Results for 'computer program'

999 found
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  1.  47
    Program Verification, Defeasible Reasoning, and Two Views of Computer Science.Timothy R. Colburn - 1991 - Minds and Machines 1 (1):97-116.
    In this paper I attempt to cast the current program verification debate within a more general perspective on the methodologies and goals of computer science. I show, first, how any method involved in demonstrating the correctness of a physically executing computer program, whether by testing or formal verification, involves reasoning that is defeasible in nature. Then, through a delineation of the senses in which programs can be run as tests, I show that the activities of testing (...)
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  2.  4
    Reconstructor: A Computer Program That Uses Three-Valued Logics to Represent Lack of Information in Empirical Scientific Contexts.Ariel Jonathan Roffé - 2019 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 30 (1):68-91.
    ABSTRACTIn this article, I develop three conceptual innovations within the area of formal metatheory, and present a computer program, called Reconstructor, that implements those developments. The first development consists in a methodology for testing formal reconstructions of scientific theories, which involves checking both whether translations of paradigmatically successful applications into models satisfy the formalisation of the laws, and also whether unsuccessful applications do not. I show how Reconstructor can help carry this out, since it allows the end-user to (...)
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  3.  9
    The Development and Implications of a Case-Based Computer Program to Train Ethical Decision-Making.Eun-Jun Park - 2013 - Nursing Ethics 20 (8):943-956.
    To effectively train ethical decision-making of nursing students, a case-based computer program was developed using Flash animation. Seven ethical cases collected from practicing registered nurses’ actual clinical experiences and a six-step Integrated Ethical Decision-Making Model developed by the author were employed in the program. In total, 251 undergraduate students from three nursing schools used the program in their nursing ethics course. The usability of the program and its usefulness in improving 11 abilities needed in ethical (...)
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  4. Some Empirical Criteria for Attributing Creativity to a Computer Program.Graeme Ritchie - 2007 - Minds and Machines 17 (1):67-99.
    Over recent decades there has been a growing interest in the question of whether computer programs are capable of genuinely creative activity. Although this notion can be explored as a purely philosophical debate, an alternative perspective is to consider what aspects of the behaviour of a program might be noted or measured in order to arrive at an empirically supported judgement that creativity has occurred. We sketch out, in general abstract terms, what goes on when a potentially creative (...)
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  5.  53
    No Computer Program Required: Even Pencil-and-Paper Argument Mapping Improves Critical-Thinking Skills.Maralee Harrell - 2008 - Teaching Philosophy 31 (4):351-374.
    Argument-mapping software abounds, and one of the reasons is that using the software has been shown to teach/promote/improve critical-thinking skills. These positive results are very encouraging, but they also raise the question of whether the computer tutorial environment is producing these results, or whether learning argument mapping, even with just paper and pencil, is sufficient. Based on the results of two empirical studies, I argue that the basic skill of being able to represent an argument diagrammatically plays an important (...)
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  6. Is the Brain's Mind a Computer Program?John R. Searle - 1990 - Scientific American 262 (1):26-31.
  7.  11
    A Truly Human Interface: Interacting Face-to-Face with Someone Whose Words Are Determined by a Computer Program.Kevin Corti & Alex Gillespie - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  8. No Computer Program Required: Even Pencil-and-Paper Argument Mapping Improves Critical Thinking Skills.Mara Harrell - manuscript
     
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  9.  24
    Joyce Friedman. A Semi-Decision Procedure for the Functional Calculus. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery, Vol. 10 , Pp. 1–24. - Joyce Friedman. A Computer Program for a Solvable Case of the Decision Problem. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery, Vol. 10 , Pp. 348–356. [REVIEW]Frederic B. Fitch - 1964 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 29 (2):101.
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  10.  5
    From the Genetic to the Computer Program: The Historicity of ‘Data’ and ‘Computation’ in the Investigations on the Nematode Worm C. Elegans.Miguel García-Sancho - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (1):16-28.
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  11.  18
    A Rhythm Recognition Computer Program to Advocate Interactivist Perception.Jean-Christophe Buisson - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (1):75-88.
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  12.  11
    A Computer Program to Generate Parametric and Nonparametric Signal-Detection Parameters.Russel Boice & Rick M. Gardner - 1988 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 26 (4):365-367.
  13.  12
    House R. W. And Rado T.. On a Computer Program for Obtaining Irreducible Representations for Two-Level Multiple Input-Output Logical Systems. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery, Vol. 10 , Pp. 48–77. [REVIEW]Thomas H. Mott - 1967 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (2):264-265.
  14.  20
    From the Genetic to the Computer Program: The Historicity of 'Data' and 'Computation' in the Investigations on the Nematode Worm C. Elegans (1963–1998). [REVIEW]Miguel García-Sancho - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (1):16-28.
