that detennines the subject’s choice. We relate these Buridan’s Ass situations to a larger, theoretically interesting category in which there is no alternative that is decisively superior to (...)
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  8.  8
    Paradoxes 3: Buridan's Ass: Clark Paradoxes.Michael Clark - 2003 - Think 1 (3):69-70.
    In this regular series, Michael Clark, editor of Analysis, presents some of the most intriguing philosophical paradoxes. Here we examine the paradox of Buridan's ass.
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  9.  1
    Buridan’s Ass and Reducible Intentions.Joe Mintoff - 2001 - Journal of Philosophical Research 26:207-221.
    Unlike Buridan’s ass, most of us have the capacity to deal with situations in which there is more than one maximally preferable option. According to supporters of a prominent conception of intention, making a decision in this type of case involves coming to prefer, or judge preferable, one of the relevant options over the other. The purpose of this paper is to argue that accounts that reduce intentions to preferences or preferability judgments cannot explain how it is possible to rationally (...)
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  10.  1
    Buridan’s Ass: Is There Wisdom in the Story?Sharon M. Kaye - 2005 - Dialogue and Universalism 15 (3-4):137-146.
    This paper discusses Buridan’s Ass as a thought experiment that has been misunderstood. First, the thought experiment is presented in its traditional form and typical objections to it are discussed. Then the author argues that William of Ockham supplies the background necessary for a more meaningful formulation. Buridan’s Ass is designed to show that each individual must choose how to value the value we discover in the world and that, in so doing, we create individual preferences.
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  11. Buridan’s Ass and Other Dilemmas: A Decision-Value Approach.Wesley Cooper & Guillermo Barron - 2000 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 7 (2/3):21-31.
    The dilemma confronted by Buridan’s Ass leads into a problem about nil-preference situations, to which there is a solution in the literature that is inspired by Alan Turing: we have evolved with a computational module in our brains that comes into play in such situations by picking a random action among the alternatives that detennines the subject’s choice. We relate these Buridan’s Ass situations to a larger, theoretically interesting category in which there is no alternative that is decisively superior to (...)
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  12.  56
    What Can We Learn From Buridan's Ass?Ruth Weintraub - 2012 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 42 (3-4):281-301.
    The mythical1 hungry ass, facing two identical bundles of hay equidistant from him, has engendered two related questions. Can he choose one of the bundles, there seemingly being nothing to incline him one way or the other? If he can, the second puzzle — pertaining to rational choice — arises. It seems the ass cannot rationally choose one of the bundles, because there is no sufficient reason for any choice.2In what follows, I will argue that choice is possible even when (...)
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  13. Divine Action in the Natural Order : Buridan's Ass and Schrödinger's Cat.Nancey Murphy - 2009 - In F. LeRon Shults, Nancey C. Murphy & Robert J. Russell (eds.), Philosophy, Science and Divine Action. Brill. pp. 325-357.
  14.  93
    Choice Without Preference. A Study of the History and of the Logic of the Problem of “Buridan's Ass”.Nicholas Rescher - 1960 - Kant-Studien 51 (1-4):142-175.
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  15.  39
    Why the Liberty of Indifference Is Worth Wanting: Buridan's Ass, Friendship, and Peter John Olivi.Sharon M. Kaye - 2004 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 21 (1):21 - 42.
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  16.  30
    Why Buridan's Ass Doesn't Starve.Michael Hauskeller - 2010 - Philosophy Now 81:9-9.
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  17.  18
    Utilitarianism, Group Actions, and Coordination or, Must the Utilitarian Be a Buridan's Ass?Jan Narveson - 1976 - Noûs 10 (2):173-194.
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  18.  27
    The Non-Rationality of Buridan's Ass.Roger A. Shiner - 1973 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 11 (4):329-335.
  19.  22
    Buridan's Ass: A Paradox Redux.Adebowale Oriku - 2008 - Philosophy Now 65:53-54.
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  20.  3
    Choice Without Preference. A Study of the History and of the Logic of the Problem of "Buridan's Ass.".Nicholas Rescher - 1967 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (4):545-546.
