Results for 'computing'

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  1.  14
    Computing Nature–A Network of Networks of Concurrent Information Processes.Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic & Raffaela Giovagnoli - 2013 - In Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic Raffaela Giovagnoli (ed.), Computing Nature. pp. 1--22.
    This text presents the research field of natural/unconventional computing as it appears in the book COMPUTING NATURE. The articles discussed consist a selection of works from the Symposium on Natural Computing at AISB-IACAP (British Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour and The International Association for Computing and Philosophy) World Congress 2012, held at the University of Birmingham, celebrating Turing centenary. The COMPUTING NATURE is about nature considered as the totality (...)
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  2. Why Build a Virtual Brain? Large-Scale Neural Simulations as Jump Start for Cognitive Computing.Matteo Colombo - 2016 - Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence.
    Despite the impressive amount of financial resources recently invested in carrying out large-scale brain simulations, it is controversial what the pay-offs are of pursuing this project. One idea is that from designing, building, and running a large-scale neural simulation, scientists acquire knowledge about the computational performance of the simulating system, rather than about the neurobiological system represented in the simulation. It has been claimed that this knowledge may usher in a new era of neuromorphic, cognitive computing systems. This study (...)
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  3. Computing as a Science: A Survey of Competing Viewpoints. [REVIEW]Matti Tedre - 2011 - Minds and Machines 21 (3):361-387.
    Since the birth of computing as an academic discipline, the disciplinary identity of computing has been debated fiercely. The most heated question has concerned the scientific status of computing. Some consider computing to be a natural science and some consider it to be an experimental science. Others argue that computing is bad science, whereas some say that computing is not a science at all. This survey article presents viewpoints for and against computing as (...)
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  4.  35
    Computing and Experiments.Viola Schiaffonati & Mario Verdicchio - 2014 - Philosophy and Technology 27 (3):359-376.
    The question about the scientific nature of computing has been widely debated with no universal consensus reached about its disciplinary status. Positions vary from acknowledging computing as the science of computers to defining it as a synthetic engineering discipline. In this paper, we aim at discussing the nature of computing from a methodological perspective. We consider, in particular, the nature and role of experiments in this field, whether they can be considered close to the traditional experimental scientific (...)
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  5. The Ethics of Cloud Computing.Boudewijn de Bruin & Luciano Floridi - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):21-39.
    Cloud computing is rapidly gaining traction in business. It offers businesses online services on demand (such as Gmail, iCloud and Salesforce) and allows them to cut costs on hardware and IT support. This is the first paper in business ethics dealing with this new technology. It analyzes the informational duties of hosting companies that own and operate cloud computing datacenters (e.g., Amazon). It considers the cloud services providers leasing ‘space in the cloud’ from hosting companies (e.g, Dropbox, Salesforce). (...)
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  6.  24
    Stretching the Traditional Notion of Experiment in Computing: Explorative Experiments.Viola Schiaffonati - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (3):647-665.
    Experimentation represents today a ‘hot’ topic in computing. If experiments made with the support of computers, such as computer simulations, have received increasing attention from philosophers of science and technology, questions such as “what does it mean to do experiments in computer science and engineering and what are their benefits?” emerged only recently as central in the debate over the disciplinary status of the discipline. In this work we aim at showing, also by means of paradigmatic examples, how the (...)
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  7.  24
    Exploring a Mechanistic Approach to Experimentation in Computing.Eric Hatleback & Jonathan M. Spring - 2014 - Philosophy and Technology 27 (3):441-459.
    The mechanistic approach in philosophy of science contributes to our understanding of experimental design. Applying the mechanistic approach to experimentation in computing is beneficial for two reasons. It connects the methodology of experimentation in computing with the methodology of experimentation in established sciences, thereby strengthening the scientific reputability of computing and the quality of experimental design therein. Furthermore, it pinpoints the idiosyncrasies of experimentation in computing: computing deals closely with both natural and engineered mechanisms. Better (...)
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  8. What a Course on Philosophy of Computing is Not.Vincent C. Müller - 2008 - APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Computers 8 (1):36-38.
