Results for 'commodification'

563 found
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  1.  4
    The Commodification of Academic Research: Science and the Modern University.Hans Radder (ed.) - 2010 - University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Selling science has become a common practice in contemporary universities. This commodification of academia pervades many aspects of higher education, including research, teaching, and administration. As such, it raises significant philosophical, political, and moral challenges. This volume offers the first book-length analysis of this disturbing trend from a philosophical perspective and presents views by scholars of philosophy of science, social and political philosophy, and research ethics. The epistemic and moral responsibilities of universities, whether for-profit or nonprofit, are examined from (...)
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  2. The Commodification of Medical and Health Care: The Moral Consequences of a Paradigm Shift From a Professional to a Market Ethic.Edmund D. Pellegrino - 1999 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 24 (3):243 – 266.
    Commodification of health care is a central tenet of managed care as it functions in the United States. As a result, price, cost, quality, availability, and distribution of health care are increasingly left to the workings of the competitive marketplace. This essay examines the conceptual, ethical, and practical implications of commodification, particularly as it affects the healing relationship between health professionals and their patients. It concludes that health care is not a commodity, that treating it as such is (...)
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  3.  56
    Commodification of Human Tissue: Implications for Feminist and Development Ethics.Donna Dickenson - 2002 - Developing World Bioethics 2 (1):55-63.
    One effect of late capitalism – the commodification of practically everything – is to knock down the Chinese walls between the natural and productive realms, to use a Marxist framework. Women's labour in egg extraction and ‘surrogate’ motherhood might then be seen as what it is, labour which produces something of value. But this does not necessarily mean that women will benefit from the commodification of practically everything, in either North or South. In the newly developing biotechnologies involving (...)
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  4. Commodification Arguments for the Legal Prohibition of Organ Sale.Stephen Wilkinson - 2000 - Health Care Analysis 8 (2):189-201.
    The commercial trading of human organs, along withvarious related activities (for example, advertising)was criminalised throughout Great Britain under theHuman Organ Transplants Act 1989.This paper critically assesses one type of argumentfor this, and similar, legal prohibitions:commodification arguments.Firstly, the term `commodification' is analysed. Thiscan be used to refer to either social practices or toattitudes. Commodification arguments rely on thesecond sense and are based on the idea that having acommodifying attitude to certain classes of thing(e.g. bodies or persons) is wrong. (...)
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  5. The Commodification of Human Reproductive Materials.D. B. Resnik - 1998 - Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (6):388-393.
    This essay develops a framework for thinking about the moral basis for the commodification of human reproductive materials. It argues that selling and buying gametes and genes is morally acceptable although there should not be a market for zygotes, embryos, or genomes. Also a market in gametes and genes should be regulated in order to address concerns about the adverse social consequences of commodification.
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  6.  7
    Commodification, Decolonisation and Theological Education in Africa: Renewed Challenges for African Theologians.Nontando M. Hadebe - 2017 - HTS Theological Studies 73 (3).
    The commodification of higher education is a global phenomenon that many argue has reduced education into a product that serves the interests of global capitalism and perpetuates the hegemony of western knowledge. Decolonisation discourses demand for access and an Africanised curriculum constitutes resistance to commodification. Theological education as part of higher education has not escaped commodification. African theologians pioneered resistance against the hegemony of western theologies. However, there are additional factors driving commodification, such as high demand (...)
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  7.  86
    Commodification and Exploitation: Arguments in Favour of Compensated Organ Donation.L. D. de Castro - 2003 - Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (3):142-146.
    This paper takes the view that compensated donation and altruism are not incompatible. In particular, it holds that the arguments against giving compensation stand on weak rational grounds: the charge that compensation fosters “commodification” has neither been specific enough to account for different types of monetary transactions nor sufficiently grounded in reality to be rationally convincing; although altruism is commendable, organ donors should not be compelled to act purely on the basis of altruistic motivations, especially if there are good (...)