  15.  10
    Review: R. W. House, T. Rado, On a Computer Program for Obtaining Irreducible Representations for Two-Level Multiple Input-Output Logical Systems. [REVIEW]Thomas H. Mott - 1967 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (2):264-265.
  16. Review: Joyce Friedman, A Semi-Decision Procedure for the Functional Calculus; Joyce Friedman, A Computer Program for a Solvable Case of the Decision Problem. [REVIEW]Frederic B. Fitch - 1964 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 29 (2):101-101.
     
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  17.  9
    COMET: A Computer Program Dealing with Consent to Medical Treatment.A. Duncan - 1988 - Journal of Medical Ethics 14 (4):212-213.
  18.  1
    NPL/CPIS Computer Program Abstract Collection Announcement. Npl/Cpis - 1972 - Social Science Information 11 (3-4):317-318.
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  19. A computer program for determining matrix models of propositional calculi.R. T. Brady - 1976 - Logique Et Analyse 19 (74):233.
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  20.  24
    Predictive Survival Model with Time‐Dependent Prognostic Factors: Development of Computer‐Aided SAS Macro Program.Li‐Sheng Chen, Ming‐Fang Yen, Hui‐Min Wu, Chao‐Sheng Liao, Der‐Ming Liou, Hsu‐Sung Kuo & Tony Hsiu‐Hsi Chen - 2005 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (2):181-193.
  21.  10
    Evaluation of a Computer-Based Training Program for Enhancing Arithmetic Skills and Spatial Number Representation in Primary School Children.Larissa Rauscher, Juliane Kohn, Tanja Käser, Verena Mayer, Karin Kucian, Ursina McCaskey, Günter Esser & Michael von Aster - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  22.  16
    Suppes Patrick, Jerman Max, Brian Dow in Collaboration with Axelsen Diana, Groen Guy, Hyman Lester, and Tolliver Brian. Computer-Assisted Instruction: Stanford's 1965–66 Arithmetic Program. Academic Press, New York and London 1968, Vii + 385 Pp. [REVIEW]Layman E. Allen - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (2):326-327.
  23.  15
    Robert McNaughton. Automata, Formal Languages, Abstract Switching, and Computability in a Ph. D. Computer Science Program. Communications of the ACM, Vol. 11 , Pp. 738–740, 746. [REVIEW]Ann S. Ferebee - 1969 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (4):656.
  24.  15
    Edsger W. Dijkstra and Carel S. Scholten. Predicate Calculus and Program Semantics. Texts and Monographs in Computer Science. Springer-Verlag, New York, Berlin, Heidelberg, Etc., 1990, Xi + 220 Pp. [REVIEW]Egon Börger - 1994 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 59 (2):673-678.
  25.  25
    From ENIAC to the Stored Program Computer : Two Revolutions in Computers.Arthur W. Burks - unknown
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  26. Why the Mind Isn't a Program (But Some Digital Computer Might Have a Mind).Mark Okrent, E. Smith & J. Doe - 1996 - Electronic Journal of Analytic Philosophy 4 (1):23-45.
  27.  15
    B. Dunham, R. Fridshal, and G. L. Sward. A Non-Heuristic Program for Proving Elementary Logical Theorems. English, with French, German, Russian, and Spanish Summaries. Information Processing, Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Processing, Unesco, Paris 15–20 June 1959, Unesco, Paris, R. Oldenbourg, Munich, and Butterworths, London, 1960, Pp. 282–285. - B. Dunham, R. Fridshal, and J. H. North. Exploratory Mathematics by Machine. Recent Developments in Information and Decision Processes, Edited by Robert E. Machol and Paul Gray, The Macmillan Company, New York1962, Pp. 149–160. - B. Dunham and J. H. North. Theorem Testing by Computer. Proceedings of the Symposium on Mathematical Theory of Automata, New York, N. Y., April 24, 25, 26, 1962, Microwave Research Symposia Series Vol. 12, Polytechnic Press of the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1963, Pp. 173–177. [REVIEW]Joyce Friedman - 1967 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (2):266-266.
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  28. Philosophy and Computer Science: Reflections on the Program Verification Debate.James H. Fetzer - 1998 - In Terrell Ward Bynum & James Moor (eds.), The Digital Phoenix: How Computers Are Changing Philosophy. Blackwell. pp. 253--73.
     
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  29.  11
    Greibach Sheila A.. Theory of Program Structures: Schemes, Semantics, Verification. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 36. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, and New York, 1975, Xv + 364 Pp. [REVIEW]Robert L. Constable - 1978 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 43 (1):154-156.
  30.  8
    Automata, Formal Languages, Abstracts Switching, and Computability in a Ph.D. Computer Science Program.Robert Mcnaughton - 1969 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (4):656-656.
