Results for 'classical AI'

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  1.  83
    Hubert L. Dreyfus's Critique of Classical AI and its Rationalist Assumptions.Setargew Kenaw - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (2):227-238.
    This paper deals with the rationalist assumptions behind researches of artificial intelligence (AI) on the basis of Hubert Dreyfus’s critique. Dreyfus is a leading American philosopher known for his rigorous critique on the underlying assumptions of the field of artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence specialists, especially those whose view is commonly dubbed as “classical AI,” assume that creating a thinking machine like the human brain is not a too far away project because they believe that human intelligence works on the (...)
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  2.  6
    What Connectionists Cannot Do: The Threat to Classical AI.James W. Garson - 1991 - In Terence E. Horgan & John L. Tienson (eds.), Connectionism and the Philosophy of Mind. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 113--142.
  3. Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence.Vincent C. Müller (ed.) - 2013 - Springer.
    [Müller, Vincent C. (ed.), (2013), Philosophy and theory of artificial intelligence (SAPERE, 5; Berlin: Springer). 429 pp. ] --- Can we make machines that think and act like humans or other natural intelligent agents? The answer to this question depends on how we see ourselves and how we see the machines in question. Classical AI and cognitive science had claimed that cognition is computation, and can thus be reproduced on other computing machines, possibly surpassing the abilities of human intelligence. (...)
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  4. New Developments in the Philosophy of AI.Vincent C. Müller - 2016 - In Fundamental Issues of Artificial Intelligence. Springer.
    The philosophy of AI has seen some changes, in particular: 1) AI moves away from cognitive science, and 2) the long term risks of AI now appear to be a worthy concern. In this context, the classical central concerns – such as the relation of cognition and computation, embodiment, intelligence & rationality, and information – will regain urgency.
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  5. The Language of Thought Hypothesis.Murat Aydede - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    A comprehensive introduction to the Language of Though Hypothesis (LOTH) accessible to general audiences. LOTH is an empirical thesis about thought and thinking. For their explication, it postulates a physically realized system of representations that have a combinatorial syntax (and semantics) such that operations on representations are causally sensitive only to the syntactic properties of representations. According to LOTH, thought is, roughly, the tokening of a representation that has a syntactic (constituent) structure with an appropriate semantics. Thinking thus consists in (...)
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  6.  96
    Cognition Without Classical Architecture.James W. Garson - 1994 - Synthese 100 (2):291-306.
    Fodor and Pylyshyn (1988) argue that any successful model of cognition must use classical architecture; it must depend upon rule-based processing sensitive to constituent structure. This claim is central to their defense of classical AI against the recent enthusiasm for connectionism. Connectionist nets, they contend, may serve as theories of the implementation of cognition, but never as proper theories of psychology. Connectionist models are doomed to describing the brain at the wrong level, leaving the classical view to (...)
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  7.  4
    Does the Eye Know Calculus? The Threshold of Representation in Classical and Connectionist Models.Ronald de Sousa - 1991 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 5 (2):171 – 185.
    Abstract The notion of representation lies at the crossroads of questions about the nature of belief and knowledge, meaning, and intentionality. But there is some hope that it might be simpler than all those. If we could understand it clearly, it might then help to explicate those more difficult notions. In this paper, my central aim is to find a principled criterion, along lines that make biological sense, for deciding just when it becomes theoretically plausible to ascribe to some process (...)
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  8.  68
    A Non-Classical Logical Foundation for Naturalised Realism.Emma Ruttkamp-Bloem, Giovanni Casini & Thomas Meyer - 2015 - In P. & M. Danćak Arazim (ed.), Logica Yearbook 2014. College Publications. pp. 249-266.
    In this paper, by suggesting a formal representation of science based on recent advances in logic-based Artificial Intelligence (AI), we show how three serious concerns around the realisation of traditional scientific realism (the theory/observation distinction, over-determination of theories by data, and theory revision) can be overcome such that traditional realism is given a new guise as ‘naturalised’. We contend that such issues can be dealt with (in the context of scientific realism) by developing a formal representation of science based on (...)
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  9.  60
    Connectionism, Classical Cognitive Science and Experimental Psychology.Mike Oaksford, Nick Chater & Keith Stenning - 1990 - AI and Society 4 (1):73-90.
