Results for 'cognitive architecture'

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  1. The Cognitive Architecture of Imaginative Resistance.Kengo Miyazono & Shen-yi Liao - 2016 - In Amy Kind (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Imagination. pp. 233-246.
    Where is imagination in imaginative resistance? We seek to answer this question by connecting two ongoing lines of inquiry in different subfields of philosophy. In philosophy of mind, philosophers have been trying to understand imaginative attitudes’ place in cognitive architecture. In aesthetics, philosophers have been trying to understand the phenomenon of imaginative resistance. By connecting these two lines of inquiry, we hope to find mutual illumination of an attitude (or cluster of attitudes) and a phenomenon that have vexed (...)
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  2. Scientific Inference and Ordinary Cognition: Fodor on Holism and Cognitive Architecture.Tim Fuller & Richard Samuels - 2014 - Mind and Language 29 (2):201-237.
    Do accounts of scientific theory formation and revision have implications for theories of everyday cognition? We maintain that failing to distinguish between importantly different types of theories of scientific inference has led to fundamental misunderstandings of the relationship between science and everyday cognition. In this article, we focus on one influential manifestation of this phenomenon which is found in Fodor's well-known critique of theories of cognitive architecture. We argue that in developing his critique, Fodor confounds a variety of (...)
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  3.  96
    Unconscious Representations 2: Towards an Integrated Cognitive Architecture.Luis M. Augusto - 2014 - Axiomathes 24 (1):19-43.
    The representational nature of human cognition and thought in general has been a source of controversies. This is particularly so in the context of studies of unconscious cognition, in which representations tend to be ontologically and structurally segregated with regard to their conscious status. However, it appears evolutionarily and developmentally unwarranted to posit such segregations, as,otherwise, artifact structures and ontologies must be concocted to explain them from the viewpoint of the human cognitive architecture. Here, from a by-and-large Classical (...)
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  4. The Cognitive Architecture of Embodied Mind.Helena Knyazeva - 2011 - International Journal of the Humanities 8 (12):1-10.
    The dynamic approach to understanding of the human consciousness, its cognitive activities and cognitive architecture is one of the most promising approaches in the modern epistemology and cognitive science. The conception of embodied mind is under discussion in the light of nonlinear dynamics and of the idea co-evolution of complex systems developed by the Moscow scientific school. The cognitive architecture of the embodied mind is rather complex: data from senses and products of rational thinking, (...)
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  5.  65
    Mindreading: Mental State Ascription and Cognitive Architecture.Joseph L. H. Cruz - 1998 - Mind and Language 13 (3):323-340.
    The debate between the theory-theory and simulation has largely ignored issues of cognitive architecture. In the philosophy of psychology, cognition as symbol manipulation is the orthodoxy. The challenge from connectionism, however, has attracted vigorous and renewed interest. In this paper I adopt connectionism as the antecedent of a conditional: If connectionism is the correct account of cognitive architecture, then the simulation theory should be preferred over the theory-theory. I use both developmental evidence and constraints on explanation (...)
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  6. Connectionism and Cognitive Architecture: A Critical Analysis.Jerry A. Fodor & Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1988 - Cognition 28 (1-2):3-71.
    This paper explores the difference between Connectionist proposals for cognitive a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d t h e s o r t s o f m o d e l s t hat have traditionally been assum e d i n c o g n i t i v e s c i e n c e . W e c l a i m t h a t t (...)
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  7.  35
    Modeling Two‐Channel Speech Processing With the EPIC Cognitive Architecture.David E. Kieras, Gregory H. Wakefield, Eric R. Thompson, Nandini Iyer & Brian D. Simpson - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (1):291-304.
    An important application of cognitive architectures is to provide human performance models that capture psychological mechanisms in a form that can be “programmed” to predict task performance of human–machine system designs. Although many aspects of human performance have been successfully modeled in this approach, accounting for multitalker speech task performance is a novel problem. This article presents a model for performance in a two-talker task that incorporates concepts from psychoacoustics, in particular, masking effects and stream formation.
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  8. Functional Independence and Cognitive Architecture.Vincent Bergeron - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (3):817-836.
