Results for 'classical genetics'

990 found
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  1. What Was Classical Genetics?C. Kenneth Waters - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 35 (4):783-809.
    I present an account of classical genetics to challenge theory-biased approaches in the philosophy of science. Philosophers typically assume that scientific knowledge is ultimately structured by explanatory reasoning and that research programs in well-established sciences are organized around efforts to fill out a central theory and extend its explanatory range. In the case of classical genetics, philosophers assume that the knowledge was structured by T. H. Morgan’s theory of transmission and that research throughout the later 1920s, (...)
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  2.  17
    Classical Genetics and the Theory-Net of Genetics.Pablo Lorenzano - 2000 - In Joseph D. Sneed, Wolfgang Balzer & C.-Ulises Moulines (eds.), Structuralist Knowledge Representation: Paradigmatic Examples. Rodopi. pp. 75-251.
    This article presents a reconstruction of the so-called classical, formal or Mendelian genetics, which is intended to be more complete and adequate than existing reconstructions. This reconstruction has been carried out with the instruments, duly modified and extended with respect to the case under consideration, of the structuralist conception of theories. The so-called Mendel’s Laws, as well as linkage genetics and gene mapping are formulated in a precise manner while the global structure of genetics is represented (...)
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  3.  64
    The Logical Structure of Classical Genetics.Wolfgang Balzer & Pablo Lorenzano - 2000 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 31 (2):243-266.
    We present a reconstruction of so-called classical, formal or Mendelian genetics using a notation which we believe is more legible than that of earlier accounts, and lends itself easily to computer implementation, for instance in PROLOG. By drawing from, and emending, earlier work of Balzer and Dawe (1986,1997), the present account presents the three most important lines of development of classical genetics: the so-called Mendel's laws, linkage genetics and gene mapping, in the form of a (...)
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  4.  42
    Theorizing and Representational Practices in Classical Genetics.Marion Vorms - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (4):311-324.
    In this paper, I wish to challenge theory-biased approaches to scientific knowledge, by arguing for a study of theorizing, as a cognitive activity, rather than of theories, as abstract structures independent from the agents’ understanding of them. Such a study implies taking into account scientists’ reasoning processes, and their representational practices. Here, I analyze the representational practices of geneticists in the 1910s, as a means of shedding light on the content of classical genetics. Most philosophical accounts of (...) genetics fail to distinguish between the purely genetic, or Mendelian level, and the cytological one. I distinguish between them by characterizing them in terms of their respective associated representational practices. I then present how the two levels were articulated within Morgan’s theory of crossing-over, and I describe the representational technique of linkage mapping, which embodies the “merging” of the Mendelian and cytological levels. I propose an analysis of the mapping scheme, as a means of enlightening the conceptual articulation of Mendelian and cytological hypotheses within classical genetics. Finally, I present the respective views of three opponents to Morgan in the 1910s, who had a different understanding of the articulation of cytology and Mendelism, and entertained different views concerning the role and proper interpretation of maps. I propose to consider these diverging perspectives as instantiating what I call different “versions” of classical genetics. (shrink)
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  5.  32
    The Birth of Classical Genetics as the Junction of Two Disciplines: Conceptual Change as Representational Change.Marion Vorms - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 48:105-116.
  6. Models of Data and Theoretical Hypotheses: A Case-Study in Classical Genetics.Marion Vorms - 2013 - Synthese 190 (2):293-319.
    Linkage (or genetic) maps are graphs, which are intended to represent the linear ordering of genes on the chromosomes. They are constructed on the basis of statistical data concerning the transmission of genes. The invention of this technique in 1913 was driven by Morgan's group's adoption of a set of hypotheses concerning the physical mechanism of heredity. These hypotheses were themselves grounded in Morgan's defense of the chromosome theory of heredity, according to which chromosomes are the physical basis of genes. (...)
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  7. Structure and Comparison of Genetic Theories: (I) Classical Genetics.W. Balzer & C. M. Dawe - 1986 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 37 (1):55-69.
  8.  14
    An Experiment-Based Methodology for Classical Genetics and Molecular Biology.Hsiao-fan Yeh & Ruey-lin Chen - 2017 - Annals of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science 26:39-60.
