Results for 'comparison'

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  1. A Universal Scale of Comparison.Alan Clinton Bale - 2008 - Linguistics and Philosophy 31 (1):1-55.
    Comparative constructions form two classes, those that permit direct comparisons (comparisons of measurements as in Seymour is taller than he is wide) and those that only allow indirect comparisons (comparisons of relative positions on separate scales as in Esme is more beautiful than Einstein is intelligent). In contrast with other semantic theories, this paper proposes that the interpretation of the comparative morpheme remains the same whether it appears in sentences that compare individuals directly or indirectly. To develop a unified account, (...)
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  2.  53
    Scales and Comparison Classes.Alan Clinton Bale - 2011 - Natural Language Semantics 19 (2):169-190.
    This paper discusses comparison classes—sets that relativize the interpretation of gradable adjectives, often specified with for-clauses as in John is smart for a linguist. Such a discussion ultimately lends support to the thesis that scales, degrees, measure functions, and linear orders are grammatically derived from more basic relations between individuals. Three accounts of comparison classes are compared and evaluated. The first proposes that such classes serve as an argument to a function that determines a standard of comparison. (...)
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  3.  21
    Upper-Bounded No More: The Exhaustive Interpretation of Non-Strict Comparison[REVIEW]Rick Nouwen - 2008 - Natural Language Semantics 16 (4):271-295.
    The paper concerns the expression of non-strict comparison, focusing in particular on constructions of the form [no(t) . . .-er than] in modified numerals. The main empirical finding is the observation that negated comparatives contrast with regular comparatives in that the former but not the latter can give rise to (scalar) implicatures. It is shown that such a contrast falls out of theories of exhaustive interpretation that claim alternatives to form dense scales. An important result is that the paper (...)
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  4.  4
    What Kinds of Comparison Are Most Useful in the Study of World Philosophies?Nathan Sivin, Anna Akasoy, Warwick Anderson, Gérard Colas & Edmond Eh - 2018 - Journal of World Philosophies 3 (2):75-97.
    Cross-cultural comparisons face several methodological challenges. In an attempt at resolving some such challenges, Nathan Sivin has developed the framework of “cultural manifolds.” This framework includes all the pertinent dimensions of a complex phenomenon and the interactions that make all of these aspects into a single whole. In engaging with this framework, Anna Akasoy illustrates that the phenomena used in comparative approaches to cultural and intellectual history need to be subjected to a continuous change of perspectives. Writing about comparative history, (...)
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  5.  79
    Perceptual Symbols and Taxonomy Comparison.Xiang Chen - 2001 - Philosophy of Science 3 (September):S200-S212.
    Many recent cognitive studies reveal that human cognition is inherently perceptual, sharing systems with perception at both the conceptual and the neural levels. This paper introduces Barsalou's theory of perceptual symbols and explores its implications for philosophy of science. If perceptual symbols lie in the heart of conceptual processing, the process of attribute selection during concept representation, which is critical for defining similarity and thus for comparing taxonomies, can no longer be determined solely by background beliefs. The analogous nature of (...)
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  6.  35
    Extreme Copulas and the Comparison of Ordered Lists.B. De Schuymer, H. De Meyer & B. de Baets - 2007 - Theory and Decision 62 (3):195-217.
    We introduce two extreme methods to pairwisely compare ordered lists of the same length, viz. the comonotonic and the countermonotonic comparison method, and show that these methods are, respectively, related to the copula T M (the minimum operator) and the Ł ukasiewicz copula T L used to join marginal cumulative distribution functions into bivariate cumulative distribution functions. Given a collection of ordered lists of the same length, we generate by means of T M and T L two probabilistic relations (...)
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  7.  2
    A Long Pseudo-Comparison of Premice in $L[X]$.Farmer Schlutzenberg - 2018 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 59 (4):599-604.
    A significant open problem in inner model theory is the analysis of HODL[x] as a strategy premouse, for a Turing cone of reals x. We describe here an obstacle to such an analysis. Assuming sufficient large cardinals, for a Turing cone of reals x there are proper class 1-small premice M,N, with Woodin cardinals δ,ε, respectively, such that M|δ and N|ε are in L[x], M and N are countable in L[x], and the pseudo-comparison of M with N succeeds, is (...)
