Results for 'common ground'

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  1.  22
    Memory and Common Ground Processes in Language Use.Sarah Brown‐Schmidt & Melissa C. Duff - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4):722-736.
    During communication, we form assumptions about what our communication partners know and believe. Information that is mutually known between the discourse partners—their common ground—serves as a backdrop for successful communication. Here we present an introduction to the focus of this topic, which is the role of memory in common ground and language use. Two types of questions emerge as central to understanding the relationship between memory and common ground, specifically questions having to do with (...)
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  2.  15
    Revisiting the Memory‐Based Processing Approach to Common Ground.William S. Horton & Richard J. Gerrig - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4):780-795.
    Horton and Gerrig outlined a memory-based processing model of conversational common ground that provided a description of how speakers could both strategically and automatically gain access to information about others through domain-general memory processes acting over ordinary memory traces. In this article, we revisit this account, reviewing empirical findings that address aspects of this memory-based model. In doing so, we also take the opportunity to clarify what we believe this approach implies about the cognitive psychology of common (...)
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  3. Presuppositions and Common Ground.Barbara Abbott - 2008 - Linguistics and Philosophy 31 (5):523-538.
    This paper presents problems for Stalnaker’s common ground theory of presupposition. Stalnaker (Linguist and Philos 25:701–721, 2002) proposes a 2-stage process of utterance interpretation: presupposed content is added to the common ground prior to acceptance/rejection of the utterance as a whole. But this revision makes presupposition difficult to distinguish from assertion. A more fundamental problem is that the common ground theory rests on a faulty theory of assertion—that the essence of assertion is to present (...)
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  4.  6
    Mindreading and Psycholinguistic Approaches to Perspective Taking: Establishing Common Ground.Ian Apperly - 2018 - Topics in Cognitive Science 10 (1):133-139.
    In this commentary on “Memory and Common Ground Processes in Language Use,” I draw attention to relevant work on mindreading. The concerns of research on common ground and mindreading have significant overlap, but these literatures have worked in relative isolation of each other. I attempt an assimilation, pointing out shared and distinctive concerns and mutually informative results.
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  5.  25
    Building Common Ground in Global Teamwork Through Re-Representation.Renate Fruchter & Rodolphe Courtier - 2011 - AI and Society 26 (3):233-245.
    We explore in this paper the relation between activities, communication channels and media, and common ground building in global teams. We define re-representation as a sequence of representations of the same concept using different communication channels and media. We identified the re - representation technique to build common ground that is used by team members during multimodal and multimedia communicative events in cross-disciplinary, geographically distributed settings. Our hypotheses are as follows: (1) Significant sources of information behind (...)
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  6.  21
    Convention and Common Ground.Bart Geurts - 2018 - Mind and Language 33 (2):115-129.
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  7. Is Common Ground a Word or Just a Sound?Paola Cantù - 2007 - In H. V. Hanson (ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference: Dissensus & The Search for Common Ground. Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation. pp. 1--9.
    The paper analyses the role played by the concept of ‘common ground’ in argumentation theories. If a common agreement on all the rules of a discursive exchange is required, either at the beginning or at the end of an argumentative practice, then no violation of the rules is possible. The paper suggests an alternative understanding of ‘common ground’ as something that can change during the development of the argumentative practice, and in particular something that can (...)
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  8. Common Ground and Modal Disagreement.David Hunter - 2007 - In H. V. Hanson (ed.), Dissensus and the Search for Common Ground. pp. 134-143.
    The common ground in an inquiry consists of what the participants agree on, at least for the sake of the inquiry. The relations between the factual and linguistic components of common ground are notoriously difficult to trace. I clarify them by exploring how modal disagreements – disagreements about how things might be – interact with the linguistic and the factual common ground. I argue that modal agreement is essential to common ground of (...)
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  9.  80
    Quantum Holism: Nonseparability as Common Ground.Jenann Ismael & Jonathan Schaffer - forthcoming - Synthese:1-30.