    This paper proposes an experiment-based methodology for both classical genetics and molecular biology by integrating Lindley Darden’s mechanism-centered approach and C. Kenneth Waters’s phenomenon-centered approach. We argue that the methodology basing on experiments offers a satisfactory account of the development of the two biological disciplines. The methodology considers discovery of new mechanisms, investigation of new phenomena, and construction of new theories together, in which experiments play a central role. Experimentation connects the three type of conduct, which work as (...)
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  9.  4
    The Wild Type as Concept and in Experimental Practice: A History of its Role in Classical Genetics and Evolutionary Theory.Tarquin Holmes - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 63:15-27.
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  10.  6
    On Gene Concepts and Teaching Genetics: Episodes From Classical Genetics.Richard M. Burian - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (2):325-344.
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  11. Supervenience: Its Logic and its Inferential Role in Classical Genetics.Bert Leuridan - 2007 - Logique Et Analyse 198:147-171.
    Supervenience is mostly conceived of as a purely philosophical concept. Nevertheless, I will argue, it played an important and very fruitful inferential role in classical genetics. Gregor Mendel assumed that phenotypic traits supervene on underlying factors, and this assumption allowed him to successfully predict and explain the phenotypical regularities he had experimentally discovered. Therefore it is interesting to explicate how we reason about supervenience relations. I will tackle the following two questions. Firstly, can a reliable method (a logic) (...)
     
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  12.  31
    Exemplars, Models and Principles in Classical Genetics.Pablo Lorenzano - 2005 - In José Luis Falguera, Concha Martínez & José Miguel Sagüillo (eds.), Current Topics in Logic and Analytic Philosophy/Temas actuales de Lógica y Filosofía Analítica. University of Santiago de Compostela. pp. 89-102.
    Taking as starting point Kuhn’s analysis of science textbooks and its application to Sinnott and Dunn’s (1925), it will be discussed the problem of the existence of laws in biology. In particular, it will be showed, in accordance with the proposals of Darden (1991) and Schaffner (1980, 1986, 1993), the relevance of the exemplars, diagrammatically or graphically represented, in the way in which is carried out the teaching and learning process of classical genetics, inasmuch as the information contained (...)
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  13. Paradox as Path: Pattern as Map. Classical Genetics as a Source of Non-Reductionism in Molecular Biology.David S. Thaler - 1996 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 183:233-248.
  14.  5
    Elaborating the Structures of a Science Discipline to Improve Problem-Solving Instruction: An Account of Classical Genetics' Theory Structure, Function, and Development.Robert Hafner & Sylvia Culp - 1996 - Science & Education 5 (4):331-355.
  15.  5
    The Phenotypic Deception: Influences of Classical Genetics on Genetic Paradigms.Thomas A. Fogle - 1987 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 31 (1):65.
  16. Genetics and Reductionism.Sahotra Sarkar - 1998 - Cambridge University Press.
    With the advent of the Human Genome Project there have been many claims for the genetic origins of complex human behavior including insanity, criminality, and intelligence. But what does it really mean to call something 'genetic'? This is the fundamental question that Sahotra Sarkar's book addresses. The author analyses the nature of reductionism in classical and molecular genetics. He shows that there are two radically different kinds of reductionist explanation: genetic reduction and physical reduction . This important book (...)
     
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  17.  50
    Classical Population Genetics and the Semantic Approach to Scientific Theories.Peter Gildenhuys - 2013 - Synthese 190 (2):273-291.
    In what follows, I argue that the semantic approach to scientific theories fails as a means to present the Wright—Fisher formalism (WFF) of population genetics. I offer an account of what population geneticist understand insofar as they understand the WFF, a variation on Lloyd's view that population genetics can be understood as a family of models of mid-level generality.
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  18.  52
    Why the Antireductionist Consensus Won't Survive the Case of Classical Mendelian Genetics.C. Kenneth Waters - 1990 - Philosophy of Science Association 1:125-39.
    Philosophers now treat the relationship between classical genetics and molecular biology as a paradigm of nonreduction and this example is playing an increasingly prominent role in debates about the reducibility of theories in other sciences. This paper shows that the anti-reductionist consensus about genetics will not withstand serious scrutiny. In addition to defusing the main anti-reductionist objections, this critical analysis uncovers tell-tale signs of a significant reduction in progress. It also identifies philosophical issues relevant to gaining a (...)