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  8.  16
    An Utterance Situation-Based Comparison.Osamu Sawada - 2014 - Linguistics and Philosophy 37 (3):205-248.
    The Japanese comparative adverb motto has two different uses. In the degree use, motto compares two individuals and denotes that there is a large gap between the target and a given standard with a norm-related presupposition. On the other hand, in the so-called ‘negative use’ it conveys the speaker’s attitude toward the utterance situation. I argue that similarly to the degree motto, the negative motto is a comparative morpheme, but unlike the degree motto it compares a current situation and an (...)
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  9.  12
    The Anthropological Argument in Practical Philosophy and the Logic of Comparison.Andreas Dorschel - 1994 - History of European Ideas 18 (3):387-400.
    Arnold Gehlen's attempt to give anthropological grounds for morality stems from Kant's idea that being freed from the compulsion of instinct left human beings in need of compensation for the loss of the practical guidance which instinct had hitherto provided. Whereas Kant thought this compensation was to found only in reasoned morality, Gehlen would argue that morality provides recompense by becoming a quasi-instinct that functions without reflection and that needs to be bred into human beings. The author maintains that in (...)
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  10.  42
    Does Religion Matter? A Comparison Study of the Ethical Beliefs of Marketing Students of Religious and Secular Universities in Japan.Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas, Ziad Swaidan & Jamal Al-Khatib - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 65 (1):69-86.
    This study was designed to examine the determinants of and differences between the ethical beliefs of two groups of Japanese students in religious and secular universities. Multiple regression analysis revealed that students of the Japanese religious university perceived that young, male, relativistic, and opportunistic students tended to behave less ethically than did older, female, and idealistic students. Students of the Japanese secular university perceived that male, achievement-oriented, and opportunistic students tended to behave less ethically than did female and experience-oriented students. (...)
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  11.  27
    Have Ethical Attitudes Changed? An Intertemporal Comparison of the Ethical Perceptions of College Students in 1985 and 2001.Tisha L. N. Emerson & Stephen J. Conroy - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 50 (2):167-176.
    Recent ethical breeches by corporate governorsat the highest levels have called into questionwhether ethical attitudes have changed sincethe Corporate Raider scandals of the mid-1980s. We exploit a unique opportunity to follow-up ona previous investigation of college students inthe mid-1980s to analyze this question. Usinga similar survey instrument, we find thatstudents surveyed in 2001 are significantlyless accepting of the ethically questionablesituations in seven of 15 scenarios and moreaccepting in only one. Seven scenarios showedno significant change. We conclude that,overall, ethical attitudes of (...)
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  12.  37
    Ethics, Risk and Benefits Associated with Different Applications of Nanotechnology: A Comparison of Expert and Consumer Perceptions of Drivers of Societal Acceptance.L. Frewer, A. Fischer & N. Gupta - 2015 - NanoEthics 9 (2):93-108.
    Examining those risk and benefit perceptions utilised in the formation of attitudes and opinions about emerging technologies such as nanotechnology can be useful for both industry and policy makers involved in their development, implementation and regulation. A broad range of different socio-psychological and affective factors may influence consumer responses to different applications of nanotechnology, including ethical concerns. A useful approach to identifying relevant consumer concerns and innovation priorities is to develop predictive constructs which can be used to differentiate applications of (...)
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  13.  58
    Metaphilosophical Criteria for Worldview Comparison.Clément Vidal - 2012 - Metaphilosophy 43 (3):306-347.
    Philosophy lacks criteria to evaluate its philosophical theories. To fill this gap, this essay introduces nine criteria to compare worldviews, classified in three broad categories: objective criteria (objective consistency, scientificity, scope), subjective criteria (subjective consistency, personal utility, emotionality), and intersubjective criteria (intersubjective consistency, collective utility, narrativity). The essay first defines what a worldview is and exposes the heuristic used in the quest for criteria. After describing each criterion individually, it shows what happens when each of them is violated. From the (...)