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  8.  44
    On Commodification and the Governance of Academic Research.Merle Jacob - 2009 - Minerva 47 (4):391-405.
    The new prominence given to science for economic growth and industry comes with an increased policy focus on the promotion of commodification and commercialization of academic science. This paper posits that this increased interest in commodification is a new steering mechanism for governing science. This is achieved by first outlining what is meant by the commodification of scientific knowledge through reviewing a selection of literatures on the concept of commodification. The paper concludes with a discussion of (...)
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  9.  61
    Performativity, Commodification and Commitment: An I-Spy Guide to the Neoliberal University.Stephen J. Ball - 2012 - British Journal of Educational Studies 60 (1):17-28.
  10. Commodification, Inequality, and Kidney Markets.Vida Panitch & L. Chad Horne - 2018 - Social Theory and Practice 44 (1):121-143.
    People tend to be repulsed by the idea of cash markets in kidneys, but support the trading of kidneys through paired exchanges or chains. We reject anti-commodification accounts of this reaction and offer an egalitarian one. We argue that the morally significant difference between cash markets and kidney chains is that the former allow the wealthy greater access to kidneys, while the latter do not. The only problem with kidney chains is that they do not go far enough in (...)
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  11. Commodification of Biomaterials and Data When Funding is Contingent to Transfer in Biobank Research. [REVIEW]Mantombi Maseme - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 24 (4):667-675.
    It is common practice for biobanks and biobank researchers to seek funding from agencies that are independent of the biobank that often stipulate conditions requiring researchers to grant access and share biomaterials and data as part of the agreement, in particular, in international collaborative health research. As yet, to the author’s knowledge, there has been no study conducted to examine whether these conditions could result in the commercialization of biomaterials and data and whether such practice is considered ethical. This paper (...)
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  12. Commodification of Human Tissue.Herjeet Marway, Sarah-Louise Johnson & Heather Widdows - 2014 - Handbook of Global Bioethics.
    Commodification is a broad and crosscutting issue that spans debates in ethics (from prostitution to global market practices) and bioethics (from the sale of body parts to genetic enhancement). There has been disagreement, however, over what constitutes commodification, whether it is happening, and whether it is of ethical import. This chapter focuses on one area of the discussion in bioethics – the commodification of human tissue – and addresses these questions – about the characteristics of commodification, (...)
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  13. Commodification of Body Parts: By Medicine or by Media?Clive Seale, Debbie Cavers & Mary Dixon-Woods - 2006 - Body and Society 12 (1):25-42.
    Commentators frequently point to the involvement of biomedicine and bio-science in the objectification and commodification of human body parts, and the consequent potential for violation of personal, social and community meanings. Through a study of UK media coverage of controversies associated with the removal of body parts and human materials from children, we argue that an exclusive emphasis on the role of medicine and the bio-sciences in the commodification of human materials ignores the important role played by commercially (...)
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  14. Commodification and Commerical Surrogacy.Richard J. Arneson - 1992 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 21 (2):132-164.
  15.  47
    Commodification in Law: Ideologies, Intractabilities, and Hyperboles. [REVIEW]Nick Smith - 2009 - Continental Philosophy Review 42 (1):101-129.
    In this paper I first aim to identify, from a perspective mindful of both analytic and Continental traditions, the central normative issues at stake in the various debates concerning commodification in law. Although there now exists a wealth of thoughtful literature in this area, I often find myself disoriented within the webs of moral criteria used to analyze the increasingly ubiquitous practice of converting legal goods into monetary values. I therefore attempt to distinguish and organize these often conflated conceptual (...)
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  16.  28
    Commodification and Human Interests.Julian Koplin - 2018 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 15 (3):429-440.