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  19.  16
    Book Review:Mendel's Legacy: The Origins of Classical Genetics[REVIEW]Alfonso Martinez Arias - 2005 - Bioessays 27 (7):761-762.
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  20. Mendel's Legacy: The Origins of Classical Genetics By Elof Axel Carlson.A. M. Arias - 2005 - Bioessays 27 (7):761.
     
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  21.  15
    Book Review: Elof Axel Carlson, Mendel's Legacy: The Origin of Classical Genetics[REVIEW]Michael R. Dietrich - 2004 - Journal of the History of Biology 37 (3):590-591.
  22. Arbitrariness and Causation in Classical Population Genetics.Peter Gildenhuys - 2014 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 65 (3):429-444.
    I criticize some arguments against the causal interpretability of population genetics put forward by Denis Walsh ([2007], [2010]). In particular, I seek to undermine the contention that population genetics exhibits frame of reference relativity or subjectivity with respect to its formal representations. I also show that classical population genetics does not fall foul of some criteria for causal representation put forward by James Woodward ([2003]), although those criteria do undermine some causalist stances. 1 Introduction2 Modularity3 The (...)
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  23.  81
    Explanation in Classical Population Genetics.Anya Plutynski - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (5):1201-1214.
    The recent literature in philosophy of biology has drawn attention to the different sorts of explanations proffered in the biological sciences—we have molecular, biomedical, and evolutionary explanations. Do these explanations all have a common structure or relation that they seek to capture? This paper will answer in the negative. I defend a pluralistic and pragmatic approach to explanation. Using examples from classical population genetics, I argue that formal demonstrations, and even strictly “mathematical truths,” may serve as explanatory in (...)
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  24.  22
    A Gene-Free Formulation of Classical Quantitative Genetics Used to Examine Results and Interpretations Under Three Standard Assumptions.Peter J. Taylor - 2012 - Acta Biotheoretica 60 (4):357-378.
    Quantitative genetics (QG) analyses variation in traits of humans, other animals, or plants in ways that take account of the genealogical relatedness of the individuals whose traits are observed. “Classical” QG, where the analysis of variation does not involve data on measurable genetic or environmental entities or factors, is reformulated in this article using models that are free of hypothetical, idealized versions of such factors, while still allowing for defined degrees of relatedness among kinds of individuals or “varieties.” (...)
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  25.  31
    The Genetics of Language.Lyle Jenkins - 1979 - Linguistics and Philosophy 3 (1):105 - 119.
    Within the context of the study of the genetics of language, Chomskian laws of grammar, such as theStructure-dependence Condition and theA over A Condition, may be usefully regarded to have a status similar to that of Mendelian Laws in classical genetics. In both the case of Chomsky's Laws and Mendel's Laws, formal genetic principles are postulated which abstract away from the physical mechanisms involved and in both cases certain apparent counterexamples mirror a more complex underlying genetic organisation.
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  26.  31
    Heroic Antireductionism and Genetics: A Tale of One Science.Russell E. Vance - 1996 - Philosophy of Science 63 (3):45.
    In this paper I provide a novel argument against the claim that classical genetics is being reduced to molecular genetics. Specifically, I demonstrate that reductionists must subscribe to the unargued and problematic thesis that molecular genetics is 'independent' of classical genetics. I also argue that several standard antireductionist positions can be faulted for unnecessarily conceding the Independence Thesis to the reductionists. In place of a 'tale of two sciences', I offer a 'heroic' stance that (...)
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  27.  30
    Origins of the Classical Gene Concept, 1900–1950: Genetics, Mechanistic, Philosophy, and the Capitalization of Agriculture. [REVIEW]Garland E. Allen - 2014 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 57 (1):8-39.
    As many of the papers in this Special Symposium Issue discuss, by the 21st century we have moved well beyond the notion of a gene as a single particulate unit coding for a given protein, or especially a single phenotypic trait. Yet notions of genes as some kind of single, particulate entity still persist, especially in textbooks and writings about genetics for the general public. To understand this disjunct between the professional geneticist’s view of genes and their complex interactions, (...)
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  28.  41
    Righteous Modeling: The Competence of Classical Population Genetics[REVIEW]Peter Gildenhuys - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (6):813-835.