    Classical symbolic computational models of cognition are at variance with the empirical findings in the cognitive psychology of memory and inference. Standard symbolic computers are well suited to remembering arbitrary lists of symbols and performing logical inferences. In contrast, human performance on such tasks is extremely limited. Standard models donot easily capture content addressable memory or context sensitive defeasible inference, which are natural and effortless for people. We argue that Connectionism provides a more natural framework in which to model (...)
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  10.  37
    La Natura Delle Cose: Introduzione Ai Fondamenti E Alla Filosofia Della Fisica.Valia Allori, Mauro Dorato, Federico Laudisa & Nino Zanghi (eds.) - 2005 - Carocci.
    The year 2005 has been named the World Year of Physics in recognition of the 100th anniversary of Albert Einstein's "Miracle Year," in which he published four landmark papers which had deep and great influence on the last and the current century: quantum theory, general relativity, and statistical mechanics. Despite the enormous importance that Einstein’s discoveries played in these theories, most physicists adopt a version of quantum theory which is incompatible with the idea that motivated Einstein in the first place. (...)
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  11.  55
    Jian Ai and the Mohist Attack of Early Confucianism.Wai Wai Chiu - 2013 - Philosophy Compass 8 (5):425-437.
    In Chinese pre-Qin period, Mohism was the first school that challenged Confucianism. A common view is that Mohists attacked Confucianism by proposing jian ai, often translated as “universal love,” that opposes Confucian “graded love”. The Confucian-Mohist debate on ethics is often regarded as a debate between Mohist “universal love,” on the one hand; and Confucian emphasis on family and kinship, on the other. However, it is misleading to translate jian ai as “universal love,” as it distorts our understanding of the (...)
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  12.  27
    Ai-Farabi's Commentary and Short Treatise on Aristotle's de Interpretatione.Alfred L. Ivry - 1988 - Ancient Philosophy 8 (2):309-312.
  13.  99
    Deleting the Subject: A Feminist Reading of Epistemology in Artificial Intelligence.Alison Adam - 2000 - Minds and Machines 10 (2):231-253.
    This paper argues that AI follows classical versions of epistemology in assuming that the identity of the knowing subject is not important. In other words this serves to `delete the subject''. This disguises an implicit hierarchy of knowers involved in the representation of knowledge in AI which privileges the perspective of those who design and build the systems over alternative perspectives. The privileged position reflects Western, professional masculinity. Alternative perspectives, denied a voice, belong to less powerful groups including women. (...)
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  14.  9
    Salpe's ΠAIΓNIA: Athenaeus 322A And Plin. H. N. 28.38.David Bain - 1998 - Classical Quarterly 48 (1):262-268.
    Pauly's Real-Encyclopädie knows of two women named after the attractive looking,but allegedly unappetising fish, cλπη. The first is mentioned several times in theelder Pliny, who on one occasion refers to her as an obstetrix, while the second features in the Deipnosophistae of Athenaeus as a writer of παγνια. In a recent issue of this journal J. N. Davidson has made the suggestion that they were one and the same person. Salpe's παγνια, Davidson argues, would not have consisted of light or (...)
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  15.  17
    ΑΙΔΩΣ Carl Eduard Frhr. von Erffa: AIΔΩΣ und verwandte Begriffe in ihrer Entwicklung von Homer bis Demokrit. (Philologus, Supplementband XXX, Heft 2.) Pp. viii + 206. Leipzig: Dieterich, 1937. Paper, M. 10.50 (bound, 12). [REVIEW]J. A. Davison - 1938 - The Classical Review 52 (02):60-.
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  16.  14
    Dr. J. B. Mayor on the Use of Eni and Eneσti, and Aitein and Aiteiσθai, in the New Testament.J. U. Powell - 1914 - The Classical Review 28 (06):191-193.
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  17.  14
    R. Grisolia: O[iota, accent][kappa][omicron][nu][omicron][mu][iota, accent][alpha] Struttura e tecnica drammatica negli scoli antichi ai testi drammatici . (Pubblicazioni del Dipartimento di Filologia Classica dell' Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, 20.) Pp. 125. Naples: Dipartimento di Filologia Classica dell' Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, 2001. Paper. No ISBN. [REVIEW]N. G. Wilson - 2004 - The Classical Review 54 (01):241-.
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  18.  35
    Regio X Mario Denti: Ellenismo e Romanizzazione nella X Regio: La Scultura delle Élites locali dall'età repubblicana ai Giulio-Claudi. (Archaeologica, 97.) Pp. 377; 1 map, 102 plates. Rome: Giorgio Bretschneider, 1991. Paper. [REVIEW]J. J. Wilkes - 1994 - The Classical Review 44 (02):384-386.