    In cognitive science, the concept of dissociation has been central to the functional individuation and decomposition of cognitive systems. Setting aside debates about the legitimacy of inferring the existence of dissociable systems from ‘behavioural’ dissociation data, the main idea behind the dissociation approach is that two cognitive systems are dissociable, and thus viewed as distinct, if each can be damaged, or impaired, without affecting the other system’s functions. In this article, I propose a notion of functional independence (...)
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  9.  29
    Human Symbol Manipulation Within an Integrated Cognitive Architecture.John R. Anderson - 2005 - Cognitive Science 29 (3):313-341.
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  10.  47
    A Two-Tiered Cognitive Architecture for Moral Reasoning.John Bolender - 2001 - Biology and Philosophy 16 (3):339-356.
    The view that moral cognition is subserved by a two-tieredarchitecture is defended: Moral reasoning is the result both ofspecialized, informationally encapsulated modules which automaticallyand effortlessly generate intuitions; and of general-purpose,cognitively penetrable mechanisms which enable moral judgment in thelight of the agent's general fund of knowledge. This view is contrastedwith rival architectures of social/moral cognition, such as Cosmidesand Tooby's view that the mind is wholly modular, and it is argued thata two-tiered architecture is more plausible.
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  11.  7
    Visual Search Without Selective Attention: A Cognitive Architecture Account.David E. Kieras - 2019 - Topics in Cognitive Science 11 (1):222-239.
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  12.  67
    A Cognitive Architecture That Combines Internal Simulation with a Global Workspace.Murray Shanahan - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):433-449.
    This paper proposes a brain-inspired cognitive architecture that incorporates approximations to the concepts of consciousness, imagination, and emotion. To emulate the empirically established cognitive efficacy of conscious as opposed to non-conscious information processing in the mammalian brain, the architecture adopts a model of information flow from global workspace theory. Cognitive functions such as anticipation and planning are realised through internal simulation of interaction with the environment. Action selection, in both actual and internally simulated interaction with (...)
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  13.  91
    Getting Ahead: Forward Models and Their Place in Cognitive Architecture.Martin J. Pickering & Andy Clark - 2014 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (9):451-456.
    The use of forward models is well established in cognitive and computational neuroscience. We compare and contrast two recent, but interestingly divergent, accounts of the place of forward models in the human cognitive architecture. On the Auxiliary Forward Model account, forward models are special-purpose prediction mechanisms implemented by additional circuitry distinct from core mechanisms of perception and action. On the Integral Forward Model account, forward models lie at the heart of all forms of perception and action. We (...)
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  14.  26
    Belief and Cognitive Architecture.William Ramsey - 1992 - Dialogue 31 (1):115-120.
    Considerable debate in philosophy of psychology has recently focussed upon two central themes. One concerns the ontological status of propositional attitudes like beliefs and desires, the other on the proper computational account of cognitive architecture. In the ontological debate, the two most prominent positions are eliminativism, which claims that commonsense psychology is false because there are no such things as beliefs and desires; and versions of intentional realism, which counters that beliefs and desires actually do exist in the (...)
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  15. A Unified Cognitive Model of Visual Filling-In Based on an Emergic Network Architecture.David Pierre Leibovitz - 2013 - Dissertation, Carleton University
    The Emergic Cognitive Model (ECM) is a unified computational model of visual filling-in based on the Emergic Network architecture. The Emergic Network was designed to help realize systems undergoing continuous change. In this thesis, eight different filling-in phenomena are demonstrated under a regime of continuous eye movement (and under static eye conditions as well). -/- ECM indirectly demonstrates the power of unification inherent with Emergic Networks when cognition is decomposed according to finer-grained functions supporting change. These can interact (...)
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  16.  5
    A Kantian Cognitive Architecture.Richard Evans - 2019 - In Matteo Vincenzo D'Alfonso & Don Berkich (eds.), On the Cognitive, Ethical, and Scientific Dimensions of Artificial Intelligence. Springer Verlag. pp. 233-262.
    In this paper, I reinterpret Kant’s Transcendental Analytic as a description of a cognitive architecture. I describe a computer implementation of this architecture, and show how it has been applied to two unsupervised learning tasks. The resulting program is very data efficient, able to learn from a tiny handful of examples. I show how the program achieves data-efficiency: the constraints described in the Analytic of Principles are reinterpreted as strong prior knowledge, constraining the set of possible solutions.
