Results for 'cogs'

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  1.  14
    (Ronc@Cogs.Susx.Ac. Uk).Ronald L. Chrisley - unknown
    imply that computational states are not "real", and cannot, for example, provide a foundation for the cognitive sciences. In particular, Putnam has argued that every ordinary open physical system realizes every abstract finite automaton, implying that the fact that a particular computational characterization applies to a physical system does not tell one anything about the nature of that system. Putnam's argument is scrutinized, and found inadequate because, among other things, it employs a notion of causation that is too weak. I (...)
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  2.  8
    Cogs, Dogs, and Robot Frogs.Michael Hector Storck - 2011 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 85:253-264.
    In this paper, I investigate the nature of complex bodies, especially living things. I argue that a living thing’s complexity is fundamentally different from that of a machine, so that living things are substances, while machines are not. I further argue that the best way to understand the unity and complexity of a living thing is to follow Aquinas in holding that the elements and other parts are present in wholes by their powers, rather than as substances. I show that (...)
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  3.  3
    Cogs in the Wheel or Spanners in the Works? A Phenomenological Approach to the Difficulty and Meaning of Ethical Work for Financial Controllers.François-Régis Puyou & Eric Faÿ - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 128 (4):863-876.
    The aim of this paper is to propose a new perspective on the difficulty and meaning of ethical work for financial controllers. This is achieved by drawing on concepts from Michel Henry’s phenomenology of life in the field of business ethics. The French philosopher Michel Henry is distinguished by his identifying two modes of appearing: ‘intentionality’ and ‘affectivity’ . Henry suggests that relying only on abstract representations constitutes a specific ideology that causes individuals at work to ignore the actual experience (...)
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  4. The Brain's Concepts: The Role of the Sensory-Motor System in Conceptual Knowledge.Vittorio Gallese & George Lakoff - unknown
    Concepts are the elementary units of reason and linguistic meaning. They are conventional and relatively stable. As such, they must somehow be the result of neural activity in the brain. The questions are: Where? and How? A common philosophical position is that all concepts—even concepts about action and perception—are symbolic and abstract, and therefore must be implemented outside the brain’s sensory-motor system. We will argue against this position using (1) neuroscientific evidence; (2) results from neural computation; and (3) results about (...)
     
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  5.  7
    Politics, Philosophy, Terror: Essays on the Thought of Hannah Arendt.Dana Villa - 1999 - Princeton University Press.
    Hannah Arendt's rich and varied political thought is more influential today than ever before, due in part to the collapse of communism and the need for ideas that move beyond the old ideologies of the Cold War. As Dana Villa shows, however, Arendt's thought is often poorly understood, both because of its complexity and because her fame has made it easy for critics to write about what she is reputed to have said rather than what she actually wrote. Villa sets (...)
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  6. Wise Therapy: Philosophy for Counsellors.Tim LeBon - 2001 - Continuum.
    Independent on Sunday October 2nd One of the country's lead­ing philosophical counsellers, and chairman of the Society for Philosophy in Practice (SPP), Tim LeBon, said it typically took around six 50 ­minute sessions for a client to move from confusion to resolution. Mr LeBon, who has 'published a book on the subject, Wise Therapy, said philoso­phy was perfectly suited to this type of therapy, dealing as it does with timeless human issues such as love, purpose, happiness and emo­tional challenges. `Wise (...)
     
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  7.  2
    A Tale of Two Processes: On Joseph Henrich’s the Secret of Our Success: How Culture is Driving Human Evolution, Domesticating Our Species, and Making Us Smarter.Daniel Kelly & Patrick Hoburg - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-17.
    We situate Henrich’s book in the larger research tradition of which it is a part and show how he presents a wide array of recent psychological, physiological, and neurological data as supporting the view that two related but distinct processes have shaped human nature and made us unique: cumulative cultural evolution and culture-driven genetic evolution. We briefly sketch out several ways philosophers might fruitfully engage with this view and note some implications it may have for current philosophic debates in moral (...)
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  8. The Perennial Problem of the Reductive Explainability of Phenomenal Consciousness: C. D. Broad on the Explanatory Gap.Ansgar Beckermann - 2000 - In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness. MIT Press.
    At the start of the 20th century the question of whether life could be explained in purely me- chanical terms was as hotly debated as the mind-body problem is today. Two factions opposed each other: Biological mechanists claimed that the properties characteristic of living organisms could be ex- plained mechanistically, in the way the behavior of a clock can be explained by the properties and the arrangement of its cogs, springs, and weights. Substantial vitalists, on the other hand, maintained (...)
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  9.  53
    Mad Speculation and Absolute Inhumanism: Lovecraft, Ligotti, and the Weirding of Philosophy.Ben Woodard - 2011 - Continent 1 (1):3-13.
    continent. 1.1 : 3-13. / 0/ – Introduction I want to propose, as a trajectory into the philosophically weird, an absurd theoretical claim and pursue it, or perhaps more accurately, construct it as I point to it, collecting the ground work behind me like the Perpetual Train from China Mieville's Iron Council which puts down track as it moves reclaiming it along the way. The strange trajectory is the following: Kant's critical philosophy and much of continental philosophy which has followed, (...)
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  10. What is Philosophy?David Bain - manuscript
    The best route into philosophy is not to consider a definition, but to get your own philosophical cogs turning. Consider the questions philosophers engage and think about the many different ways they've addressed them. But, most important, grapple with the questions yourself.
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  11.  47
    Is "Cognitive Neuroscience" an Oxymoron?Dan Lloyd - 2011 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (4):283-286.
    Could "cognitive neuroscience" be an oxymoron? "Cognitive" and "neuroscience" cohere only to the extent that the entities identified as "cognitive" can be coordinated with entities identified as neural. This coordination is typically construed as intertheoretic reduction between "levels" of scientific description. On the cognitive side, folk psychological concepts crystallize into behavioral taxonomies, which are further analyzed into purported cognitive capacities. These capacities are expressed or operationalized in paradigmatic experimental tasks. These cogs comprise a stable ontology, sustaining more than a (...)
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  12. Handbook of Embedded Cognition.Ruth Millikan - manuscript
    Embedded Rationality1 Philosophers and laymen alike have traditionally assumed that whether you can reason well, make valid inferences, avoid logical mistakes and so forth is entirely a matter of how well the cogs in your head are fashioned and oiled. Partner to this is the assumption that careful reflection is always the method by which we discover whether an inference or reasoning process is correct. In particular, further experience, observation or experiment never bear on the question whether an inference (...)
     