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  21. Review: Nicholas Rescher, Choice Without Preference. A Study of the History and of the Logic of the Problem of "Buridan's Ass.". [REVIEW]Timothy C. Potts - 1967 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (4):545-546.
     
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  22.  2
    Rescher Nicholas. Choice Without Preference. A Study of the History and of the Logic of the Problem of “Buridan's Ass.” Kant-Studien, Vol. 51 , Pp. 142–175. [REVIEW]Timothy C. Potts - 1968 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (4):545-546.
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  23.  1
    The Non-Rationality of Buridan’s Ass.Roger A. Shiner - 1973 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 11 (4):329-335.
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  24. Buridan's Ass.Stephen Makin - 1986 - Ratio 28 (2):132.
     
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  25.  11
    Buridan's Principle.Leslie Lamport - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (8):1056-1066.
    Buridan’s principle asserts that a discrete decision based upon input having a continuous range of values cannot be made within a bounded length of time. It appears to be a fundamental law of nature. Engineers aware of it can design devices so they have an infinitessimal probability of not making a decision quickly enough. Ignorance of the principle could have serious consequences.
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  26.  43
    God's Problem of Multiple Choice.Lloyd Strickland - 2006 - Religious Studies 42 (2):141-157.
    A question that has been largely overlooked by philosophers of religion is how God would be able to effect a rational choice between two worlds of unsurpassable goodness. To answer this question, I draw a parallel with the paradigm cases of indifferent choice, including Buridan's ass, and argue that such cases can be satisfactorily resolved provided that the protagonists employ what Otto Neurath calls an ‘auxiliary motive’. I supply rational grounds for the employment of such a motive, and then (...)
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  27.  28
    Elementary Proof That Mean–Variance Implies Quadratic Utility.D. J. Johnstone & D. V. Lindley - 2011 - Theory and Decision 70 (2):149-155.
    An extensive literature overlapping economics, statistical decision theory and finance, contrasts expected utility [EU] with the more recent framework of mean–variance (MV). A basic proposition is that MV follows from EU under the assumption of quadratic utility. A less recognized proposition, first raised by Markowitz, is that MV is fully justified under EU, if and only if utility is quadratic. The existing proof of this proposition relies on an assumption from EU, described here as “Buridan’s axiom” after the French philosopher’s (...)
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  28.  17
    On the Argument From Divine Arbitrariness.Peter Forrest - 2012 - Sophia 51 (3):341-349.
    William Rowe in his Can God be Free? argues that God, if there is a God, necessarily chooses the best. Combined with the premise that there is no best act of creation, this provides an a priori argument for atheism. Rowe assumes that necessarily God is a ‘morally unsurpassable’ being, and it is for that reason that God chooses the best. In this article I drop that assumption and I consider a successor to Rowe ’s argument, the Argument from Arbitrariness, (...)
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  29. How to Think About Satisficing.Chris Tucker - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (6):1365-1384.
    An agent submaximizes with motivation when she aims at the best but chooses a less good option because of a countervailing consideration. An agent satisfices when she rejects the better for the good enough, and does so because the mere good enough gets her what she really wants. Motivated submaximization and satisficing, so construed, are different ways of choosing a suboptimal option, but this difference is easily missed. Putative proponents of satisficing tend to argue only that motivated submaximization can be (...)
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  30.  88
    A Conscientious Resolution of the Action Paradox on Buridan's Bridge'.Joseph W. Ulatowski - 2003 - Southwest Philosophical Studies 25:85-93.
    The aim of this paper is to offer a critical assessment of Buridan's proposed solution to the bridge-keeper paradox. First, I will outline his proposed solution to the paradox, and, second, carefully analyse each issue mentioned in the proposed solution. Finally, I will attempt to conclude that Burden has implicitly accepted a three-valued logic that does not allow him to conclude that Plato ought not do anything.
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  31.  75
    Buridan's Solution to the Liar Paradox.Yann Benétreau-Dupin - 2015 - History and Philosophy of Logic 36 (1):18-28.