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  14.  20
    A Comparison of Privacy Issues in Collaborative Workspaces and Social Networks.Martin Pekárek & Stefanie Pötzsch - 2009 - Identity in the Information Society 2 (1):81-93.
    With the advent of Web 2.0, numerous social software applications allow people to publish and share information on the Internet. Two of these types of applications – collaborative workspaces and social network sites – have a number of features in common, which are explored to provide a basis for comparative analysis. This basis is extended with a suitable definition of privacy, a sociological perspective and an applicable adversary model in order to facilitate an investigation of similarities and differences with regard (...)
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  15.  18
    The Comparison of Word Meanings.Benson Schaeffer & Richard Wallace - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (2):144.
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  16.  34
    Political Theory and the Politics of Comparison.Murad Idris - 2016 - Political Theory:1-20.
    One of the exciting developments in political theory in the last decades is that the boundaries of the discipline gradually but vigorously expanded beyond “the West,” as evident in the rise of work that is often labeled “comparative.” Basic to this shift is the recognition that various thinkers, ideas, and contexts—usually marked as “non-Western”—have been peripheral to, and remain marginalized in, the discipline of political theory. However, the discipline’s framing of the “comparative” as the study of “non-Western political thought” tends (...)
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  17.  13
    Temporal Aspects of Simple Multiplication and Comparison.John M. Parkman - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 95 (2):437.
  18.  29
    Ordering Pairwise Comparison Structures.R. Delver, H. Monsuur & A. J. A. Storcken - 1991 - Theory and Decision 31 (1):75-94.
  19.  29
    Acculturation and End-of-Life Decision Making: Comparison of Japanese and Japanese-American Focus Groups.Seiji Bito, Shinji Matsumura, Marjorie Kagawa Singer, Lisa S. Meredith, Shunichi Fukuhara & Neil S. Wenger - 2007 - Bioethics 21 (5):251–262.
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  20.  11
    Comparison of Training Methods in the Production of Prism Adaptation.Joan E. Foley & Florence J. Maynes - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (1):151.
  21.  13
    Delay of Reward in the Double Alleyway: A Within-Subjects Versus Between-Groups Comparison.Joseph A. Sgro, Robert A. Glotfelty & Bruce D. Moore - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (1):82.
  22.  17
    Role of Stimulus Comparison in Equivalence Training.David R. Thomas, James T. Miller & Gary Hansen - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (2):297.
  23.  5
    Effect of Repetition of Standard and of Comparison Tones on Recognition Memory for Pitch.Diana Deutsch - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 93 (1):156.
  24.  13
    Three Methods for Estimating Days of Hospitalization Because of Hospital‐Acquired Infection: A Comparison.Silvana Barbaro, Francesco G. De Rosa, Lorena Charrier, Carlo Silvestre, Emanuela Lovato & Maria M. Gianino - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (4):776-780.
  25.  13
    Sentence-Picture Comparison: A Test of Additivity of Processing Time for Feature Matching and Negation Coding.Lester E. Krueger - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 95 (2):275.
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  26.  15
    When Should Neuroimaging Be Applied in the Criminal Court? On Ideal Comparison and the Shortcomings of Retributivism.Jesper Ryberg - 2014 - The Journal of Ethics 18 (2):81-99.
    When does neuroimaging constitute a sufficiently developed technology to be put into use in the work of determining whether or not a defendant is guilty of crime? This question constitutes the starting point of the present paper. First, it is suggested that an overall answer is provided by what is referred to as the “ideal comparative view.” Secondly, it is—on the ground of this view—argued that the answer as to whether neuroimaging technology should be applied presupposes penal theoretical considerations. Thirdly, (...)
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  27.  7
    Differential Sensitivity to Intensity as a Function of the Duration of the Comparison Tone.W. R. Garner & G. A. Miller - 1944 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 34 (6):450.
  28.  4
    Error Patterns in Delayed Pitch Comparison as a Function of Relational Context.Diana Deutsch & Philip L. Roll - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (5):1027.