    In a recent article, “Wayward Modeling: Population Genetics and Natural Selection,” Bruce Glymour claims that population genetics is burdened by serious predictive and explanatory inadequacies and that the theory itself is to blame. Because Glymour overlooks a variety of formal modeling techniques in population genetics, his arguments do not quite undermine a major scientific theory. However, his arguments are extremely valuable as they provide definitive proof that those who would deploy classical population genetics over natural (...)
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  29. Beyond Theoretical Reduction and Layer-Cake Antireduction: How DNA Retooled Genetics and Transformed Biological Practice.C. Kenneth Waters - unknown
    Watson and Crick’s discovery of the structure of DNA led to developments that transformed many biological sciences. But what were the relevant developments and how did they transform biology? Much of the philosophical discussion concerning this question can be organized around two opposing views: theoretical reductionism and layer-cake antireductionism. Theoretical reductionist and their anti-reductionist foes hold two assumptions in common. First, both hold that biological knowledge is structured like a layer cake, with some biological sciences, such as molecular biology cast (...)
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  30.  23
    What is the Status of the Hardy-Weinberg Law Within Population Genetics?Pablo Lorenzano - 2014 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 17:159-172.
    The aim of this paper is to further develop van Fraassen’s diagnosis, expanding a previous analysis of the fundamental law of classical genetics and the status of the so-called ‘Mendel’s laws’.6 According to this diagnosis the Hardy-Weinberg law: 1) cannot be considered as axiom (or fundamental law) for classical population genetics, since it is a law that describes an equilibrium that 2) holds only under certain special conditions, and 3) only determines a subclass of models, 4) (...)
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  31. Why the Anti-Reductionist Consensus Won't Survive: The Case of Classical Mendelian Genetics.C. Kenneth Waters - 1990 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:125-139.
    Philosophers now treat the relationship between classical genetics and molecular biology as a paradigm of nonreduction and this example is playing an increasingly prominent role in debates about the reducibility of theories in other sciences. This paper shows that the anti-reductionist consensus about genetics will not withstand serious scrutiny. In addition to defusing the main anti-reductionist objections, this critical analysis uncovers tell-tale signs of a significant reduction in progress. It also identifies philosophical issues relevant to gaining a (...)
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  32.  23
    Probability in Classical Population Genetics.Peter Gildenhuys - unknown
    The reason why population genetics is a probabilistic theory has attracted considerable attention from philosophers. In what follows, I offer a novel account of what motivates the introduction of probabilities into classical population genetics. Probabilities make the theory easier to apply for researchers given their epistemic limitations and give the theory a recursive structure, thereby making possible inferences about the dynamics of systems over multiple generations. I argue that probabilities in population genetics can be given a (...)
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  33.  15
    Genetics, Biology and Multifactorial Diseases.John Stewart - 2002 - Acta Biotheoretica 50 (4):323-329.
    The schematic concept of levels of causal interaction is applied to the relation between genetics and biology. The strength of classical formal genetics lies in its power to proceed directly from observations on an external phenotype, to inferences concerning the nature and properties of the fundamental genetic factors. Its weakness comes from the fact that by short-circuiting the causal chain leading from genotype to phenotype, it creates a divorce between genetics and biology. It is argued that (...)
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  34.  43
    Reduction and Instrumentalism in Genetics.Philip Gasper - 1992 - Philosophy of Science 59 (4):655-670.
    In his important paper "1953 and All That: A Tale of Two Sciences" (1984), Philip Kitcher defends biological antireductionism, arguing that the division of biology into subfields such as classical and molecular genetics is "not simply... a temporary feature of our science stemming from our cognitive imperfections but [is] the reflection of levels of organization in nature" (p. 371). In a recent discussion of Kitcher's views, Alexander Rosenberg has argued, first, that Kitcher has shown that the reduction of (...)
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  35.  10
    Molecular Genetics and the Foundations of Evolution.Bernard D. Davis - 1985 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 28 (2):251-268.
  36. The Proper Role of Population Genetics in Modern Evolutionary Theory.Massimo Pigliucci - 2008 - Biological Theory 3 (4):316-324.
    Evolutionary biology is a field currently animated by much discussion concerning its conceptual foundations. On the one hand, we have supporters of a classical view of evolutionary theory, whose backbone is provided by population genetics and the so-called Modern Synthesis (MS). On the other hand, a number of researchers are calling for an Extended Synthe- sis (ES) that takes seriously both the limitations of the MS (such as its inability to incorporate developmental biology) and recent empirical and theoretical (...)