    Jean Buridan has offered a solution to the Liar Paradox, i.e. to the problem of assigning a truth-value to the sentence ‘What I am saying is false’. It has been argued that either this solution is ad hoc since it would only apply to self-referencing sentences [Read, S. 2002. ‘The Liar Paradox from John Buridan back to Thomas Bradwardine’, Vivarium, 40 , 189–218] or else it weakens his theory of truth, making his ‘a logic without truth’ [Klima, G. 2008. ‘Logic (...)
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  32.  70
    John Buridan on Self-Reference: Chapter Eight of Buridan's Sophismata.Jean Buridan - 1982 - Cambridge University Press.
    This edition of that chapter is intended to make Buridan's ideas and arguments accessible to a wider range of readers.
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  33.  23
    Buridan's Consequentia: Consequence and Inference Within a Token-Based Semantics.Catarina Dutilh Novaes - 2005 - History and Philosophy of Logic 26 (4):277-297.
    I examine the theory of consequentia of the medieval logician, John Buridan. Buridan advocates a strict commitment to what we now call proposition-tokens as the bearers of truth-value. The analysis of Buridan's theory shows that, within a token-based semantics, amendments to the usual notions of inference and consequence are made necessary, since pragmatic elements disrupt the semantic behaviour of propositions. In my reconstruction of Buridan's theory, I use some of the apparatus of modern two-dimensional semantics, such as two-dimensional (...)
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  34.  22
    John Buridan's Theory of Consequence and His Octagons of Opposition.Stephen Read - 2012 - In J.-Y. Beziau & Dale Jacquette (eds.), Around and Beyond the Square of Opposition. Birkhäuser. pp. 93--110.
    One of the manuscripts of Buridan’s Summulae contains three figures, each in the form of an octagon. At each node of each octagon there are nine propositions. Buridan uses the figures to illustrate his doctrine of the syllogism, revising Aristotle's theory of the modal syllogism and adding theories of syllogisms with propositions containing oblique terms (such as ‘man’s donkey’) and with ‘propositions of non-normal construction’ (where the predicate precedes the copula). O-propositions of non-normal construction (i.e., ‘Some S (some) P is (...)
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  35.  18
    A Formal Reconstruction of Buridan's Modal Syllogism.Spencer Johnston - 2015 - History and Philosophy of Logic 36 (1):2-17.
    In this paper, we provide a historical exposition of John Buridan's theory of divided modal propositions. We then develop a semantic interpretation of Buridan's theory which pays particular attention to Buridan's ampliation of modal terms. We show that these semantics correctly capture his syllogistic reasoning.
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  36.  40
    Jean Buridan's Philosophy of Science.Peter King - 1987 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 18 (2):109.
    introduced the concept of effective demand in the nascent science of economics; his discussions of astronomy were acute enough to raise Duhem’s interest. Neither are Buridan’s credentials as a nominalist in doubt, although investigation into his precise relation to William of Ockham continues: he rejected all abstract entities, whether universals, common natures, the complexe significabile, or types above and beyond tokens; for Buridan, every thing which exists is a concrete individual. His anti-realism included an epistemological component as well, for Buridan (...)
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  37.  6
    Three Anonymous Sets of Questions on Aristotle’s Physics Related to John Buridan’s Quaestiones Super Octo Libros Physicorum.Paul J. J. M. Bakker - 2016 - Bulletin de Philosophie Medievale 58:233-323.
    This article offers a detailed presentation of three anonymous, unedited sets of questions on Aristotle’s Physics. The commentaries survive in manuscripts in Oxford, Munich and Sint Agatha. A comparison of the lists of quaestiones suggests that there is a close correspondence between the three commentaries, on the one hand, and the ultima lectura of John Buridan’s Quaestiones super octo libros Physicorum, on the other. Judging from the lists of quaestiones, it makes sense to attach the label secundum Buridanum to all (...)
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  38.  9
    John Buridan on Self-Reference: Chapter Eight of Buridan's Sophismata: With a Translation, an Introduction, and a Philosophical Commentary.G. E. Hughes - 1985 - Philosophical Review 94 (3):406-408.