    Immanuel Kant famously defined philosophy to be about three questions: “What can I know? What should I do? What can I hope for?” (KrV, B833). I want to suggest that the three questions of our course on the philosophy of computing are: What is computing? What should we do with computing? What could computing do?
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  9.  19
    Reading Emotion From Mouse Cursor Motions: Affective Computing Approach.Takashi Yamauchi & Kunchen Xiao - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (3):771-819.
    Affective computing research has advanced emotion recognition systems using facial expressions, voices, gaits, and physiological signals, yet these methods are often impractical. This study integrates mouse cursor motion analysis into affective computing and investigates the idea that movements of the computer cursor can provide information about emotion of the computer user. We extracted 16–26 trajectory features during a choice-reaching task and examined the link between emotion and cursor motions. Participants were induced for positive or negative emotions by music, (...)
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  10.  26
    The Importance of Generalized Bodily Habits for a Future World of Ubiquitous Computing.Robert Rosenberger - 2013 - AI and Society 28 (3):289-296.
    In a future world of ubiquitous computing, in which humans interact with computerized technologies even more frequently and in even more situations than today, interface design will have increased importance. One feature of interface that I argue will be especially relevant is what I call abstract relational strategies. This refers to an approach (in both a bodily and conceptual sense) toward the use of a technology, an approach that is general enough to be applied in many different concrete scenarios. (...)
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  11.  54
    Ubiquitous Computing, Empathy and the Self.Soraj Hongladarom - 2013 - AI and Society 28 (2):227-236.
    The paper discusses ubiquitous computing and the conception of the self, especially the question how the self should be understood in the environment pervaded by ubiquitous computing, and how ubiquitous computing makes possible direct empathy where each person or self connected through the network has direct access to others’ thoughts and feelings. Starting from a conception of self, which is essentially distributed, composite and constituted through information, the paper argues that when a number of selves are connected (...)
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  12.  86
    Facing Computing as Technique: Towards a History and Philosophy of Computing.Liesbeth De Mol & Giuseppe Primiero - 2014 - Philosophy and Technology 27 (3):321-326.
    We present the methodological principles underlying the scientific activities of the DHST Commission on the History and Philosophy of Computing. This volume collects refereed selected papers from the First International Conference organized by the Commission.
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  13.  81
    Common Morality and Computing.Bernard Gert - 1999 - Ethics and Information Technology 1 (1):53-60.
    This article shows how common morality can be helpful in clarifying the discussion of ethical issues that arise in computing. Since common morality does not always provide unique answers to moral questions, not all such issues can be resolved, however common morality does provide a clear answer to the question whether one can illegally copy software for a friend.
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  14.  82
    An Ethical Decision-Making Process for Computing Professionals.Edward J. O'Boyle - 2002 - Ethics and Information Technology 4 (4):267-277.
    Our comments focus on the ACMCode of Ethics and situate the Code within ageneral ethical decision-making process tospecify the five steps which logically precedehuman action in ethical matters and determinethat action, and the individual differencetraits in these five steps which bear upon theresolution of an ethical problem and lead tomorally responsible action. Our main purpose isto present a cognitive moral processing modelwhich computing professionals can use to betterunderstand their professional rights andduties. It is clear that the Code providessubstantial guidance (...)
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  15.  11
    Thinking and Computing: Computers as Special Kinds of Signs.James Fetzer - 2001 - The Commens Encyclopedia: The Digital Encyclopedia of Peirce Studies.
    Cognitive science has been dominated by the computational conception that cogniton is computation across representations. To the extent to which cognition is supposed to be a purposive, meaningful, algorithmic, problem-solving activity, however, computers appear to be incapable of cognition. They are devices that can facilitate computations on the basis of semantic grounding relations as special kinds of signs. Even their algorithmic, problem-solving character arises from ther interpretation by human users. Strictly speaking, computers as such–apart from human users–are not only incapable (...)
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  16.  2
    The Origins of Humanities Computing and the Digital Humanities Turn.Dino Buzzetti - 2019 - Humanist Studies and the Digital Age 6 (1):32-58.