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  19.  17
    Ερσai, Προγονοι, Μετασσαι.P. Giles - 1889 - The Classical Review 3 (1-2):3-4.
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  20.  25
    The AiΔΩΣ of Phaedra and the Meaning of the Hippolytus.E. R. Dodds - 1925 - The Classical Review 39 (5-6):102-104.
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  21.  14
    Boλoμai in Homer.L. R. Higgins - 1895 - The Classical Review 9 (08):393-395.
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  22.  25
    Mario Naldini: Basilio di Cesarea, Discorso ai Giovani (Oratio ad adolescentes). (Biblioteca Patristica, 3.) Pp. 282; illustration. Florence: Nardini, 1984. Paper, L. 25,000. [REVIEW]W. H. C. Frend - 1986 - The Classical Review 36 (01):132-133.
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  23.  12
    Computers and Classical Myths.Antonio Fernández-Cano & Alfonso Fernández-Guerrero - 2014 - AI and Society 29 (1):85-96.
  24.  13
    Politian's Commentaries on the Georgics and Fasti Livia Castano Musicò (ed.): Angelo Poliziano: commento inedito alle Georgiche di Virgilio. (Istituto Nazionale di Studi sul Rinascimento: Studi e Testi, 18.) Pp. xvi + 282. Florence: Leo S. Olschki, 1990. Paper, L. 60,000. Francesco Lo Monaco (ed.): Angelo Poliziano: commento inedito ai Fasti di Ovidio. (Istituto Nazionale di Studi sul Rinascimento: Studi e Testi, 23.) Pp. xxxvii + 554; 1 pl. Florence: Leo S. Olschki, 1991. Paper. [REVIEW]Michael D. Reeve - 1993 - The Classical Review 43 (01):153-156.
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  25.  12
    Ajax Furens. (Soph. Ai. 143-147.).J. E. Harry - 1912 - The Classical Review 26 (04):105-108.
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  26.  12
    G. Bosio, E. Dal Covolo, M. Maritano : Introduzione ai Padri della Chiesa; Secoli III e IV. Pp. xxiv + 528. Turin: Società editrice internazionale, 1993. ISBN: 88-05-05301-5. [REVIEW]Gillian Clark - 1998 - The Classical Review 48 (2):512.
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  27.  21
    The archaeology of the aeolian islands L. bernabò brea, M. Cavalier, F. villard: Gli scavi nella necropoli greca E Romana di lipari nell'area Del terreno vescovile . (Meligunìs lipàra 11.) in two parts. Pp. 870, ills, pls. Palermo: Regione siciliana, assessorato ai beni culturali ed ambientali E Della pubblica istruzione, 2001. Paper. No isbn. M. Cavalier, M. bernabò brea (edd.): In memoria di Luigi bernabò brea . Pp. 397, ills. Palermo: Regione siciliana, assessorato ai beni culturali ed ambientali E Della pubblica istruzione, 2002. Cased. No isbn. [REVIEW]David Ridgway - 2004 - The Classical Review 54 (01):214-.
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  28.  11
    Handling Uncertainty by Interleaving Cost-Aware Classical Planning with Execution.Per Nyblom - forthcoming - Swedish Ai Society Workshop.
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  29.  20
    (M.M.) Sassi (ed.) Tracce nella mente. Teorie della memoria da Platone ai moderni. (Seminari e Convegni 9.) Pp. x + 265, ills. Pisa: Edizioni della Normale, 2007. Paper, €30. ISBN: 978-88-7642-222-. [REVIEW]Roberto Lo Presti - 2009 - The Classical Review 59 (1):295-.
  30.  10
    Literature and power F. E. consolino (ed.): Letteratura E propaganda nell'occidente latino da Augusto ai regni romanobarbarici . Pp. 227. Rome: L'erma di bretschneider, 2000. Cased. Isbn: 88-8265-094-. [REVIEW]Michael Roberts - 2002 - The Classical Review 52 (01):85-.
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  31.  17
    Jerome's Eusebius G. Brugnoli (ed.): Curiosissimus Excerptor. Gli 'Additamenta' di Girolamo ai 'Chronica' di Eusebio. (Testi e studi di cultura classica, 12.) Pp. lix + 245. Pisa: Edizioni ETS, 1995. ISBN: 88-7741-856-7. Paper, L. 35,000. [REVIEW]R. W. Burgess - 1998 - The Classical Review 48 (01):68-70.