    John Buridan was a fourteenth-century philosopher who enjoyed an enormous reputation for about two hundred years, was then totally neglected, and is now being 'rediscovered' through his relevance to contemporary work in philosophical logic. The final chapter of Buridan's Sophismata deals with problems about self-reference, and in particular with the semantic paradoxes. He offers his own distinctive solution to the well-known 'Liar Paradox' and introduces a number of other paradoxes that will be unfamiliar to most logicians. Buridan also moves (...)
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  39.  14
    7. John Buridan’s Commentary on Pseudo-Albertus Magnus’ De Secretis Mulierum.Chiara Beneduce - 2014 - Bulletin de Philosophie Medievale 56:221-245.
    The catalogues of works by John Buridan include a commentary on the De secretis mulierum by pseudo-Albertus Magnus. The same commentary is also attributed to Buridan in more general studies on medieval natural philosophy as well as in catalogues of manuscripts and repertories of incipits of medieval scientific writings. In most cases, a unique manuscript copy of this commentary is mentioned, namely Erfurt, Universitätsbibliothek, Dep. Erf., CA Q.299. However, in her Répertoire of Masters of Arts at the University of Paris, (...)
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  40.  12
    Buridan's Bridge.Dale Jacquette - 1991 - Philosophy 66 (258):455 - 471.
    John Buridan's Sophismata contains some of the most interesting puzzles and paradoxes of any of the many surviving medieval informal logic manuals. Buridan's purpose is not only to illustrate and challenge Aristotelian syllogistic with difficulties of interpretation, but also in part to lay logical philosophical foundations for a radically nominalistic ontology in the tradition of William of Ockham.
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  41.  9
    John Buridan's Metaphysics of Persistence.Tyler Huismann - 2016 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 54 (3):373-394.
    John Buridan’s theory of persistence is based on a metaphysical foundation that has been misrepresented by contemporary scholars. I argue that this fact is both (i) suggested by his treatment of persistence itself, and (ii) explicit in his clearest exposition of the foundations of persistence. I also argue that while this fact has historical interest, its primary interest is philosophical in nature: it shows Buridan developing a distinction that contemporary philosophers find useful in elaborating a metaphysical basis for theories of (...)
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  42.  23
    John Buridan's Propositional Semantics.Miroslav Hanke - 2009 - Studia Neoaristotelica 6 (2):183-208.
    Joannis Buridani de semantice propositionum doctrinaDissertatio proposita Joannis Buridani de semantice propositionum sententiam, quae in suis operibus logicis continetur, pertractat. Quaestio de semantice propositionali duplici modo sumi potest: scil. vel pure semantice (quarendo definitionem veritatis) vel ontologice (inquirendo de statu ontologico “complexesignificabilium”). In utraque quaestione solvenda Buridanus doctrinam semanticam quae “terminismus” dicitur assumit. Notionem veritatis Buridanus non ex significatione sed ex suppositione explicat, quo pacto possibile redditur, veritatem inductive per valorem semanticum propositionis partium definiri. Quaestionem alteram circa semanticen complexionis “accusativi (...)
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  43.  27
    Buridan's Logic and the Ontology of Modes.Gyula Klima - 1999 - In Sten Ebbesen & Russsell L. Friedman (eds.), Medieval Analyses in Language and Cognition. Royal Danish Academy. pp. 473-496.
    Summary: The aim of this paper is to explore the relationships between Buridan’s logic and the ontology of modes modi). Modes, not considered to be really distinct from absolute entities, could serve to reduce the ontological commitment of the theory of the categories, and thus they were to become ubiquitous in this role in late medieval and early modern philosophy. After a brief analysis of the most basic argument for the real distinction between entities of several categories (“the argument from (...)
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  44.  21
    Buridan's Logical Works. II. The Treatise on Consequence and Other Writings.Raul Corazzon - unknown
    Now we should have to answer the question: when were the questions on Perihermeneias written? Little is known about the chronology of Buridan's works. Even a relative date is difficult to establish. However, some remarks can be made. First, there is the fact that the questions on Perihermeneias are quoted several times in Tractatus I of the Summule (4), in a way that makes it highly probable that the Summule were written after the Questiones on Perihermeneias (5). Now, according (...)