    At its beginnings Humanities Computing was characterized by a primary interest in methodological issues and their epistemological background. Subsequently, Humanities Computing practice has been prevailingly driven by technological developments and the main concern has shifted from content processing to the representation in digital form of documentary sources. The Digital Humanities turn has brought more to the fore artistic and literary practice in direct digital form, as opposed to a supposedly commonplace application of computational methods to scholarly research. As (...)
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  17.  59
    Program Verification and Functioning of Operative Computing Revisited: How About Mathematics Engineering? [REVIEW]Uri Pincas - 2011 - Minds and Machines 21 (2):337-359.
    The issue of proper functioning of operative computing and the utility of program verification, both in general and of specific methods, has been discussed a lot. In many of those discussions, attempts have been made to take mathematics as a model of knowledge and certitude achieving, and accordingly infer about the suitable ways to handle computing. I shortly review three approaches to the subject, and then take a stance by considering social factors which affect the epistemic status of (...)
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  18. Evolved Computing Devices and the Implementation Problem.Lukáš Sekanina - 2007 - Minds and Machines 17 (3):311-329.
    The evolutionary circuit design is an approach allowing engineers to realize computational devices. The evolved computational devices represent a distinctive class of devices that exhibits a specific combination of properties, not visible and studied in the scope of all computational devices up till now. Devices that belong to this class show the required behavior; however, in general, we do not understand how and why they perform the required computation. The reason is that the evolution can utilize, in addition to the (...)
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  19.  82
    European Computing and Philosophy.Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic - 2009 - The Reasoner 3 (9):18-19.
    European Computing and Philosophy conference, 2–4 July Barcelona The Seventh ECAP (European Computing and Philosophy) conference was organized by Jordi Vallverdu at Autonomous University of Barcelona. The conference started with the IACAP (The International Association for CAP) presidential address by Luciano Floridi, focusing on mechanisms of knowledge production in informational networks. The first keynote delivered by Klaus Mainzer made a frame for the rest of the conference, by elucidating the fundamental role of complexity of informational structures that can (...)
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  20.  58
    Quantum Computing’s Classical Problem, Classical Computing’s Quantum Problem.Rodney Van Meter - 2014 - Foundations of Physics 44 (8):819-828.
    Tasked with the challenge to build better and better computers, quantum computing and classical computing face the same conundrum: the success of classical computing systems. Small quantum computing systems have been demonstrated, and intermediate-scale systems are on the horizon, capable of calculating numeric results or simulating physical systems far beyond what humans can do by hand. However, to be commercially viable, they must surpass what our wildly successful, highly advanced classical computers can already do. At the (...)
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  21.  25
    Natural Language Interfaces and Strategic Computing.Geoffrey K. Pullum - 1987 - AI and Society 1 (1):47-58.
    Modern weaponry is often too complex for unaided human operation, and is largely or totally controlled by computers. But modern software, particularly artificial intelligence software, exhibits such complexity and inscrutability that there are grave dangers associated with its use in non-benign applications. Recent efforts to make computer systems more accessible to military personnel through natural language processing systems, as proposed in the Strategic Computing Initiative of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, increases rather than decreases the dangers of unpredictable (...)
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  22.  36
    The Strategic Computing Program at Four Years: Implications and Intimations. [REVIEW]Chris Hables Gray - 1988 - AI and Society 2 (2):141-149.
    Examining the Strategic Computing Program after four years, in the context of the crucial recognition that it is only a small part of the whole range of military artificial intelligence applications, suggests a number of clear implications and intimations about such crucial questions as: 1) the current roles of industry and the universities in developing high technology war; 2) the effects on political and military policy of high-tech weapons systems; and 3) the importance of advanced military computing to (...)
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  23.  25
    Behavioural Explanation in the Realm of Non-Mental Computing Agents.Bernardo Aguilera - 2015 - Minds and Machines 25 (1):37-56.