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  31.  4
    Review: B. Dunham, R. Fridshal, G. L. Sward, A Non-Heuristic Program for Proving Elementary Logical Theorems; B. Dunham, R. Fridshal, J. H. North, Exploratory Mathematics by Machine; B. Dunham, J. H. North, Theorem Testing by Computer[REVIEW]Joyce Friedman - 1967 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (2):266-266.
  32.  3
    Computer-Assisted Instruction: Stanford's 1965-66 Arithmetic Program.Patrick Suppes, Max Jerman, Dow Brian, Diana Axelsen, Guy Groen & Lester Hyman - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (2):326-327.
  33.  2
    Short-Term Effects of a Computer-Based Nutritional Nursing Training Program for Inpatient Hospital Care.Albert Westergren, Ellinor Edfors, Erika Norberg, Anna Stubbendorff, Gita Hedin, Martin Wetterstrand & Peter Hagell - 2016 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 22 (5):799-807.
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  34. Philosophy and Computer Science: Reflections on the Program.Verification Debate - 1998 - In Terrell Ward Bynum & James Moor (eds.), The Digital Phoenix: How Computers Are Changing Philosophy. Blackwell. pp. 253.
     
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  35. Sweden: GEOCODE: A Computer Code System for Administrative Divisions with a Boundary-Correcting Analysis Program.C. Goran Andrae, U. Hedquist, D. Soergel & H. D. Klingemann - 1970 - Social Science Information 9 (2):75-81.
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  36.  23
    Deductive Program Verification (a Practitioner's Commentary).David A. Nelson - 1992 - Minds and Machines 2 (3):283-307.
    A proof of ‘correctness’ for a mathematical algorithm cannot be relevant to executions of a program based on that algorithm because both the algorithm and the proof are based on assumptions that do not hold for computations carried out by real-world computers. Thus, proving the ‘correctness’ of an algorithm cannot establish the trustworthiness of programs based on that algorithm. Despite the (deceptive) sameness of the notations used to represent them, the transformation of an algorithm into an executable program (...)
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  37. Bibliometric Mapping of Computer and Information Ethics.Richard Heersmink, Jeroen van den Hoven, Nees Jan van Eck & Jan van den Berg - 2011 - Ethics and Information Technology 13 (3):241-249.
    This paper presents the first bibliometric mapping analysis of the field of computer and information ethics (C&IE). It provides a map of the relations between 400 key terms in the field. This term map can be used to get an overview of concepts and topics in the field and to identify relations between information and communication technology concepts on the one hand and ethical concepts on the other hand. To produce the term map, a data set of over thousand (...)
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  38.  17
    Using Computer-Assisted Instruction and Developmental Theory to Improve Argumentative Writing.Ronald R. Irwin - 1995 - Informal Logic 17 (2).
    A study is described in which the effectiveness of a computer program (Hermes) on improving argumentative writing is tested. One group of students was randomly assigned to a control group and the other was assigned to the experimental group where they are asked to use the Hermes program. All students were asked to write essays on controversial topics to an opposed audience. Their essays were content-analysed for dialectical traits. Based on this analysis, it was concluded that the (...)
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  39.  4
    Dualna natura programów komputerowych.Izabela Bondecka-Krzykowska - 2017 - Semina Scientiarum 16:24-42.
    The paper is devoted to the discussion on ontological status of the computer programs. The most popular conceptions are presented and critically discussed: programs as concrete abstractions, as quasi-particular objects, as mathematical objects, and finally – program as digital pattern. Advantages and disadvantages of those approaches are pointed out and some possible solutions are proposed.
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  40. Three Paradigms of Computer Science.Amnon H. Eden - 2007 - Minds and Machines 17 (2):135-167.
    We examine the philosophical disputes among computer scientists concerning methodological, ontological, and epistemological questions: Is computer science a branch of mathematics, an engineering discipline, or a natural science? Should knowledge about the behaviour of programs proceed deductively or empirically? Are computer programs on a par with mathematical objects, with mere data, or with mental processes? We conclude that distinct positions taken in regard to these questions emanate from distinct sets of received beliefs or paradigms within the discipline: (...)
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  41. Recipes, Algorithms, and Programs.Carol E. Cleland - 2001 - Minds and Machines 11 (2):219-237.
    In the technical literature of computer science, the concept of an effective procedure is closely associated with the notion of an instruction that precisely specifies an action. Turing machine instructions are held up as providing paragons of instructions that "precisely describe" or "well define" the actions they prescribe. Numerical algorithms and computer programs are judged effective just insofar as they are thought to be translatable into Turing machine programs. Nontechnical procedures (e.g., recipes, methods) are summarily dismissed as ineffective (...)