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  13.  1
    Aesthetic and Affective Experiences in Coffee Shops: A Deweyan Engagement with Ordinary Affects in Ordinary Spaces.Nautiyal Jaishikha - 2016 - Education and Culture 32 (2):99-118.
    “In a coffee shop in a city, which is every coffee shop in every city, on a day which is everyday …”1Even in her incompleteness, iconic singer-songwriter Ani DiFranco makes a poignant point. Her point pertains to the ubiquity of a coffee shop in a city, which is every coffee shop in every city on a day that is everyday. Such is the vitality of these third places that offer relaxing space and time over and above coffee and other related (...)
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  14.  33
    The Role of the Philosopher Among the Scientists: Nuisance or Necessity?Joseph Agassi - 1989 - Social Epistemology 3 (4):297 – 309.
    1. Where is the trouble? Let us take it for granted that a person can be interested in researches that go on in different fields, for example, in physics and in psychology. Undoubtedly, this will raise problems not shared by a person whose research is confined to one field only. There may be difficulty in deciding which of the two is that person's primary field of interest; members of his secondary field of interest may be flattered or feel slighted or (...)
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  15.  9
    Die eingebettete Vernunft.Ruth G. Millikan - 2011 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 59 (4):493-496.
    Philosophers and laymen alike have traditionally assumed that whether you can reason well, make valid inferences, avoid logical mistakes and so forth is entirely a matter of how well the cogs in your head are fashioned and oiled. Partner to this is the assumption that careful reflection is always the method by which we discover whether an inference or reasoning process is correct. Against this, I argue that good reasoning needs constant empirical support; conceptual clarity is not an a (...)
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  16.  5
    Is Marcuse's "Critical Theory of Society" Critical?Iu A. Zamoshkin & N. V. Motroshilova - 1969 - Russian Studies in Philosophy 8 (1):45-66.
    In the years since World War II, the social critic has become a rather popular figure in the West. The demand for critical theories of society is readily explainable where the contradictions of social development take the form of sharp paradoxes recognized by the broad public. It may be assumed that interest in critical concepts of society will increase. People who recognize themselves as cogs without rights in the system of bureaucratic organization of state-supported monopoly capitalism, who react acutely (...)
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  17.  13
    Nature and Natural Kinds.Guy Robinson - 2007 - Philosophy 82 (4):605-623.
    The paper examines the character and historical source of the mystifications of the notions of Nature and Natural Kinds in the misguided attempt to turn Nature into a secular substitute for the role played by God in the previous theological framework of thought in order to turn it into a secular one in the period of the rise of science and scientific understanding. The role and function nature was given in this would-be replacement framework turned it into a quasi-deity governing (...)
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  18.  3
    Máquinas sin engranajes y cuerpos sin mentes: ¿Cuán dualista es el funcionalismo de máquina de Turing?Rodrigo González - 2011 - Revista de filosofía (Chile) 67:183-200.
    En este trabajo examino cómo el Funcionalismo de Máquina de Turing resulta compatible con una forma de dualismo, lo que aleja a la IA clásica o fuerte del materialismo que la inspiró originalmente en el siglo XIX. Para sostener esta tesis, argumento que efectivamente existe una notable cercanía entre el pensamiento cartesiano y dicho funcionalismo, ya que el primero afirma que es concebible/posible separar mente y cuerpo, mientras que el segundo sostiene que no es estrictamente necesario que los estados mentales (...)
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  19. Educating Angels: Teaching for the Pursuit of Happiness.Tony Armstrong - 2013 - Parkhurst Brothers Publishers.
    School reform and accountability tests have been hotly debated for decades, but the goal of reform and accountability has not. Most agree that the main problem with contemporary education is that it fails to adequately prepare students with the “21st century skills” needed to find jobs and promote national competitiveness in the global economy. Tony Armstrong challenges both the morality and the consequences of pushing this purpose of education. He says it is immoral because it neglects our children’s deepest aspiration—happiness—and (...)
     
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  20.  2
    Human Nature and the Limits of Science.John Dupré - 2003 - Oxford University Press UK.
    John Dupré warns that our understanding of human nature is being distorted by two faulty and harmful forms of pseudo-scientific thinking. Not just in the academic world but increasingly in everyday life, we find one set of experts seeking to explain the ends at which humans aim in terms of evolutionary theory, and another set of experts using economic models to give rules of how we act to achieve those ends. Dupré charges this unholy alliance of evolutionary psychologists and rational-choice (...)
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  21. Nuts and Bolts for the Social Sciences.Jon Elster - 1989 - Cambridge University Press.
    This 1989 book is intended as an introductory survey of the philosophy of the social sciences. It is essentially a work of exposition which offers a toolbox of mechanisms - nuts and bolts, cogs and wheels - that can be used to explain complex social phenomena. Within a brief compass, Jon Elster covers a vast range of topics. His point of departure is the conflict we all face between our desires and our opportunities. How can rational choice theory help (...)
     
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