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  32.  17
    Khanoussi (M.), Ruggeri (P.), Vismara (C.) L'Africa romana. Ai confini dell'Impero: contatti, scambi, conflitti. Atti del XV convegno di studio, Tozeur, 11-15 dicembre 2002 . In three volumes. (Collana del Dipartimento di Storia dell'Università degli studi di Sassari, Nuova Serie, 21.) Pp. 2119, maps, ills. Rome: Carocci editore, 2004. Paper, €107.53. ISBN: 88-430-3195-. [REVIEW]David Cherry - 2006 - The Classical Review 56 (1):180.
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  33.  15
    Curiosissimus Excerptor. Gli 'Additamenta' di Girolamo Ai 'Chronica' di Eusebio. G Brugnoli.R. Burgess - 1998 - The Classical Review 48 (1):68-70.
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  34.  13
    R. Uglione (ed.): Atti del Convegno Nazionale di Studi su Orazio. Torino 13–15 Aprile, 1992. Pp. 280; 8 plates. Turin: Regione Piemonte/Assessorato Ai Beni Culturali, 1993. Paper, L. 35,000. [REVIEW]Philip Hardie - 1995 - The Classical Review 45 (02):443-444.
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  35.  13
    A. Perutelli: Frustula poetarum. Contributi ai poeti latini in frammenti . (Testi e manuali per l'insegnamento universitario del latino 71.) Pp. 187. Bologna: Pàtron Editore, 2002. Paper, €13. ISBN: 88-555-2652-. [REVIEW]E. Courtney - 2003 - The Classical Review 53 (02):490-.
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  36.  12
    Scholia (G.) Avezzù, (P.) Scattolin (edd.) I classici greci e i loro commentatori. Dai papiri ai marginalia rinascimentali. Atti del convegno Rovereto, 20 ottobre 2006. (Memorie della Accademia Roveretana degli Agiati 206.) Pp. 245. Rovereto: Accademia Roveretana degli Agiati, 2006. Paper, €30. [REVIEW]Silke Trojahn - 2009 - The Classical Review 59 (1):98-.
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  37.  11
    Salpe's ΠAIΓNIA: Athenaeus 322A And Plin. H. N. 28.38.David Bain - 1998 - Classical Quarterly 48 (01):262-.
    Pauly's Real-Encyclopädie knows of two women named after the attractive looking,but allegedly unappetising fish, cλπη. The first is mentioned several times in theelder Pliny, who on one occasion refers to her as an obstetrix, while the second features in the Deipnosophistae of Athenaeus as a writer of παγνια. In a recent issue of this journal J. N. Davidson has made the suggestion that they were one and the same person. Salpe's παγνια, Davidson argues, would not have consisted of light or (...)
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  38.  1
    Oίκονομία Struttura E Tecnica Drammatica Negli Scoli Antichi Ai Testi Drammatici. [REVIEW]N. G. Wilson - 2004 - The Classical Review 54 (1):241-241.
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  39.  1
    Review: O (quote)(quote) o o(quote)(quote). Struttura e tecnica drammatica negli scoli antichi ai testi drammatici. [REVIEW]N. G. Wilson - 2004 - The Classical Review 54 (1):241-241.
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  40.  4
    ΘhaγπaiΣ in Lycophron 850–1.Leofranc Holford-Strevens - 2000 - Classical Quarterly 50 (02):606-.
    Besides the direct tradition, these verses are cited by Stephanus of Byzantium, s.n. Aγυς, who explains: λγος πρ ‘Eλυης Λακωυικς οὒσης κα ρρυ μτκοσης κα τ ’Aλζυδρω κα Δηϊøβω γαμηθσης Commentators have followed him both as to the identity of the three husbands and the sense of θηλπαις: ‘female-childed’.
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  41.  1
    φpobaΛΛEΣΘAI in Dio's Account of Elections Under Augustus.P. Michael Swan - 1982 - Classical Quarterly 32 (02):436-.
    In the course of giving a brief sketch of the rule of Augustus Dio passes the following remark on the state of public elections.
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  42.  1
    Shorter Note: H AI in Lycophron 850-1.L. Holford-Strevens - 2000 - Classical Quarterly 50 (2):610-610.