    Quantum mechanics seems to portray nature as nonseparable, in the sense that it allows spatiotemporally separated entities to have states that cannot be fully specified without reference to each other. This is often said to implicate some form of “holism.” We aim to clarify what this means, and why this seems plausible. Our core idea is that the best explanation for nonseparability is a “common ground” explanation, which casts nonseparable entities in a holistic light, as scattered reflections of (...)
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  10.  48
    Body Awareness: A Phenomenological Inquiry Into the Common Ground of Mind-Body Therapies.Wolf E. Mehling, Judith Wrubel, Jennifer Daubenmier, Cynthia J. Price, Catherine E. Kerr, Theresa Silow, Viranjini Gopisetty & Anita L. Stewart - 2011 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 6:6.
    Enhancing body awareness has been described as a key element or a mechanism of action for therapeutic approaches often categorized as mind-body approaches, such as yoga, TaiChi, Body-Oriented Psychotherapy, Body Awareness Therapy, mindfulness based therapies/meditation, Feldenkrais, Alexander Method, Breath Therapy and others with reported benefits for a variety of health conditions. To better understand the conceptualization of body awareness in mind-body therapies, leading practitioners and teaching faculty of these approaches were invited as well as their patients to participate in focus (...)
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  11.  34
    Conversation and Common Ground.Mitchell Green - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (6):1587-1604.
    Stalnaker’s conception of context as common ground possesses unquestionable explanatory power, shedding light on presupposition, presupposition accommodation, the behavior of certain types of conditionals, epistemic modals, and related phenomena. The CG-context approach is also highly abstract, so merely pointing out that it fails to account for an aspect of communication is an inconclusive criticism. Instead our question should be whether it can be extended or modified to account for such a phenomenon while preserving its spirit. To that end, (...)
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  12.  20
    Activating, Seeking, and Creating Common Ground: A Socio-Cognitive Approach.Istvan Kecskes & Fenghui Zhang - 2009 - Pragmatics and Cognition 17 (2):331-355.
    This paper argues that current pragmatic theories fail to describe common ground in its complexity because they usually retain a communication-as-transfer-between-minds view of language, and disregard the fact that disagreement and egocentrism of speaker-hearers are as fundamental parts of communication as agreement and cooperation. On the other hand, current cognitive research has overestimated the egocentric behavior of the dyads and argued for the dynamic emergent property of common ground while devaluing the overall significance of cooperation in (...)
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  13. Presupposition Without Common Ground.Mandy Simons - manuscript
    In this paper, I review a number of arguments in favor of treating many of the central cases of presupposition as the result of conversational inference, rather than as lexically specified properties of particular expressions. I then argue that, despite the standard assumption to the contrary, the view of presupposition as constraints on the common ground is not consistent with the provision of a conversational account of particular presuppositional constraints. The argument revolves crucially around the workings of accommodation. (...)
     
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  14.  96
    Finding Common Ground Between Evolutionary Biology and Continental Philosophy.Maxine Sheets-Johnstone - 2007 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 6 (3):327-348.
    This article identifies already existing theoretical and methodological commonalities between evolutionary biology and phenomenology, concentrating specifically on their common pursuit of origins. It identifies in passing theoretical support from evolutionary biology for present-day concerns in philosophy, singling out Sartre’s conception of fraternity as an example. It anchors its analysis of the common pursuit of origins in Husserl’s consistent recognition of the grounding significance of Nature and in his consistent recognition of animate forms of life other than human. It (...)
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  15.  30
    Global Visions and Common Ground: Biodemocracy, Postmodern Pressures, and the Earth Charter.Heather Eaton - 2014 - Zygon 49 (4):917-937.