    Recently, many philosophers have been inclined to ascribe mentality to animals on the main grounds that they possess certain complex computational abilities. In this paper I contend that this view is misleading, since it wrongly assumes that those computational abilities demand a psychological explanation. On the contrary, they can be just characterised from a computational level of explanation, which picks up a domain of computation and information processing that is common to many computing systems but is autonomous from the (...)
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  24.  28
    Proactive Management of Distributed Organisational Computing: Prevention Always Pays, Doesn't It? [REVIEW]Lauri Forsman - 1998 - AI and Society 12 (4):328-345.
    Organisations have eagerly adopted the new opportunities provided by distributed computing technology. These opportunities have also created new dependency on the technology and threats of technical problems. Information technology (IT) management has to choose its position towards these new technical risks. Should the problems be prevented proactively in advance or settled reactively afterwards?This paper draws conclusions from an action research case study aimed at proactive versus reactive end-user support. Between 1994 and 1997 one of the business units in Nokia (...)
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  25.  27
    Women and the Social Construction of the Computing Culture: Evolving New Forms of Computing[REVIEW]Joan Truckenbrod - 1993 - AI and Society 7 (4):345-357.
    Women have been excluded from the mainstream development of computer hardware and software. Consequently there is an imbalance in the masculine and feminine characteristics, functioning and applications of computing. A masculine approach is encoded into the technical personality of computing, and in the skills and knowledge necessary to utilise computers. The feminine perspective broadens the scope and objectives of computing. This paper examines the current computing culture, and proposes new models for computing that embrace the (...)
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  26.  23
    Personal Technologies: Memory and Intimacy Through Physical Computing[REVIEW]Joanna Berzowska - 2006 - AI and Society 20 (4):446-461.
    In this paper, I present an overview of personal and intimate technologies within a pedagogical context. I describe two courses that I have developed for Computation Arts at Concordia University: “Tangible Media and Physical Computing” and “Second Skin and Soft Wear.” Each course deals with different aspects of physical computing and tangible media in a Fine Arts context. In both courses, I introduce concepts of soft computation and intimate reactive artifacts as artworks. I emphasize the concept of memory (...)
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  27.  37
    Notes Towards a Definition of Human-Centred Computing.Chris Boyne - 1994 - AI and Society 8 (1):60-70.
    Current usage of the expression “human-centred” in computing contexts suffers from a lack of clarity, and involves internal contradictions. It is not enough to base the concept of human-centredness on ideas of social utility, collaborative working or human controllability. However, the concept of human action (which embodies reference to human freedom) provides a theoretical underpinning to human-centredness by combining, from a human standpoint, concern with process and concern with goals. This has consequences for the design process, prompting us to (...)
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  28.  21
    Computing is at Best a Special Kind of Thinking.James H. Fetzer - 2000 - In The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy. Charlottesville: Philosophy Doc Ctr. pp. 103-113.
    When computing is defined as the causal implementation of algorithms and algorithms are defined as effective decision procedures, human thought is mental computation only if it is governed by mental algorithms. An examination of ordinary thinking, however, suggests that most human thought processes are non-algorithmic. Digital machines, moreover, are mark-manipulating or string-processing systems whose marks or strings do not stand for anything for those systems, while minds are semiotic (or “signusing”) systems for which signs stand for other things for (...)
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  29.  64
    Computational Logic. Vol. 1: Classical Deductive Computing with Classical Logic.Luis M. Augusto - 2018 - London: College Publications.
    This is the first of a two-volume work combining two fundamental components of contemporary computing into classical deductive computing, a powerful form of computation, highly adequate for programming and automated theorem proving, which, in turn, have fundamental applications in areas of high complexity and/or high security such as mathematical proof, software specification and verification, and expert systems. Deductive computation is concerned with truth-preservation: This is the essence of the satisfiability problem, or SAT, the central computational problem in computability (...)
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  30.  37
    Computational Logic. Vol. 1: Classical Deductive Computing with Classical Logic. 2nd Ed.Luis M. Augusto - 2020 - London: College Publications.
    This is the 2nd edition of Computational logic. Vol. 1: Classical deductive computing with classical logic. This edition has a wholly new chapter on Datalog, a hard nut to crack from the viewpoint of semantics when negation is included.