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  17.  52
    Connectionism and Novel Combinations of Skills: Implications for Cognitive Architecture[REVIEW]Robert F. Hadley - 1999 - Minds and Machines 9 (2):197-221.
    In the late 1980s, there were many who heralded the emergence of connectionism as a new paradigm – one which would eventually displace the classically symbolic methods then dominant in AI and Cognitive Science. At present, there remain influential connectionists who continue to defend connectionism as a more realistic paradigm for modeling cognition, at all levels of abstraction, than the classical methods of AI. Not infrequently, one encounters arguments along these lines: given what we know about neurophysiology, it is (...)
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  18. Generous or Parsimonious Cognitive Architecture? Cognitive Neuroscience and Theory of Mind: Articles.Philip Gerrans & Valerie E. Stone - 2008 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (2):121-141.
    Recent work in cognitive neuroscience on the child's Theory of Mind has pursued the idea that the ability to metarepresent mental states depends on a domain-specific cognitive subystem implemented in specific neural circuitry: a Theory of Mind Module. We argue that the interaction of several domain-general mechanisms and lower-level domain-specific mechanisms accounts for the flexibility and sophistication of behavior, which has been taken to be evidence for a domain-specific ToM module. This finding is of more general interest since (...)
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  19.  34
    A Theory of Resonance: Towards an Ecological Cognitive Architecture.Vicente Raja - 2018 - Minds and Machines 28 (1):29-51.
    This paper presents a blueprint for an ecological cognitive architecture. Ecological psychology, I contend, must be complemented with a story about the role of the CNS in perception, action, and cognition. To arrive at such a story while staying true to the tenets of ecological psychology, it will be necessary to flesh out the central metaphor according to which the animal perceives its environment by ‘resonating’ to information in energy patterns: what is needed is a theory of resonance. (...)
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  20.  98
    Massively Modular Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and Cognitive Architecture.Richard Samuels - 2000 - In Peter Carruthers (ed.), Evolution and the Human Mind: Modularity, Language and Meta-Cognition. Cambridge University Press. pp. 13--46.
    What are the elements from which the human mind is composed? What structures make up our _cognitive architecture?_ One of the most recent and intriguing answers to this question comes from the newly emerging interdisciplinary field of evolutionary psychology. Evolutionary psychologists defend a _massively modular_ conception of mental architecture which views the mind –including those parts responsible for such ‘central processes’ as belief revision and reasoning— as composed largely or perhaps even entirely of innate, special-purpose computational mechanisms or (...)
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  21. Two Theories About the Cognitive Architecture Underlying Morality.Daniel Kelly & Stephen Stich - 2008 - In P. Carruthers, S. Stich & S. Laurence (eds.), The Innate Mind, Vol. III, Foundations and the Future. Oxford University Press.
    In this paper we compare two theories about the cognitive architecture underlying morality. One theory, proposed by Sripada and Stich (forthcoming), posits an interlocking set of innate mechanisms that internalize moral norms from the surrounding community and generate intrinsic motivation to comply with these norms and to punish violators. The other theory, which we call the M/C model was suggested by the widely discussed and influential work of Elliott Turiel, Larry Nucci and others on the “moral/conventional task”. This (...)
     
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  22. Evolution, Altruism and Cognitive Architecture: A Critique of Sober and Wilson’s Argument for Psychological Altruism.Stephen Stich - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (2):267-281.
    Sober and Wilson have propose a cluster of arguments for the conclusion that “natural selection is unlikely to have given us purely egoistic motives” and thus that psychological altruism is true. I maintain that none of these arguments is convincing. However, the most powerful of their arguments raises deep issues about what egoists and altruists are claiming and about the assumptions they make concerning the cognitive architecture underlying human motivation.
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  23.  32
    Dual Processes, Probabilities, and Cognitive Architecture.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 2012 - Mind and Society 11 (1):15-26.
    It has been argued that dual process theories are not consistent with Oaksford and Chater’s probabilistic approach to human reasoning (Oaksford and Chater in Psychol Rev 101:608–631, 1994 , 2007 ; Oaksford et al. 2000 ), which has been characterised as a “single-level probabilistic treatment[s]” (Evans 2007 ). In this paper, it is argued that this characterisation conflates levels of computational explanation. The probabilistic approach is a computational level theory which is consistent with theories of general cognitive architecture (...)