    In Markets Without Limits and a series of related papers, Jason Brennan and Peter Jaworski argue that it is morally permissible to buy and sell anything that it is morally permissible to possess and exchange outside of the market. Accordingly, we should open markets in “contested commodities” including blood, gametes, surrogacy services, and transplantable organs. This paper clarifies some important aspects of the case for market boundaries and in so doing shows why there are in fact moral limits to the (...)
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  17.  82
    The Commodification of Care.Rutger Claassen - 2011 - Hypatia 26 (1):43-64.
    This paper discusses the question whether care work for dependent persons (children, the elderly, and disabled persons) may be entrusted to the market; that is, whether and to what extent there is a normative justification for the “commodification of care.” It first proposes a capability theory for care that raises two relevant demands: a basic capability for receiving care and a capability for giving care. Next it discusses and rejects two objections that aim to show that market-based care undermines (...)
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  18. Paying for Plasma: Commodification, Exploitation, and Canada's Plasma Shortage.Vida Panitch & Lendell Chad Horne - 2019 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 2 (2):1-10.
    A private, for-profit company has recently opened a pair of plasma donation centres in Canada, at which donors can be compensated up to $50 for their plasma. This has sparked a nation-wide debate around the ethics of paying plasma donors. Our aim in this paper is to shift the terms of the current debate away from the question of whether plasma donors should be paid and toward the question of who should be paying them. We consider arguments against paying plasma (...)
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  19.  49
    Genetics, Commodification, and Social Justice in the Globalization Era.Lisa Sowle Cahill - 2001 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 11 (3):221-238.
    : he commercialization of biotechnology, especially research and development by transnational pharmaceutical companies, is already excessive and is increasingly dangerous to distributive justice, human rights, and access of marginal populations to basic human goods. Focusing on gene patenting, this article employs the work of Margaret Jane Radin and others to argue that gene patenting ought to be more highly regulated and that it ought to be regulated with international participation and in view of concerns about solidarity and the common good. (...)
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  20.  31
    Commodification and Exploitation in Reproductive Markets: Introduction to the Symposium on Reproductive Markets.Vida Panitch - 2016 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2):117-124.
  21.  1
    Corporeal Commodification and Women’s Work: Feminist Analysis of Private Umbilical Cord Blood Banking.Jennie Haw - 2016 - Body and Society 22 (3):31-53.
    Private cord blood banking is the practice of paying to save cord blood for potential future use. Informed by the literature on corporeal commodification and feminist theories, this article analyses women’s work in banking cord blood. This article is based on in-depth interviews with 13 women who banked in a private bank in Canada. From learning about cord blood banking to collecting cord blood and transporting it to the private bank’s laboratory, women labour to ensure that cord blood is (...)
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  22.  36
    Liberalism, Commodification, and Justice.Vida Panitch - 2019 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 19 (1):62-82.
    Anti-commodification theorists condemn liberal political philosophers for not being able to justify restricting a market transaction on the basis of what is sold, but only on the basis of how it is sold. The anti-commodification theorist is correct that if this were all the liberal had to say in the face of noxious markets, it would be inadequate: even if everyone has equal bargaining power and no one is misled, there are some goods that should not go to (...)
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  23.  45
    Commodification and Privacy: A Lockean Perspective.Richard Volkman - 2010 - HEC Forum 22 (3):179-195.
    This paper defends the thesis that privacy as a right is derived from fundamental rights to life, liberty, and property and does not permit restricting the commodification of bodily material; however, privacy as life, liberty, property does require conventions that ensure a robust and just market in bodily material. The analysis proceeds by defending a general commitment to liberty and markets, but not in the manner one might expect from a ‘doctrinaire’ libertarian. Ethical concerns about commodification are legitimate (...)
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  24.  25
    The Limits of Commodification Arguments: Framing, Motivation Crowding, and Shared Valuations.Natalie Gold - 2019 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 18 (2):165-192.