  29.  3
    Transposition in the White Rat as a Function of Stimulus Comparison.Robert Thompson - 1955 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 50 (3):185.
  30.  3
    The Method of Comparison Applied to the Problem of Memory Change.Nelson G. Hanawalt - 1952 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 43 (1):37.
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  31.  34
    A Cross Cultural Comparison of the Contents of Codes of Ethics: USA, Canada and Australia. [REVIEW]Greg Wood - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 25 (4):287 - 298.
    This paper examines the contents of the codes of ethics of 83 of the top 500 companies operating in the private sector in Australia in an attempt to discover whether there are national characteristics that differentiate the codes used by companies operating in Australia from codes used by companies operating in the American and Canadian systems. The studies that were used as a comparison were Mathews (1987) for the United States of America and Lefebvre and Singh (1992) for Canada. (...)
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  32.  45
    Issue-Contingent Effects on Ethical Decision Making: A Cross-Cultural Comparison[REVIEW]Mark A. Davis, Nancy Brown Johnson & Douglas G. Ohmer - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (4):373-389.
    This experiment examined the effects of three elements comprising Jones' (1991) moral intensity construct, (social consensus, personal proximity, and magnitude of consequences) in a cross-cultural comparison of ethical decision making within a human resource management (HRM) context. Results indicated social consensus had the most potent effect on judgments of moral concern and judgments of immorality. An analysis of American, Eastern European, and Indonesian responses also indicted socio-cultural differences were moderated by the type of HRM ethical issue. In addition, individual (...)
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  33. Predicting Unethical Behavior: A Comparison of the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior. [REVIEW]Man Kit Chang - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (16):1825-1834.
    This study is a comparison of the validity of theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior as applied to the area of moral behavior (i.e., illegal copying of software) using structural equation modeling. Data were collected from 181 university students on the various components of the theories and used to asses the influence of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control on the intention to make unauthorized software copies. Theory of planned behavior was found to be better (...)
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  34.  27
    Intertheoretic Value Comparison: A Modest Proposal.Christian Tarsney - 2018 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 15 (3):324-344.
    In the growing literature on decision-making under moral uncertainty, a number of skeptics have argued that there is an insuperable barrier to rational "hedging" for the risk of moral error, namely the apparent incomparability of moral reasons given by rival theories like Kantianism and utilitarianism. Various general theories of intertheoretic value comparison have been proposed to meet this objection, but each suffers from apparently fatal flaws. In this paper, I propose a more modest approach that aims to identify classes (...)
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  35.  35
    A Cross-Cultural Comparison of the Ethics of Business Students.Steven Lysonski & William Gaidis - 1991 - Journal of Business Ethics 10 (2):141 - 150.
    The ethical tendencies of university business students from the USA, Denmark, and New Zealand were examined by analyzing their reactions to ethical dilemmas presented in a set of ethical problem situations. These dilemmas dealt with coercion and control, conflict of interest, physical environment, paternalism and personal integrity. Findings indicate that students' reactions tended to be similar regardless of their country. A comparison of these findings to practicing managers indicated that students and practicing managers exhibit a similar degree of sensitivity (...)
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  36.  23
    Moral Uncertainty and Value Comparison.Amelia Hicks - 2018 - In Russ Shafer Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics, Volume 13. Oxford, UK: pp. 161-183.
    Several philosophers have recently argued that decision-theoretic frameworks for rational choice under risk fail to provide prescriptions for choice in cases of moral uncertainty. They conclude that there are no rational norms that are “sensitive” to a decision-maker's moral uncertainty. But in this paper, I argue that one sometimes has a rational obligation to take one's moral uncertainty into account in the course of moral deliberation. I first provide positive motivation for the view that one's moral beliefs can affect what (...)
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  37. Hard Cases of Comparison.Michael Messerli & Kevin Reuter - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (9):2227-2250.
    In hard cases of comparison, people are faced with two options neither of which is conceived of as better, worse, or equally good compared to the other. Most philosophers claim that hard cases can indeed be distinguished from cases in which two options are equally good, and can be characterized by a failure of transitive reasoning. It is a much more controversial matter and at the heart of an ongoing debate, whether the options in hard cases of comparison (...)