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  42.  49
    Integrating the Ethical and Social Context of Computing Into the Computer Science Curriculum An Interim Report From the Content Sub-Committee of the ImpactCS Steering Committee.Chuck Huff, Ronald Anderson, Joyce Little, Deborah Johnson & Rob Kling - 1996 - Science and Engineering Ethics 2 (2):211.
    This paper describes the major components of ImpactCS, a program to develop strategies and curriculum materials for integrating social and ethical considerations into the computer science curriculum. It presents, in particular, the content recommendations of a subcommittee of ImpactCS; and it illustrates the interdisciplinary nature of the field, drawing upon concepts from computer science, sociology, philosophy, psychology, history and economics.
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  43. On the Claim That a Table-Lookup Program Could Pass the Turing Test.Drew McDermott - 2014 - Minds and Machines 24 (2):143-188.
    The claim has often been made that passing the Turing Test would not be sufficient to prove that a computer program was intelligent because a trivial program could do it, namely, the “Humongous-Table (HT) Program”, which simply looks up in a table what to say next. This claim is examined in detail. Three ground rules are argued for: (1) That the HT program must be exhaustive, and not be based on some vaguely imagined set of (...)
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  44.  49
    Mind Control? Creating Illusory Intentions Through a Phony Brain–Computer Interface.Margaret T. Lynn, Christopher C. Berger, Travis A. Riddle & Ezequiel Morsella - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):1007-1012.
    Can one be fooled into believing that one intended an action that one in fact did not intend? Past experimental paradigms have demonstrated that participants, when provided with false perceptual feedback about their actions, can be fooled into misperceiving the nature of their intended motor act. However, because veridical proprioceptive/perceptual feedback limits the extent to which participants can be fooled, few studies have been able to answer our question and induce the illusion to intend. In a novel paradigm addressing this (...)
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  45.  68
    Computer Implication and the Curry Paradox.Wayne Aitken & Jeffrey A. Barrett - 2004 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 33 (6):631-637.
    There are theoretical limitations to what can be implemented by a computer program. In this paper we are concerned with a limitation on the strength of computer implemented deduction. We use a version of the Curry paradox to arrive at this limitation.
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  46.  33
    Children's Evaluation of Computer-Generated Punning Riddles.Kim Binsted, Helen Pain & Graeme D. Ritchie - 1997 - Pragmatics and Cognition 5 (2):305-354.
    We have developed a formal model of certain types of riddles, and implemented it in a computer program, JAPE, which generates simple punning riddles. In order to test the model, we evaluated the behaviour of the program, by having 120 children aged eight to eleven years old rate JAPE-generated texts, human-generated texts, and non-joke texts for "jokiness" and funniness. This confirmed that JAPE's output texts are indeed jokes, and that there is no significant difference in funniness or (...)
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  47.  19
    Universe Creation on a Computer.Gordon McCabe - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 36 (4):591-625.
    The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of the epistemology and metaphysics of universe creation on a computer. The paper begins with F.J.Tipler's argument that our experience is indistinguishable from the experience of someone embedded in a perfect computer simulation of our own universe, hence we cannot know whether or not we are part of such a computer program ourselves. Tipler's argument is treated as a special case of epistemological scepticism, in a similar (...)
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  48.  12
    Is an Intervention Using Computer Software Effective in Literacy Learning? A Randomised Controlled Trial.G. Brooks, J. N. V. Miles, C. J. Torgerson & D. J. Torgerson - 2006 - Educational Studies 32 (2):133-143.
    Background: computer software is widely used to support literacy learning. There are few randomised trials to support its effectiveness. Therefore, there is an urgent need to rigorously evaluate computer software that supports literacy learning.Methods: we undertook a pragmatic randomised controlled trial among pupils aged 11–12 within a single state comprehensive school in the North of England. The pupils were randomised to receive 10 hours of literacy learning delivered via laptop computers or to act as controls. Both groups received (...)
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  49.  70
    Causal Modeling with the TETRAD Program.Clark Glymour & Richard Scheines - 1986 - Synthese 68 (1):37 - 63.
    Drawing substantive conclusions from linear causal models that perform acceptably on statistical tests is unreasonable if it is not known how alternatives fare on these same tests. We describe a computer program, TETRAD, that helps to search rapidly for plausible alternatives to a given causal structure. The program is based on principles from statistics, graph theory, philosophy of science, and artificial intelligence. We describe these principles, discuss how TETRAD employs them, and argue that these principles make TETRAD (...)
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  50.  22
    Trust in the Shell.Andrea Monti - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3):507-517.
    This paper advocates the importance of an ethical choice in the design of a given technology. As—among various possible examples—the history of the Internet shows, the intersection between trust, law, and technology can become either an empowering factor for business and individuals or a tool for infringing human rights. It is of utmost importance not to lose focus on the fact that every technology is a human byproduct, and that when a technology fails, it is mainly a human fault.
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