    I connect commodification arguments to an empirical literature, present a mechanism by which commodification may occur, and show how this may restrict the range of goods and services that are subject to commodification, therefore having implications for the use of commodification arguments in political theory. Commodification arguments assert that some people’s trading a good or service can debase it for third parties. They consist of a normative premise, a theory of value, and an empirical premise, (...)
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  25. The Commodification of Women's Reproductive Tissue and Services.Donna Dickenson - 2017 - In Leslie Francis (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Reproductive Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 118-140.
    Although the term commodification is sometimes criticised as imprecise or overused, in fact it has a complex philosophical ancestry and can never be used too much, because the phenomena that it describes are still gaining ground. The issues that commodification raises in relation to reproductive technologies include whether it is wrong to commodify human tissues generally and gametes particularly, and whether the person as subject and the person as object can be distinguished in modern biomedicine. This chapter examines (...)
     
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  26.  20
    On Commodification and the Progress of Knowledge in Society: A Defence.Steve Fuller - 2013 - Spontaneous Generations 7 (1):12-20.
    In this paper I make more explicit a position that I have being advocating for more than two decades, though its full force does not seem to have been felt. I write in defence of the *commodification* rather than the simple *commercialisation* of knowledge. The two italicised terms are often spoken about in the same breath—and, to be sure, they are related to each other. But they are not the same. Commercialisation refers to the subjection of social life to (...)
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  27.  31
    Exclusion, Commodification and Plant Variety Rights Legislation.Andrew Alexandra & Adrian Walsh - 1997 - Agriculture and Human Values 14 (4):313-323.
    Plant variety rights legislation, now enactedin most Western countries, fosters the commodificationof plant varieties. In this paper, we look at theconceptual issues involved in understanding andjustifying this commodification, with particularemphasis on Australian legislation. The paper isdivided into three sections. In the first, we lay outa taxonomy of goods, drawing on this in the secondsection to point out that the standard justificationof the allocation of exclusionary property rights byappeal to scarcity will not do for abstract goods suchas plant varieties, since (...)
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  28.  30
    The Commodification of Information and the Extension of Proprietary Rights Into the Public Domain: Recent Legal (Case and Other) Developments in the United States. [REVIEW]Tomas A. Lipinski - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 22 (1):63 - 80.
    As the National Information Infra- structure develops new avenues for information products and services will open. Creating, identifying and protecting the information market space is a critical component to the success of information product and service developments. As a result, the producers of those products and service seek to protect their proprietary interest in the underlying information. However, these actions have broader consequences: Attempts to extend legal protection to basic facts and other public domain information demonstrate that the public information (...)
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  29.  74
    Babies, Child Bearers and Commodification: Anderson, Brazier Et Al., and the Political Economy of Commercial Surrogate Motherhood. [REVIEW]Hugh V. McLachlan & J. K. Swales - 2000 - Health Care Analysis 8 (1):1-18.
    It is argued by Anderson and also in the BrazierReport that Commercial Surrogate Motherhood (C.S.M.)contracts and agencies should be illegal on thegrounds that C.S.M. involves the commodification ofboth mothers and babies. This paper takes issue withthis view and argues that C.S.M. is not inconsistentwith the proper respect for, and treatment of,children and women. A case for the legalisation ofC.S.M. is made.
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  30.  1
    Commodification and Marketisation of Genetic Testing Through Online Direct-to-Consumer Platforms in Hong Kong.Zhengpeng Luo & Olga Zayts - 2017 - Discourse and Communication 11 (6):630-647.
    In this article we examine commodification and marketisation of genetic testing by companies offering direct-to-consumer genetic testing to the general public through online platforms in Hong Kong. Recently, offers of genetic testing have expanded from scientific and clinical genetic settings to general medicine and non-medical domains. The wider availability of tests, however, has raised concerns about the currently available scientifically proven utility of these tests. Using theme-oriented discourse analysis, we analyse the specific discursive modalities through which the DTC companies (...)