    The theme of this article is a rise in notions of a planetary community, and the tensions this evokes in global-local and universal-contextual debates. The primary focus is the realization that new visions are needed to respond to ecological dilemmas in a culturally diverse yet global world and interconnected Earth. Of the many ways to discuss this, I first consider the growing interest in and expansion of biodemocracy as a way to combine these dimensions. Insights and issues from postmodern perspectives (...)
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  16.  21
    Treacherous Ascents: On Seeking Common Ground for Conflict Resolution.Christian Campolo - 2003 - Informal Logic 25 (1):37-50.
    The judgment competent reasoners exhibit in deciding when reasoning should not be used to resolve disagreements is eroded by adopting the popular strategy of ascending to higher levels of generality. That strategy encourages disputants to believeoften incorrectly-that they stand on some common ground that can be exploited to reach agreement. But if we regularly assume that we share values and interests with our opponents in seemingly intractable disputes, we risk losing the ability to judge whether or not we (...)
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  17.  19
    Common Ground on Surgical Abortion?--Engaging Peter Singer on the Moral Status of Potential Persons.C. C. Camosy - 2008 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 33 (6):577-593.
    The debate over surgical abortion is certainly one of the most divisive in ethical discourse and for many it seems interminable. However, this paper argues that a primary reason for this is confusion with regard to what issues are actually under dispute. When looking at an entrenched and articulate figure on one side of the debate, Peter Singer, and comparing his views with those of his opponents, one finds that the disputed issue is actually quite a narrow one: the moral (...)
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  18.  5
    Common Ground on Surgical Abortion?—Engaging Peter Singer on the Moral Status of Potential Persons.Charles C. Camosy - 2008 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 33 (6):577-593.
    The debate over surgical abortion is certainly one of the most divisive in ethical discourse and for many it seems interminable. However, this paper argues that a primary reason for this is confusion with regard to what issues are actually under dispute. When looking at an entrenched and articulate figure on one side of the debate, Peter Singer, and comparing his views with those of his opponents, one finds that the disputed issue is actually quite a narrow one: the moral (...)
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  19.  37
    A Common Ground and Some Surprising Connections.Edward N. Zalta - 2002 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 40 (S1):1-25.
    This paper serves as a kind of field guide to certain passages in the literature which bear upon the foundational theory of abstract objects. The foundational theory assimilates ideas from key philosophers in both the analytical and phenomenological traditions. I explain how my foundational theory of objects serves as a common ground where analytic and phenomenological concerns meet. I try to establish how the theory offers a logic that systematizes a well-known phenomenological kind of entity, and I try (...)
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  20. Marking Out a Disciplinary Common Ground: The Role of Chemical Pedagogy in Establishing the Doctrine of Affinity at the Heart of British Chemistry.Georgette Taylor - 2008 - Annals of Science 65 (4):465-486.
    Summary This paper presents a case study that contributes to the current debate among historians of chemistry concerning the role and influence of pedagogy in science. Recently, Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent and her colleagues concluded that in nineteenth-century France, ?textbooks played an important role in discipline building and in creating theories?.1 Developing this idea further, this paper examines the dissemination of knowledge through face-to-face chemical lectures, showing that the influence of pedagogical strategy on theoretical content of the science is far from negligible. (...)
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  21.  31
    Geography and Moral Philosophy: Some Common Ground.David M. Smith - 1998 - Philosophy and Geography 1 (1):7 – 33.
    There is an awakening of interest in links between geography and moral philosophy, or ethics. This paper reviews a range of issues where common ground might be found on this new disciplinary interface. These issues include the historical geography of moralities, the notion of moral geographies, inclusion and exclusion in the context of the bounding of spaces, and the moral significance of distance and proximity, as well as the more familiar concern with social justice. Environmental ethics provides a (...)
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  22.  35
    Dialectics and the Austrian School? The Search for Common Ground in the Methodology of Heterodox Economics.Andy Denis - 2008 - Journal of Philosophical Economics 1 (2):151-173.