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  31. Computing and Philosophy: Selected Papers From IACAP 2014.Vincent C. Müller (ed.) - 2016 - Springer.
    This volume offers very selected papers from the 2014 conference of the “International Association for Computing and Philosophy” (IACAP) - a conference tradition of 28 years. - - - Table of Contents - 0 Vincent C. Müller: - Editorial - 1) Philosophy of computing - 1 Çem Bozsahin: - What is a computational constraint? - 2 Joe Dewhurst: - Computing Mechanisms and Autopoietic Systems - 3 Vincenzo Fano, Pierluigi Graziani, Roberto Macrelli and Gino Tarozzi: - Are Gandy (...)
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  32.  6
    Philosophy and Computing: Essays in Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind, Logic, and Ethics.Thomas M. Powers (ed.) - 2017 - Springer.
    This book features papers from CEPE-IACAP 2015, a joint international conference focused on the philosophy of computing. Inside, readers will discover essays that explore current issues in epistemology, philosophy of mind, logic, and philosophy of science from the lens of computation. Coverage also examines applied issues related to ethical, social, and political interest. -/- The contributors first explore how computation has changed philosophical inquiry. Computers are now capable of joining humans in exploring foundational issues. Thus, we can ponder machine-generated (...)
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  33. Just Consequentialism and Computing.James H. Moor - 1999 - Ethics and Information Technology 1 (1):61-65.
    Computer and information ethics, as well as other fields of applied ethics, need ethical theories which coherently unify deontological and consequentialist aspects of ethical analysis. The proposed theory of just consequentialism emphasizes consequences of policies within the constraints of justice. This makes just consequentialism a practical and theoretically sound approach to ethical problems of computer and information ethics.
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  34. Computing Mechanisms and Autopoietic Systems.Joe Dewhurst - 2016 - In Vincent Müller (ed.), Computing and Philosophy. Springer Verlag. pp. 17-26.
    This chapter draws an analogy between computing mechanisms and autopoietic systems, focusing on the non-representational status of both kinds of system (computational and autopoietic). It will be argued that the role played by input and output components in a computing mechanism closely resembles the relationship between an autopoietic system and its environment, and in this sense differs from the classical understanding of inputs and outputs. The analogy helps to make sense of why we should think of computing (...)
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  35.  69
    Computing a Reality. Heinz von Foerster's Lecture at the A.U.M Conference in 1973. Edited by Albert Müller.Foerster H. Von & A. Müller - 2008 - Constructivist Foundations 4 (1).
    Purpose: Commenting on the transcript of a lecture. Findings: The document reconstructs the development of the original 1973 lecture by Heinz von Foerster into his best-known paper, On Constructing a Reality. Many aspects of that paper can be identified as being shaped through interaction with the audience. Implications: The lecture documented here was a forerunner of a central paper in constructivism.
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  36.  11
    What is the Complexity of a Distributed Computing System?Anand Ranganathan & Roy H. Campbell - 2007 - Complexity 12 (6):37-45.
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  37.  58
    A Gift of Fire: Social Legal, and Ethical Issues in Computing by Sara Baase. [REVIEW]Joseph S. Fulda - 2000 - Ethics and Information Technology 2 (4):241-247.
  38.  3
    Emerging Policy Problems Related to Ubiquitous Computing: Negotiating Stakeholders’ Visions of the Future.Jenifer S. Winter - 2008 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 21 (4):191-203.
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  39.  88
    Brain-Inspired Conscious Computing Architecture.Włodzisław Duch - 2005 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 26 (1-2):1-21.
    What type of artificial systems will claim to be conscious and will claim to experience qualia? The ability to comment upon physical states of a brain-like dynamical system coupled with its environment seems to be sufficient to make claims. The flow of internal states in such system, guided and limited by associative memory, is similar to the stream of consciousness. Minimal requirements for an artificial system that will claim to be conscious were given in form of specific architecture named articon. (...)
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  40.  28
    The Ethics of NHS Computing: A Terminal Case. [REVIEW]Jacqueline G. Ord - 1995 - AI and Society 9 (1):80-90.