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  38.  17
    Rapid Learning in a Children's Museum Via Analogical Comparison.Dedre Gentner, Susan C. Levine, Raedy Ping, Ashley Isaia, Sonica Dhillon, Claire Bradley & Garrett Honke - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (1):224-240.
    We tested whether analogical training could help children learn a key principle of elementary engineering—namely, the use of a diagonal brace to stabilize a structure. The context for this learning was a construction activity at the Chicago Children's Museum, in which children and their families build a model skyscraper together. The results indicate that even a single brief analogical comparison can confer insight. The results also reveal conditions that support analogical learning.
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  39.  14
    Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Number Comparison in Children with and Without Dyscalculia.Christophe Mussolin, Sandrine Mejias & Marie-Pascale Noël - 2010 - Cognition 115 (1):10-25.
    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a pervasive difficulty affecting number processing and arithmetic. It is encountered in around 6% of school-aged children. While previous studies have mainly focused on general cognitive functions, the present paper aims to further investigate the hypothesis of a specific numerical deficit in dyscalculia. The performance of 10- and 11-year-old children with DD characterised by a weakness in arithmetic facts retrieval and age-matched control children was compared on various number comparison tasks. Participants were asked to compare (...)
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  40.  62
    Business Ethics: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Managers' Attitudes. [REVIEW]Helmut Becker & David J. Fritzsche - 1987 - Journal of Business Ethics 6 (4):289 - 295.
    A comparison of attitudes among managers from France, Germany and the United States is made with respect to codes of ethics and ethical business philosophy. Findings are also compared with past studies by Baumhart and by Brenner and Molander where data are available. While the current data appear to be consistent with the past studies, there appear to be differences in attitudes among the managers from the three countries.
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  41. A Comparison of Three Occam’s Razors for Markovian Causal Models.Jiji Zhang - 2013 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (2):423-448.
    The framework of causal Bayes nets, currently influential in several scientific disciplines, provides a rich formalism to study the connection between causality and probability from an epistemological perspective. This article compares three assumptions in the literature that seem to constrain the connection between causality and probability in the style of Occam's razor. The trio includes two minimality assumptions—one formulated by Spirtes, Glymour, and Scheines (SGS) and the other due to Pearl—and the more well-known faithfulness or stability assumption. In terms of (...)
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  42.  13
    Comparison by Metaphor: Archery in Confucius and Aristotle.Rina Camus - 2017 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 16 (2):165-185.
    Metaphor study is a promising trend in present-day academia. Scholars of antiquity are already profiting from it in their study of early texts. We have yet, however, to harness the potentials of metaphor in East-West comparison. The article discusses what literary metaphors are, in particular how they generate images and perspectives that call into play a broad range of extra-textual information about the speaker and his milieu. Shared metaphors are doubly advantageous: they serve as hermeneutic tools for reading early (...)
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  43.  19
    Consistency in Decision Making by Research Ethics Committees: A Controlled Comparison.E. Angell, A. J. Sutton, K. Windridge & M. Dixon-Woods - 2006 - Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (11):662-664.
    There has been longstanding interest in the consistency of decisions made by research ethics committees in the UK, but most of the evidence has come from single studies submitted to multiple committees. A systematic comparison was carried out of the decisions made on 18 purposively selected applications, each of which was reviewed independently by three different RECs in a single strategic health authority. Decisions on 11 applications were consistent, but disparities were found among RECs on decisions on seven applications. (...)
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  44.  40
    'Placebos' and the Logic of Placebo Comparison.Andrew Turner - 2012 - Biology and Philosophy 27 (3):419-432.
    Robin Nunn has argued that we should stop using the terms ‘placebo’ and ‘placebo effect’. I argue in support of Nunn’s position by considering the logic of why we perform placebo comparisons. Like all comparisons, placebo comparison is just a case of comparing one thing with another, but it is a mistake, I argue, to think of placebo comparison as a case where something is compared to ‘a placebo’. Rather, placebo comparison should be understood as a situation (...)