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  31.  2
    Hans Radder. From Commodification to the Common Good: Reconstructing Science, Technology, and Society. 312 Pp., Bibl., Index. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2019. $45 (Cloth); ISBN 9780822945796. [REVIEW]Ashton W. Merck - 2022 - Isis 113 (3):684-685.
  32.  34
    Consent, Commodification and Benefit‐Sharing in Genetic Research1.Donna Dickenson - 2004 - Developing World Bioethics 4 (2):109-124.
    We are witnessing is nothing less than a new kind of gold rush, and the territory is the body.
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  33. Commodification.Adrian Walsh - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
  34. Commodification of Ghana's Volta River: An Example of Ellul's Autonomy of Technique.John Byrne & Lawrence Agbemabiese - 2005 - Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society 25 (1):17-25.
    Jacques Ellul argued that modernity's nearly exclusive reliance on science and technology to design society would threaten hunan freedom. Of particular concern for Ellul was the prospect of the technical milieu overwhelming culture. The commodification of the Volta River in order to modernize Ghana illustrates the Ellulian dilemma of the autonomy of technique. Displacing a commons way of life, the Volta River Project has imposed an energy commodity regime and a technocratic management scheme to rule the basin, which now (...)
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  35.  51
    Hegemony, Commodification, and the State: Mexico's Shifting Discourse on Agricultural Germplasm. [REVIEW]Francisco Martínez Gómez & Robert Torres - 2001 - Agriculture and Human Values 18 (3):285-294.
    In this work, we examine the debate over thecommodification of agricultural germplasm in Mexico using aneo-Marxist theoretical framework. Specifically, we examine Mexico's movement away from a ``Farmers' Rights'' framework, whichtreats germplasm as a ``common good'' towards the passage of theMexican Federal Law on Plant Varieties, which sees germplasm as acommodity. In order to understand this legal change, the recenthistory of this discourse in Mexico is examined. Usingtheoretical insights based in an analysis of this discourse, weexamine the ideological elements of this (...)
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  36. Commodification and Phenomenology: Evading Consent in Theory Regarding Rape: John H. Bogart.John H. Bogart - 1996 - Legal Theory 2 (3):253-264.
    In a recent essay, Donald Dripps advanced what he calls a “commodification theory” of rape, offered as an alternative to understanding rape in terms of lack of consent. Under the “commodification theory,” rape is understood as the expropriation of sexual services, i.e., obtaining sex through “illegitimate” means. One aim of Dripps's effort was to show the inadequacy of consent approaches to understanding rape. Robin West, while accepting Dripps's critique of consent theories, criticizes Dripps's commodification approach. In its (...)
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  37.  34
    Commodification of Children Again and Non-Disclosure Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for Huntington's Disease.M. Spriggs - 2004 - Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (6):538-538.
    When is commodification acceptable?Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is usually restricted to couples who are eligible for in vitro fertilisation —infertile couples or those with a history of genetic disease. The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority in England and the Infertility Treatment Authority in Australia have both given permission for PGD with tissue typing to detect human leucocyte antigen compatibility in order to save an existing sibling with a life threatening condition. The procedure has also been carried out in the United (...)
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  38.  19
    The Commodification of the Public Service of Water: A Normative Perspective.Adrian Walsh - 2011 - Public Reason 3 (2).
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  39.  8
    Commodification and the Limits of Liberal Equality.Richard Schmitt - 2021 - Radical Philosophy Review 24 (1):123-125.
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  40.  27
    Commodification, Information, Value and Profit.Peter Fleissner - 2006 - Poiesis and Praxis 4 (1):39-53.
    This paper gives an overview on the processes of commodification and de-commodification of goods and services as a background for analysing developments in the emerging information society. It contributes to the current discussion on intellectual property rights in terms of political economics by connecting it to technology and law. Finally, as an illustration of the proposed view, selected trendsetting Internet-based companies are studied with respect to their strategies in making profit.