    In a recent paper (Denis, 2004b) I argued that the neoclassical use of the concept of equilibrium was guilty of a hypostatisation: an equilibrium which is only an abstraction and extrapolation, the logical terminus of a component process taken in isolation, is extracted and one-sidedly substituted for the whole. The temporary is made permanent, and process subordinated to stasis, with clearly apologetic results. I concluded by suggesting that this hypostatisation exemplified the contrast between formal and dialectical modes of thought, and (...)
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  23.  13
    Is There Sufficient Common Ground to Resolve the Abortion Debate?Peter Seipel - 2014 - Journal of Value Inquiry 48 (3):517-531.
    A common response to ongoing disagreement about abortion has been to look for overlap between the prolife and prochoice sides of the debate. In recent years, however, both opposing camps in the debate have claimed to be able to establish their respective positions on the basis of the same common ground. Faced with the apparent failure of philosophers to settle their differences about abortion by means of shared values, the question naturally arises: what should we do about (...)
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  24.  6
    On the Spiritual Dimension of Education: Finding a Common Ground.Eric Dayton - 2016 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 50 (3):432-447.
    Questions about the place of spirituality in publicly funded schools are made difficult in a multicultural secular society. I discuss the work of Paulus Geheeb and Rabindranath Tagore, two great 20th century educational innovators, to offer, by way of an argument from analogy with the social importance of moral education, a common ground for spiritual education.
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  25. Contracts in the Common Ground.Henk Zeevat - unknown
    The paper explores the introduction of contracts in the common ground by means of requests, promises and questions. Various modal operators are introduced to achieve the modelling of these new additions to the conversational record. The paper extends the treatment of Zeevat 97 and introduces the beginnings of a theory of action.
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  26. Activating, Seeking, and Creating Common Ground: A Socio-Cognitive Approach.Istvan Kecskes & Fenghui Zhang - 2009 - Radical Philosophy Review of Books 17 (2):331-355.
    This paper argues that current pragmatic theories fail to describe common ground in its complexity because they usually retain a communication-as-transfer-between-minds view of language, and disregard the fact that disagreement and egocentrism of speaker-hearers are as fundamental parts of communication as agreement and cooperation. On the other hand, current cognitive research has overestimated the egocentric behavior of the dyads and argued for the dynamic emergent property of common ground while devaluing the overall significance of cooperation in (...)
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  27. Is a Common World World Still Possible? On a Unity in Diversity and on a Common Ground in Potency, Part I.J. Pauer - 2003 - Filozofia 58 (2):87-97.
    The paper is an attempt at a definition of a common ground with its immanent potency as the founding force of various forms of the world common to all people. Its first part gives a brief outline of the conceptions of this common ground in the history of European thinking, such as Plato's case. Cusanus' community or joined unity and Whitehead's creativity. The second part derives from these conceptual schemes, reflecting on the domain of potency (...)
     
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  28. Is a Common World Still Possible? On a Unity in Diversity and on a Common Ground in Potency: Part II, Complex Domain of Potency.J. Pauer - 2003 - Filozofia 58 (3):188-198.
    The paper is an attempt at a definition of a common ground with its immanent potency as the founding force of various forms of the world common to all people. Its first part gives a brief outline of the conceptions of this common ground in the history of European thinking, such as Plato's case. Cusanus' community or joined unity and Whitehead's creativity. The second part derives from these conceptual schemes, reflecting on the domain of potency (...)
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  29. Common Ground.Robert Stalnaker - 2002 - Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (5-6):701-721.
  30.  18
    Should Remote Collaborators Be Represented by Avatars? A Matter of Common Ground for Collective Medical Decision-Making.J. Tapie, P. Terrier, L. Perron & J.-M. Cellier - 2006 - AI and Society 20 (3):331-350.