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  45.  6
    John Buridan's Sophismata and Interval Temporal Semantics.Sara L. Uckelman & Spencer Johnston - 2010 - Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 13:133-147.
    In this paper we look at the suitability of modern interval-based temporal logic for modeling John Buridan’s treatment of tensed sentences in his Sophismata. Building on the paper [Øhrstrøm 1984], we develop Buridan’s analysis of temporal logic, paying particular attention to his notions of negation and the absolute/relative nature of the future and the past. We introduce a number of standard modern propositional interval temporal logics to illustrate where Buridan’s interval-based temporal analysis differs from the standard modern approaches. We give (...)
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  46.  6
    Pleasure and Knowledge in John Buridan's Solution to the Debate Over the Extension of the Aristotelian Supreme Good.Rodrigo Guerizoli - 2015 - Quaestio 15:711-720.
    There is an important controversy regarding how Aristotle comprehends the highest good. On one hand, in the first books of the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle seems to designate with the noun “eudaimonia” a second order end. On the other hand though, in the last book of the same work, he seems to restrict the meaning of eudaimonia to a single first-order end, namely theoretical contemplation. The so-called inclusive vs. dominant debate over Aristotle’s eudaimonia was not overlooked in commentaries written during the (...)
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  47.  14
    Prolegomena to a Study of John Buridan's Physics.Johannes M. M. H. Thijssen - 2005 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 79 (3):493-502.
    After a brief sketch of the state of Buridan studies, this review article examines the recent study, by Benoît Patar, of a commentary on Aristotle’s Physics that is generally attributed to Albert of Saxony, but which Patar believes to have been authored by John Buridan (the text is preserved in the manuscript Bruges, Stadsbibliotheek 477, fols. 60va–163vb, and was edited by Patar himself in 1999). Patar is utterly convinced that the Bruges Quaestiones represent Buridan’s prima lectura, that is, his first (...)
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  48.  1
    Three Anonymous Sets of Questions on Aristotle’s Physics Related to John Buridan’s Quaestiones Super Octo Libros Physicorum.Paul J. J. M. Bakker - 2017 - Https://Doi.Org/10.1484/J.Bpm.5.113342 58:233-323.
    This article offers a detailed presentation of three anonymous, unedited sets of questions on Aristotle’s Physics. The commentaries survive in manuscripts in Oxford, Munich and Sint Agatha. A comparison of the lists of quaestiones suggests that there is a close correspondence between the three commentaries, on the one hand, and the ultima lectura of John Buridan’s Quaestiones super octo libros Physicorum, on the other. Judging from the lists of quaestiones, it makes sense to attach the label secundum Buridanum to all (...)
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  49.  12
    Is Buridan's Theory of Abstraction Incompatible with His Nominalist Semantics? An Evaluation of Klima's Charge Against Buridan.Joseph Hill - 2010 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 84:167-178.
    This paper addresses Klima’s charge of inconsistancy against John Buridan in a book recently published on the subject. Klima argues that Buridan’s theoryof abstraction commits him to the aspectuality of substantial concepts. However, his semantics of absolute terms and concepts prevents him from accepting anyaspectuality of substantial concepts. In light of this problem, the paper gives a detailed reconstruction of Buridan’s account of abstraction, beginning with sensoryperception and singular cognition and ending with the formation of substantial concepts that have a (...)
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  50. Is Buridan’s Theory of Abstraction Incompatible with His Nominalist Semantics? An Evaluation of Klima’s Charge Against Buridan. Hill - 2010 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 84:167-178.
    This paper addresses Klima’s charge of inconsistancy against John Buridan in a book recently published on the subject. Klima argues that Buridan’s theoryof abstraction commits him to the aspectuality of substantial concepts. However, his semantics of absolute terms and concepts prevents him from accepting anyaspectuality of substantial concepts. In light of this problem, the paper gives a detailed reconstruction of Buridan’s account of abstraction, beginning with sensoryperception and singular cognition and ending with the formation of substantial concepts that have a (...)
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