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  24. Motivational Representations Within a Computational Cognitive Architecture.Ron Sun - unknown
    This paper discusses essential motivational representations necessary for a comprehensive computational cognitive architecture. It hypothesizes the need for implicit drive representations, as well as explicit goal representations. Drive representations consist of primary drives — both low-level primary drives (concerned mostly with basic physiological needs) and high-level primary drives (concerned more with social needs), as well as derived (secondary) drives. On the basis of drives, explicit goals may be generated on the fly during an agent’s interaction with various situations. (...)
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  25.  59
    Modeling Meta-Cognition in a Cognitive Architecture.Ron Sun, Xi Zhang & Robert Mathews - unknown
    This paper describes how meta-cognitive processes (i.e., the self monitoring and regulating of cognitive processes) may be captured within a cognitive architecture Clarion. Some currently popular cognitive architectures lack sufficiently complex built-in meta-cognitive mechanisms. However, a sufficiently complex meta-cognitive mechanism is important, in that it is an essential part of cognition and without it, human cognition may not function properly. We contend that such a meta-cognitive mechanism should be an integral part of (...)
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  26. Anatomy of the Mind: Exploring Psychological Mechanisms and Processes with the Clarion Cognitive Architecture.Ron Sun - 2016 - Oup Usa.
    This book aims to understand human cognition and psychology through a comprehensive computational theory of the mind, namely, a "cognitive architecture.".
     
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  27.  19
    Can Massive Modularity Explain Human Intelligence? Information Control Problem and Implications for Cognitive Architecture.Linus Ta-Lun Huang - forthcoming - Synthese:1-30.
    A fundamental task for any prospective cognitive architecture is information control: routing information to the relevant mechanisms to support a variety of tasks. Jerry Fodor has argued that the Massive Modularity Hypothesis cannot account for flexible information control due to its architectural commitments and its reliance on heuristic information processing. I argue instead that the real trouble lies in its commitment to nativism—recent massive modularity models, despite incorporating mechanisms for learning and self-organization, still cannot learn to control information (...)
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  28. Developmental Disorders and Cognitive Architecture.Edouard Machery - 2011 - In Pieter R. Adriaens & Andreas de Block (eds.), Maladapting Minds: Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Evolutionary Theory. Oxford University Press.
    For the last thirty years, cognitive scientists have attempted to describe the cognitive architecture of typically developing human beings, using, among other sources of evidence, the dissociations that result from developmental psychopathologies such as autism spectrum disorders, Williams syndrome, and Down syndrome. Thus, in his recent defense of the massive modularity hypothesis, Steven Pinker insists on the importance of such dissociations to identify the components of the typical cognitive architecture (2005, 4; my emphasis): This kind (...)
     
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  29. Oscar: A Cognitive Architecture for Intelligent Agents.John Pollock - manuscript
    The “grand problem” of AI has always been to build artificial agents of human-level intelligence, capable of operating in environments of real-world complexity. OSCAR is a cognitive architecture for such agents, implemented in LISP. OSCAR is based on my extensive work in philosophy concerning both epistemology and rational decision making. This paper provides a detailed overview of OSCAR. The main conclusions are that such agents must be capablew of operating against a background of pervasive ignorance, because the real (...)
     
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  30.  62
    On Sociosexual Cognitive Architecture.Thomas E. Dickins - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):280-281.
    Schmitt has equivocated about the underlying psychology of sociosexuality, but from the data presented in the target article, it would appear that he has drawn out the underlying cognitive architecture. In this commentary, I describe this architecture and discuss two emerging hypotheses about heterosexual and homosexual male sociosexuality.
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  31.  5
    Mindreading: Mental State Ascription and Cognitive Architecture.Joseph L. Hernandez Cruz - 1998 - Mind and Language 13 (3):323-340.
    The debate between the theory‐theory and simulation has largely ignored issues of cognitive architecture. In the philosophy of psychology, cognition as symbol manipulation is the orthodoxy. The challenge from connectionism, however, has attracted vigorous and renewed interest. In this paper I adopt connectionism as the antecedent of a conditional: If connectionism is the correct account of cognitive archi‐tecture, then the simulation theory should be preferred over the theory‐theory. I use both developmental evidence and constraints on explanation in (...)