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  37.  4
    Molecular Genetics: Increasing the Resolving Power of Genetic Analysis.Raphael Falk - 2008 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 30 (1):43 - 52.
    Contrary to Mendel, who introduced hybridization as a methodology for the study of selected discrete traits, de Vries conceived of organisms to be composed of discrete traits. This introduced into genetic research the dialectics of reductive analysis of genes as instrumental variables versus that of genes as the material atoms of heredity. The latter conception gained support with the analysis of mutations and eventually with high resolution analysis at the genetic and biochemical levels, as achieved in fungi and later in (...)
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  38.  11
    Waddington’s Epigenetics or the Pictorial Meetings of Development and Genetics.Antonine Nicoglou - 2018 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (4):61.
    In 1956, in his Principles of Embryology, Conrad Hal Waddington explained that the word “epigenetics” should be used to translate and update Wilhelm Roux’ German notion of “Entwicklungsmechanik” to qualify the studies focusing on the mechanisms of development. When Waddington mentioned it in 1956, the notion of epigenetics was not yet popular, as it would become from the 1980s. However, Waddington referred first to the notion in the late 1930s. While his late allusion clearly reveals that Waddington readily associated the (...)
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  39. Strategies of Model Building in Population Genetics.Anya Plutynski - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (5):755-764.
    In 1966, Richard Levins argued that there are different strategies in model building in population biology. In this paper, I reply to Orzack and Sober’s (1993) critiques of Levins, and argue that his views on modeling strategies apply also in the context of evolutionary genetics. In particular, I argue that there are different ways in which models are used to ask and answer questions about the dynamics of evolutionary change, prospectively and retrospectively, in classical versus molecular evolutionary (...). Further, I argue that robustness analysis is a tool for, if not confirmation, then something near enough, in this discipline. (shrink)
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  40.  4
    Genetics without genes? The centrality of genetic markers in livestock genetics and genomics.James W. E. Lowe & Ann Bruce - 2019 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 41 (4):1-29.
    In this paper, rather than focusing on genes as an organising concept around which historical considerations of theory and practice in genetics are elucidated, we place genetic markers at the heart of our analysis. This reflects their central role in the subject of our account, livestock genetics concerning the domesticated pig, Sus scrofa. We define a genetic marker as a element existing in different forms in the genome, that can be identified and mapped using a variety of quantitative, (...)
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  41.  1
    Genetics without genes? The centrality of genetic markers in livestock genetics and genomics.James W. E. Lowe & Ann Bruce - 2019 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 41 (4):1-29.
    In this paper, rather than focusing on genes as an organising concept around which historical considerations of theory and practice in genetics are elucidated, we place genetic markers at the heart of our analysis. This reflects their central role in the subject of our account, livestock genetics concerning the domesticated pig, Sus scrofa. We define a genetic marker as a element existing in different forms in the genome, that can be identified and mapped using a variety of quantitative, (...)
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  42.  35
    Opposition to the Mendelian-Chromosome Theory: The Physiological and Developmental Genetics of Richard Goldschmidt.Garland E. Allen - 1974 - Journal of the History of Biology 7 (1):49-92.
    We may now ask the question: In what historical perspective should we place the work of Richard Goldschmidt? There is no doubt that in the period 1910–1950 Goldschmidt was an important and prolific figure in the history of biology in general, and of genetics in particular. His textbook on physiological genetics, published in 1938, was an amazing compendium of ideas put forward in the previous half-century about how genes influence physiology and development. His earlier studies on the genetic (...)
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  43.  21
    The Sense of Responsibility in the Context of Professional Activities in Medical Genetics.Natália Oliva-Teles - 2011 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (4):397-405.
    Medical Genetics is a relatively new field of scientific work that involves a lot of enthusiastic professionals, both in routine (clinical) and research (scientific projects). In either field, different geneticists feel different responsibilities for their work, either because they are different people (personal responsibility) or because they have a different rank in the respective departments (professional responsibility). This paper presents the philosophical views of several authors on the sense of responsibility from the Classical times until the present and (...)