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  45.  42
    The Impact of Normative Influence and Locus of Control on Ethical Judgments and Intentions: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.John Cherry - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 68 (2):113-132.
    The study extends the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in a cross-cultural setting, incorporating ethical judgments and locus of control in a comparison of Taiwanese and US businesspersons. A self-administered survey of 698 businesspersons from the US and Taiwan examined several hypothesized differences. Results indicate that while Taiwanese respondents have a more favorable attitude toward a requested bribe than US counterparts, and are less likely to view it as an ethical issue, their higher locus externality causes ethical judgments and (...)
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  46.  63
    Fast, Frugal, and Fit: Simple Heuristics for Paired Comparison.Laura Martignon & Ulrich Hoffrage - 2002 - Theory and Decision 52 (1):29-71.
    This article provides an overview of recent results on lexicographic, linear, and Bayesian models for paired comparison from a cognitive psychology perspective. Within each class, we distinguish subclasses according to the computational complexity required for parameter setting. We identify the optimal model in each class, where optimality is defined with respect to performance when fitting known data. Although not optimal when fitting data, simple models can be astonishingly accurate when generalizing to new data. A simple heuristic belonging to the (...)
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  47.  36
    Visible Cohesion: A Comparison of Reference Tracking in Sign, Speech, and Co‐Speech Gesture.Pamela Perniss & Asli Özyürek - 2015 - Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (1):36-60.
    Establishing and maintaining reference is a crucial part of discourse. In spoken languages, differential linguistic devices mark referents occurring in different referential contexts, that is, introduction, maintenance, and re-introduction contexts. Speakers using gestures as well as users of sign languages have also been shown to mark referents differentially depending on the referential context. This article investigates the modality-specific contribution of the visual modality in marking referential context by providing a direct comparison between sign language and co-speech gesture with speech (...)
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  48.  23
    Investigating Shame: A comparison between the Freudian psychoanalysis and cognitive approach in psychology and a theological-moral view about shame.Hossein Dabbagh - 2018 - Journal of Philosophical Meditations 8 (20):109-143.
    Shame’s conceptualization is one of the most challenging discussions in psychological studies. This challenge creates many ambiguities for both psychologists and theologians in Eastern cultures especially Iranian-Islamic culture. This paper discusses the dominant psychological researches about shame and tries to compare the outcome of these researches with Abdulkarim Soroush’s theological-moral view about shame. This comparison, we believe, helps us to understand their different approaches for further psychological and theological studies. We used descriptive-analytical method for the current research and our (...)
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  49.  29
    Epistemic Logic Meets Epistemic Game Theory: A Comparison Between Multi-Agent Kripke Models and Type Spaces.Paolo Galeazzi & Emiliano Lorini - 2016 - Synthese 193 (7):2097-2127.
    In the literature there are at least two main formal structures to deal with situations of interactive epistemology: Kripke models and type spaces. As shown in many papers :149–225, 1999; Battigalli and Siniscalchi in J Econ Theory 106:356–391, 2002; Klein and Pacuit in Stud Log 102:297–319, 2014; Lorini in J Philos Log 42:863–904, 2013), both these frameworks can be used to express epistemic conditions for solution concepts in game theory. The main result of this paper is a formal comparison (...)
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  50.  25
    Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior in Academic Cheating Research–Cross-Cultural Comparison.Agata Chudzicka-Czupała, Damian Grabowski, Abby L. Mello, Joana Kuntz, Daniela Victoria Zaharia, Nadiya Hapon, Anna Lupina-Wegener & Deniz Börü - 2016 - Ethics and Behavior 26 (8):638-659.
    The study is an intercultural comparison of the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior to predict students’ intentions for academic cheating. The sample included university students from 7 countries: Poland, Ukraine, Romania, Turkey, Switzerland, United States, and New Zealand. Across countries, results show that attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and moral obligation predict students’ intentions to engage in academic dishonesty in the form of cheating. The extended modified version of the theory of planned behavior emerged as (...)
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