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  32. Oscar: A Cognitive Architecture for Intelligent Agents.John Pollock - manuscript
    The “grand problem” of AI has always been to build artificial agents with human-like intelligence. That is the stuff of science fiction, but it is also the ultimate aspiration of AI. In retrospect, we can understand what a difficult problem this is, so since its inception AI has focused more on small manageable problems, with the hope that progress there will have useful implications for the grand problem. Now there is a resurgence of interest in tackling the grand problem head-on. (...)
     
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  33.  26
    On the Cognitive Architecture of Insects and Other Information-Processing Systems.Francisco Calvo Garzón - 2008 - Análisis Filosófico 28 (1):13-33.
    According to Carruthers ants and bees have minds. This claim is to be understood realistically. We do not interpret the overt behaviour of ants and bees by ascribing to them beliefs and desires in an instrumental manner. They rather possess minds in the relevant cognitive sense. In this paper, I propose to pave the way for a reductio against such a polemic view. In particular, I shall argue that if ants and bees have minds, by the same token, plants (...)
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  34.  16
    Real-World Behavior as a Constraint on the Cognitive Architecture: Comparing ACT-R and DAC in the Newell Test.Paul F. M. J. Verschure - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (5):624-626.
    The Newell Test is an important step in advancing our understanding of cognition. One critical constraint is missing from this test : A cognitive architecture must be self-contained. ACT-R and connectionism fail on this account. I present an alternative proposal, called Distributed Adaptive Control, and expose it to the Newell Test with the goal of achieving a clearer specification of the different constraints and their relationships, as proposed by Anderson & Lebiere.
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  35.  9
    Deciding, Planning, and Practical Reasoning: Elements Towards a Cognitive Architecture.L. A. Perez-Miranda - 1997 - Argumentation 11 (4):435-461.
    I intend to show some of the limits of the decision-theoretic model in connection with the analysis of cognitive agency. Although the concept of maximum expected utility can be helpful for explaining the decision-making process, it is certainly not the primary motor that moves agents to action. Moreover, it has been noticed elsewhere that this model is inadequate to the analysis of single cases of practical reasoning. A theory is proposed that introduces a plan-structure as a basic idea. In (...)
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  36.  7
    Symbolic Expressions of the Human Cognitive Architecture.Enidio Ilario, Alfredo Pereira Jr & Valdir Gonzalez Paixão Jr - 2016 - Dialogue and Universalism 26 (1):107-120.
    We briefly review and discuss symbolic expressions of the cognitive architecture of the human mind/brain, focusing on the Quaternion, the Axis Mundi and the Tree of Life, and elaborate on a quaternary diagram that expresses a contemporary worldview. While traditional symbols contain vertical and horizontal dimensions related to transcendence and immanence, respectively, in the contemporary interpretation the vertical axis refers to diachronic processes as biological evolution and cultural history, while the horizontal axis refers to synchronic relations as the (...)
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  37. Anatomy of the Mind: Exploring Psychological Mechanisms and Processes with The: Exploring Psychological Mechanisms and Processes with the Clarion Cognitive Architecture.Ron Sun - 2016 - Oxford University Press USA.
    This book aims to understand human cognition and psychology through a comprehensive computational theory of the human mind, namely, a computational "cognitive architecture". The goal of this work is to develop a unified framework for understanding the human mind, and within the unified framework, to develop process-based, mechanistic explanations of a large variety of psychological phenomena. Specifically, the book first describes the essential Clarion framework and its cognitive-psychological justifications, then its computational instantiations, and finally its applications to (...)
     
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  38.  44
    What Neurodevelopmental Disorders Can Reveal About Cognitive Architecture.Helen Tager-Flusberg - 2005 - In Peter Carruthers, Stephen Laurence & Stephen P. Stich (eds.), The Innate Mind: Structure and Contents. Oxford University Press. pp. 272--288.
    This chapter begins with an overview of the controversy surrounding the study of children and adults with neurodevelopmental disorders, and how these inform theories of neurocognitive architecture. It weighs the arguments for and against what we might learn from studying individuals who have fundamental biological impairments. It then discusses the example of research on theory of mind in two different disorders — autism and Williams syndrome — which has highlighted a number of important aspects of how this core (...) capacity develops in both normal and atypical populations. (shrink)
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  39. Beyond Functional Architecture in Cognitive Neuropsychology: A Reply to Coltheart (2010).David C. Plaut & Karalyn Patterson - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (1):12-14.