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  44.  63
    Holism and Reductionism: A View From Genetics.Arthur Zucker - 1981 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 6 (2):145-164.
    are often used loosely – especially in medical contexts. In an attempt to remedy this, these terms are explored from the standpoints of: philosophy of science, medicine, genetics, history of genetics and clinical genetics. A sense for ‘reductionism’ is developed in part by focusing on the related histories of classical genetics and clinical genetics. This done, the dichotomy between holism and reductionism, whether in basic genetics or the genetic counseling situation, loses much of (...)
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  45.  8
    Drift as Constitutive: Conclusions From a Formal Reconstruction of Population Genetics.Ariel Jonathan Roffé - 2019 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 41 (4):55.
    This article elaborates on McShea and Brandon’s idea that drift is unlike the rest of the evolutionary factors because it is constitutive rather than imposed on the evolutionary process. I show that the way they spelled out this idea renders it inadequate and is the reason why it received some objections. I propose a different way in which their point could be understood, that rests on two general distinctions. The first is a distinction between the underlying mathematical apparatus used to (...)
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  46.  4
    Drift as constitutive: conclusions from a formal reconstruction of population genetics.Ariel Jonathan Roffé - 2019 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 41 (4):1-24.
    This article elaborates on McShea and Brandon’s idea that drift is unlike the rest of the evolutionary factors because it is constitutive rather than imposed on the evolutionary process. I show that the way they spelled out this idea renders it inadequate and is the reason why it received some objections. I propose a different way in which their point could be understood, that rests on two general distinctions. The first is a distinction between the underlying mathematical apparatus used to (...)
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  47.  25
    The Contribution of History and Philosophy to the Problem of Hybrid Views About Genes in Genetics Teaching.Charbel N. El-Hani, Ana Maria R. de Alameida, Gilberto C. Bomfim, Leyla M. Joaquim, João Carlos M. Magalhães, Lia M. N. Meyer, Maiana A. Pitombo & Vanessa C. dos Santos - 2014 - In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. pp. 469-520.
    Currently there are persistent doubts about the meaning and contributions of the gene concept, mostly related to its interpretation as a stretch of DNA encoding a single functional product, i.e., the classical molecular gene concept. There is, however, much conceptual variation around genes, leading to important difficulties in genetics teaching. We investigated whether and how conceptual variation related to the gene concept and gene function models is present in school science and what potential problems it may bring to (...)
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  48.  56
    The Referential Convergence of Gene Concepts Based on Classical and Molecular Analyses.Tudor M. Baetu - 2010 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 24 (4):411-427.
    Kenneth Waters and Marcel Weber argue that the joint use of distinct gene concepts and the transfer of knowledge between classical and molecular analyses in contemporary scientific practice is possible because classical and molecular concepts of the gene refer to overlapping chromosomal segments and the DNA sequences associated with these segments. However, while pointing in the direction of coreference, both authors also agree that there is a considerable divergence between the actual sequences that count as genes in (...) genetics and molecular biology. The thesis advanced in this paper is that the referents of classical and molecular gene concepts are coextensive to a higher degree than admitted by Waters and Weber, and therefore coreference can provide a satisfactory account of the high level of integration between classical genetics and molecular biology. In particular, I argue that the functional units/cistrons identified by classical techniques overlap with functional elements entering the composition of molecular transcription units, and that the precision of this overlap can be improved by conducting further experimentation. (shrink)
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  49.  9
    Has classical gene position been practically reduced?Oriol Vidal & David Teira - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (5):1-20.
    One of the defining features of the classical gene was its position. In molecular genetics, positions are defined instead as nucleotide numbers and there is no clear correspondence with its classical counterpart. However, the classical gene position did not simply disappear with the development of the molecular approach, but survived in the lab associated to different genetic practices. The survival of classical gene position would illustrate Waters’ view about the practical persistence of the genetic approach (...)
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  50.  22
    Base empírica global de contrastación, base empírica local de contrastación y aserción empírica de una teoría.Pablo Lorenzano - 2012 - Agora 31 (2):71-107.
    The aim of this article is to contribute to the discussion about the so-called “empirical claim” and “empirical basis” of theory testing. First, the proposals of reconceptualization of the standard notions of partial potential model, intended application and empirical claim of a theory made by Balzer (1982, 1988, 1997a, 1997b, 2006, Balzer, Lauth & Zoubek 1993) and Gähde (1996, 2002, 2008) will be first discussed. Then, the distinction between “global” and “local empirical basis” will be introduced, linking it with that (...)
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