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  41.  25
    Conservation Through Commodification?Jozef Keulartz - 2013 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 16 (3):297-307.
    During the past decade, we have seen the introduction of market-based mechanisms in biodiversity policy. Biodiversity markets are considered powerful tools to slow down or even stop the ongoing loss of biodiversity by internalizing costs that are traditionally externalized. This paper questions these optimistic expectations. Can we save nature by selling it? Is conservation through commodification a viable option? This paper maps both the social and ecological problems of the commodification of nature that is a necessary precondition for (...)
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  42.  15
    From Commodification to the Common Good: Reconstructing Science, Technology, and Society. By Hans Radder. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2019. 309 Pages. $45.00. [REVIEW]Arthur C. Petersen - 2020 - Zygon 55 (1):275-276.
  43.  16
    Complexifying Commodification, Consumption, ART, and Abortion.I. Glenn Cohen - 2015 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):307-311.
    This commentary on Madeira's paper complicates the relationships between commodification, consumption, abortion, and assisted reproductive technologies she draws in two ways. First, I examine under what conditions the commodification of ARTs, gametes, and surrogacy lead to patients becoming consumers. Second, I show that there are some stark difference between applying commodification critiques to ART versus abortion.
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  44. Blood Products and the Commodification Debate: The Blurry Concept of Altruism and the ‘Implicit Price’ of Readily Available Body Parts.Annette Dufner - 2015 - HEC Forum 27 (4):347-359.
    There is a widespread consensus that a commodification of body parts is to be prevented. Numerous policy papers by international organizations extend this view to the blood supply and recommend a system of uncompensated volunteers in this area—often, however, without making the arguments for this view explicit. This situation seems to indicate that a relevant source of justified worry or unease about the blood supply system has to do with the issue of commodification. As a result, the current (...)
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  45.  70
    Procreative Liberty, Enhancement and Commodification in the Human Cloning Debate.Sandra Shapshay - 2012 - Health Care Analysis 20 (4):356-366.
    The aim of this paper is to scrutinize a contemporary standoff in the American debate over the moral permissibility of human reproductive cloning in its prospective use as a eugenic enhancement technology. I shall argue that there is some significant and under-appreciated common ground between the defenders and opponents of human cloning. Champions of the moral and legal permissibility of cloning support the technology based on the right to procreative liberty provided it were to become as safe as in vitro (...)
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  46. From Commodification to the Common Good.Tomáš Michálek - 2020 - Human Affairs 30 (4):617-625.
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  47.  46
    In Defense of Commodification.Jason Brennan & Peter Jaworski - 2015 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 2 (2):357-377.
    We aim to show anti-commodification theorists that their complaints about the scope of the market are exaggerated. There are we agree things that should not be bought and sold but that’s only because they are things people shouldn’t have or do or exchange in the first place. Beyond that we argue there are legitimate moral worries about how we buy trade and sell but no legitimate worries about what we buy trade and sell. In almost every interesting case where (...)
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  48.  20
    The Commodification of Care.Karla Erickson - 2005 - Theory and Event 8 (4).
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  49.  67
    The Commodification of Knowledge About Knowledge: Knowledge Management and the Reification of Epistemology.Tomas Hellström & Sujatha Raman - 2001 - Social Epistemology 15 (3):139-154.
  50. The New French Resistance: Commodification Rejected?Donna Dickenson - 2005 - Medical Law International 7 (1):41-63.
    In this article I evaluate a resurrected French resistance movement--to biotechnological commodification. The official French view that ‘the body is the person’ has been dismissed as a ‘taboo’ by the French political scientist Dominique Memmi . Yet France has indeed resisted the models of globalised commodification adopted in US bioechnology, as, for example, when the government blocked a research collaboration between the American firm Millennium Pharmaceuticals and a leading genomics laboratory, le Centre d’Etude du Polymorphisme Humain, on the (...)
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