    In a collaborative work situation at a distance, the use of avatars to represent collaborators reduces collaborative effort. Also, animated avatars can help distant users to ground their relationship and facilitate their interaction because they materialise visual clues for the distant collaborators and their current activity. To check the validity of these hypotheses we set up an experiment based on the use of a collaborative virtual environment (CVE) synchronised for collective medical decision-making. Several teams of practitioners from different disciplines (...)
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  31.  46
    Common Knowledge and Common Ground.Jan van Eijck - unknown
    We sketch recent insights in dynamic epistemic logic and use them to shed new light on old ideas about common knowledge as a prerequisite for linguistic communication.
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  32.  17
    Consensus and Common Ground.Andrew Lugg - 1991 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 53 (3):474 - 488.
    Philosophers concerned with the character of scientific disputes tend to divide into two camps. On the one side there are those who hold that scientists can always settle their differences by appealing to shared assumptions; on the other side there are those who maintain that in many cases scientists must resort to (nonrational ) persuasion to establish their views. The trouble is that for all their strong points both approaches labour under enormous difficulties. Scientific disagreement is often much deeper than (...)
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  33.  7
    Building Common Ground: Going Beyond the Liberal Conundrum.Deen Chatterjee - 2013 - Ethics and International Affairs 27 (2):119-127.
    Liberalism as a political ideology and a philosophical doctrine has championed individual autonomy, social and political equality, and democratic and inclusive political institutions. Consequently, liberalism is known for its commitment to tolerance and value pluralism. Yet liberalism has been critiqued for being insensitive to claims of culture. Indeed, an attitude of benign neglect toward diversity was once quite common among liberals, as was a general lack of interest in global concerns. Worse yet, according to some critics the liberal tradition—in (...)
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  34. Multiculturalism, Universalism, and Science Education: In Search of Common Ground.Harvey Siegel - 2002 - Science Education 86 (6):803-820.
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  35.  2
    Seeking Common Ground: Evaluation & Critique of Joseph Bracken's Comprehensive Worldview.Marc A. Pugliese & Gloria L. Schaab (eds.) - 2012 - Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press.
    Joseph A. Bracken, S.J,. is one of the more significant North American theologians of the past 40 years. With 12 monographs, two edited or co-edited volumes, over 150 articles, numerous professional and popular conference presentations and media appearances, he is one of the foremost interlocutors in contemporary theological discourse. Having developed and consistently defended a comprehensive and intellectually rigorous worldview that combines the modern and classical Christian worldviews, Bracken has accomplished an invaluable service to the academy, the church, and the (...)
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  36. Building Common Ground: Going Beyond the Liberal Conundrum.Deen Chatterjee - 2013 - Ethics & International Affairs 27 (2):119-127.
    Liberalism as a political ideology and a philosophical doctrine has championed individual autonomy, social and political equality, and democratic and inclusive political institutions. Consequently, liberalism is known for its commitment to tolerance and value pluralism. Yet liberalism has been critiqued for being insensitive to claims of culture. Indeed, an attitude of benign neglect toward diversity was once quite common among liberals, as was a general lack of interest in global concerns. Worse yet, according to some critics the liberal tradition—in (...)
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  37.  22
    When Do Speakers Take Into Account Common Ground?William S. Horton & Boaz Keysar - 1996 - Cognition 59 (1):91-117.
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  38.  63
    Human Dignity and Human Rights as a Common Ground for a Global Bioethics.R. Andorno - 2009 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 34 (3):223-240.
    The principle of respect for human dignity plays a crucial role in the emerging global norms relating to bioethics, in particular in the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. This instrument, which is a legal, not merely an ethical document, can be regarded as an extension of international human rights law into the field of biomedicine. Although the Declaration does not explicitly define human dignity, it would be a mistake to see the emphasis put on this notion as (...)
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  39. Epistemic Modals and Common Ground.Ezra Cook - 2013 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 56 (2-3):179-209.