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  40.  6
    Consciousness and Cognitive Architecture.Henk J. Haarmann - 1997 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 4 (4):325-329.
    The Global Workspace theory of consciousness explains conscious-unconscious dichotomies in cognitive processing in the context of a proposal about the qualitative properties of the architecture of cognition . This represents a theoretical and methodological approach to the study of consciousness which, as I will argue in this commentary, has at least two major advantages. A first advantage is that GW theory as a proposal about the architecture of cognition has the potential to explain consciousness-related phenomena in mechanistic (...)
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  41. The Evolution of a Cognitive Architecture for Emotional Learning From a Modulon Structured Genome.Stevo Bozinovski & Liljana Bozinovska - 2008 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 29 (1-2):195-216.
    The paper addresses a central problem in evolutionary biology and cognitive science; evolution of a neural based learning phenotype from a structured genotype. It describes morphogenesis of a neural network-based cognitive system, starting from a single genotype having a modulon control structure. It further shows how such a system, denoted as GALA architecture, growing its own recurrent axon connections, can further develop into various structures capable of learning in different learning modes, such as advice learning, reinforcement learning, (...)
     
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  42. Mindreading and the Cognitive Architecture Underlying Altruistic Motivation.Shaun Nichols - 2001 - Mind and Language 16 (4):425-455.
    In recent attempts to characterize the cognitive mechanisms underlying altruistic motivation, one central question is the extent to which the capacity for altruism depends on the capacity for understanding other minds, or ‘mindreading’. Some theorists maintain that the capacity for altruism is independent of any capacity for mindreading; others maintain that the capacity for altruism depends on fairly sophisticated mindreading skills. I argue that none of the prevailing accounts is adequate. Rather, I argue that altruistic motivation depends on a (...)
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  43. Folk Psychology and Cognitive Architecture.Frances Egan - 1995 - Philosophy of Science 62 (2):179-96.
    It has recently been argued that the success of the connectionist program in cognitive science would threaten folk psychology. I articulate and defend a "minimalist" construal of folk psychology that comports well with empirical evidence on the folk understanding of belief and is compatible with even the most radical developments in cognitive science.
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  44.  9
    The Cognitive Architecture of Perceived Animacy: Intention, Attention, and Memory.Tao Gao, Chris L. Baker, Ning Tang, Haokui Xu & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (8).
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  45. Constituent Structure and Explanation in an Integrated Connectionist/Symbolic Cognitive Architecture.Paul Smolensky - 1995 - In C. Macdonald (ed.), Connectionism: Debates on Psychological Explanation. Blackwell.
  46.  36
    Cognitive Architecture: From Bio-Politics to Noo-Politics ; Architecture & Mind Inthe Age of Communication and Information.Deborah Hauptmann & Warren Neidich (eds.) - 2010 - 010 Publishers.
    This volume rethinks the relations between form and forms of communication, calling for a new logic of representation; it examines the manner in which ...
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  47.  43
    Towards a Connectionist Cognitive Architecture.Keith Butler - 1991 - Mind and Language 6 (3):252-72.
  48.  93
    Good Reasoning and Cognitive Architecture.Scott Sturgeon - 1994 - Mind and Language 9 (1):88-101.
  49. The Implicit Mind: Cognitive Architecture, the Self, and Ethics.Michael Brownstein - 2018 - Oup Usa.
    The central contention of The Implicit Mind is that understanding the two faces of spontaneity-its virtues and vices-requires understanding the "implicit mind." In turn, Michael Brownstein maintains that understanding the implicit mind requires the consideration of three sets of questions. First, what are implicit mental states? What kind of cognitive structure do they have? Second, how should we relate to our implicit attitudes? Are we responsible for them? Third, how can we improve the ethics of our implicit minds?
     
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  50. Doublemindedness: A Model for a Dual Content Cognitive Architecture.Jenann Ismael - 2006 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 12.
    The outstanding stumbling blocks to any reductive account of phenomenal consciousness remain the subjectivity of phenomenal properties and cognitive and epistemic gaps that plague the relationship between physical and phenomenal properties. I suggest that a deflationary interpretation of both is available to defenders of self- representational accounts.
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