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  43. Transparent, Explainable, and Accountable AI for Robotics.Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt & Luciano Floridi - 2017 - Science (Robotics) 2 (6):eaan6080.
    To create fair and accountable AI and robotics, we need precise regulation and better methods to certify, explain, and audit inscrutable systems.
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  44.  82
    A Nonclassical Framework for Cognitive Science.Terence E. Horgan & John L. Tienson - 1994 - Synthese 101 (3):305-45.
    David Marr provided a useful framework for theorizing about cognition within classical, AI-style cognitive science, in terms of three levels of description: the levels of (i) cognitive function, (ii) algorithm and (iii) physical implementation. We generalize this framework: (i) cognitive state transitions, (ii) mathematical/functional design and (iii) physical implementation or realization. Specifying the middle, design level to be the theory of dynamical systems yields a nonclassical, alternative framework that suits (but is not committed to) connectionism. We consider how a (...)
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  45.  75
    Reverse Psychologism, Cognition and Content.Dartnall Terry - 2000 - Minds and Machines 10 (1):31-52.
    The confusion between cognitive states and the content of cognitive states that gives rise to psychologism also gives rise to reverse psychologism. Weak reverse psychologism says that we can study cognitive states by studying content – for instance, that we can study the mind by studying linguistics or logic. This attitude is endemic in cognitive science and linguistic theory. Strong reverse psychologism says that we can generate cognitive states by giving computers representations that express the content of cognitive states and (...)
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  46. Interaction and Resistance: The Recognition of Intentions in New Human-Computer Interaction.Vincent C. Müller - 2011 - In Anna Esposito, Antonietta M. Esposito, Raffaele Martone, Vincent C. Müller & Gaetano Scarpetta (eds.), Towards autonomous, adaptive, and context-aware multimodal interfaces: Theoretical and practical issues. Springer. pp. 1-7.
    Just as AI has moved away from classical AI, human-computer interaction (HCI) must move away from what I call ‘good old fashioned HCI’ to ‘new HCI’ – it must become a part of cognitive systems research where HCI is one case of the interaction of intelligent agents (we now know that interaction is essential for intelligent agents anyway). For such interaction, we cannot just ‘analyze the data’, but we must assume intentions in the other, and I suggest these are (...)
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  47.  25
    Levels of Description in Nonclassical Cognitive Science.Terence E. Horgan & John L. Tienson - 1992 - Philosophy 34:159-188.
    David Marr provided an influential account of levels of description in classical cognitive science. In this paper we contrast Marr'ent with some alternatives that are suggested by the recent emergence of connectionism. Marr's account is interesting and important both because of the levels of description it distinguishes, and because of the way his presentation reflects some of the most basic, foundational, assumptions of classical AI-style cognitive science . Thus, by focusing on levels of description, one can sharpen foundational (...)
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  48.  34
    Alternative Essences of Intelligence.Rodney A. Brooks - unknown
    We present a novel methodology for building humanlike artificially intelligent systems. We take as a model the only existing systems which are universally accepted as intelligent: humans. We emphasize building intelligent systems which are not masters of a single domain, but, like humans, are adept at performing a variety of complex tasks in the real world. Using evidence from cognitive science and neuroscience, we suggest four alternative essences of intelligence to those held by classical AI. These are the parallel (...)
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  49.  19
    Cognition and Decision in Biomedical Artificial Intelligence: From Symbolic Representation to Emergence. [REVIEW]Vincent Rialle - 1995 - AI and Society 9 (2-3):138-160.
    This paper presents work in progress on artificial intelligence in medicine (AIM) within the larger context of cognitive science. It introduces and develops the notion ofemergence both as an inevitable evolution of artificial intelligence towards machine learning programs and as the result of a synergistic co-operation between the physician and the computer. From this perspective, the emergence of knowledge takes placein fine in the expert's mind and is enhanced both by computerised strategies of induction and deduction, and by software abilities (...)
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  50.  4
    Levels of Description in Nonclassical Cognitive Science.Terence Horgan & John Tienson - 1993 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 34:159-188.
    David Marr provided an influential account of levels of description in classical cognitive science. In this paper we contrast Marr'ent with some alternatives that are suggested by the recent emergence of connectionism. Marr's account is interesting and important both because of the levels of description it distinguishes, and because of the way his presentation reflects some of the most basic, foundational, assumptions of classical AI-style cognitive science. Thus, by focusing on levels of description, one can sharpen foundational differences (...)
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