    This paper considers some questions related to the determination of epistemic modal domains. Specifically, given situations in which groups of agents have epistemic states that bear on a modal domain, how is the domain best restricted? This is a metasemantic project, in which I combine a standard semantics for epistemic modals, as developed by Kratzer, with a standard story about conversational dynamics, as developed by Stalnaker. I show how a standard framework for epistemic logic can model their interaction. I contend (...)
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  40.  4
    Pragmatic Expectations and Linguistic Evidence: Listeners Anticipate but Do Not Integrate Common Ground.Dale J. Barr - 2008 - Cognition 109 (1):18-40.
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  41.  1
    Studying Dialects in Songbirds: Finding the Common Ground.Meredith J. West & Andrew P. King - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (1):117-118.
  42. A Response to Abbott on Presupposition and Common Ground.Robert Stalnaker - 2008 - Linguistics and Philosophy 31 (5):539-544.
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  43.  11
    Geography and Moral Philosophy: Some Common Ground.David M. Smith - 1998 - Ethics, Place and Environment 1 (1):7-34.
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  44.  6
    The Institution of Life in Gehlen and Merleau-Ponty: Searching for the Common Ground for the Anthropological Difference.Jan Halák & Jiří Klouda - forthcoming - Human Studies:1-24.
    The goal of our article is to review the widespread anthropological figure, according to which we can achieve a better understanding of humans by contrasting them with animals. This originally Herderian approach was elaborated by Arnold Gehlen, who characterized humans as “deficient beings” who become complete through culture. According to Gehlen, humans, who are insufficiently equipped by instincts, indirectly stabilize their existence by creating institutions, i.e., complexes of habitual actions. On the other hand, Maurice Merleau-Ponty shows that corporeal relationship to (...)
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  45. Ideology, Generics, and Common Ground.Sally Haslanger - 2011 - In Charlotte Witt (ed.), Feminist Metaphysics. Springer Verlag. pp. 179--207.
    Are sagging pants cool? Are cows food? Are women more submissive than men? Are blacks more criminal than whites? Taking the social world at face value, many people would be tempted to answer these questions in the affirmative. And if challenged, they can point to facts that support their answers. But there is something wrong about the affirmative answers. In this chapter, I draw on recent ideas in the philosophy of language and metaphysics to show how the assertion of a (...)
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  46.  3
    Strange Bedfellows? Common Ground on the Moral Status Question.Shane Maxwell Wilkins - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 41 (2):130-147.
    When does a developing human being acquire moral status? I outline three different positions based on substance ontology that attempt to solve the question by locating some morally salient event in the process of human development question. In the second section, I consider some specific empirical objections to one of these positions, refute them, and then show how similar objections and responses would generalize to the other substance-based positions on the question. The crucial finding is that all the attempts to (...)
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  47. Prior Experience and Communication Media in Establishing Common Ground During Collaboration.Yugo Hayashi & Kazuhisa Miwa - 2009 - In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. pp. 528--531.
     
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  48.  37
    Sustainable Agriculture and Free Market Economics: Finding Common Ground in Adam Smith. [REVIEW]Harvey S. James Jr - 2006 - Agriculture and Human Values 23 (4):427-438.
    There are two competing approaches to sustainability in agriculture. One stresses a strict economic approach in which market forces should guide the activities of agricultural producers. The other advocates the need to balance economic with environmental and social objectives, even to the point of reducing profitability. The writings of the eighteenth century moral philosopher Adam Smith could bridge the debate. Smith certainly promoted profit-seeking, private property, and free market exchange consistent with the strict economic perspective. However, his writings are also (...)
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  49. Activating, Seeking, and Creating Common Ground: A Socio-Cognitive Approach.Istvan Kecskes & Fenghui Zhang - 2009 - Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 17 (2):331-355.
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  50.  13
    Review Essay Scientific Styles: Toward Some Common Ground in the History, Philosophy, and Sociology of Science.Marga Vicedo - 1995 - Perspectives on Science 3 (2).
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