    Value in the British National Health Service have shifted away from patient care towards financial control. However, in the quest for efficiency , huge amounts of NHS money have been wasted on computer system which failed. In this paper, I draw on a case study to explore some of the ethical issues which underlie this kind of waste of resources. Issues include the gap between public pronouncements and personal experience, the chaos of which lies behind the facade of rationality, and (...)
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  41.  68
    Luciano Floridi, Philosophy and Computing: An Introduction. [REVIEW]Anthony F. Beavers - 2001 - Ethics and Information Technology 3 (4):299-301.
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  42.  20
    Ethics, Computing and Medicine. Informatics and the Transformation of Health Care. Kenneth W. Goodman, Editor.Marian Verkerk - 1999 - Ethics and Information Technology 1 (4):303-304.
  43.  36
    Philosophy and Computing. An Introduction, Luciano Floridi.Lorenzo Magnai - 2000 - Ethics and Information Technology 2 (2):137-138.
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  44.  8
    An Examination of the Computing Ability of Mr. Salo Finkelstein.J. D. Weinland & W. S. Schlauch - 1937 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 21 (4):382.
  45. Computing Mechanisms.Gualtiero Piccinini - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (4):501-526.
    This paper offers an account of what it is for a physical system to be a computing mechanism—a system that performs computations. A computing mechanism is a mechanism whose function is to generate output strings from input strings and (possibly) internal states, in accordance with a general rule that applies to all relevant strings and depends on the input strings and (possibly) internal states for its application. This account is motivated by reasons endogenous to the philosophy of (...), namely, doing justice to the practices of computer scientists and computability theorists. It is also an application of recent literature on mechanisms, because it assimilates computational explanation to mechanistic explanation. The account can be used to individuate computing mechanisms and the functions they compute and to taxonomize computing mechanisms based on their computing power. (shrink)
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  46. The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Computing and Information.Luciano Floridi (ed.) - 2003 - Blackwell.
    This Guide provides an ambitious state-of-the-art survey of the fundamental themes, problems, arguments and theories constituting the philosophy of computing.
  47.  30
    Philosophy and Computing: An Introduction.Luciano Floridi - 1999 - Routledge.
    _Philosophy and Computing_ explores each of the following areas of technology: the digital revolution; the computer; the Internet and the Web; CD-ROMs and Mulitmedia; databases, textbases, and hypertexts; Artificial Intelligence; the future of computing. Luciano Floridi shows us how the relationship between philosophy and computing provokes a wide range of philosophical questions: is there a philosophy of information? What can be achieved by a classic computer? How can we define complexity? What are the limits of quantam computers? Is (...)
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  48.  23
    Computing Mechanisms Without Proper Functions.Joe Dewhurst - 2018 - Minds and Machines 28 (3):569-588.
    The aim of this paper is to begin developing a version of Gualtiero Piccinini’s mechanistic account of computation that does not need to appeal to any notion of proper functions. The motivation for doing so is a general concern about the role played by proper functions in Piccinini’s account, which will be evaluated in the first part of the paper. I will then propose a potential alternative approach, where computing mechanisms are understood in terms of Carl Craver’s perspectival account (...)
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  49.  5
    Making the History of Computing. The History of Computing in the History of Technology and the History of Mathematics.Liesbeth De Mol & Maarten Bullynck - 2018 - Revue de Synthèse 139 (3-4):361-380.
    A history of writing the history of computing is presented in its relationship to the history of mathematics. As with many historiographies, the initial history of computing was very much an internalistic history. In the late 1970s, the field became more serious and started looking at the histories of mathematics and technology for inspiration. Whereas the history of mathematics was initially quite influential, it is the history of technology that has become the dominant framework for doing history of (...)
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  50.  13
    Turing Oracle Machines, Online Computing, and Three Displacements in Computability Theory.Robert I. Soare - 2009 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 160 (3):368-399.
    We begin with the history of the discovery of computability in the 1930’s, the roles of Gödel, Church, and Turing, and the formalisms of recursive functions and Turing automatic machines . To whom did Gödel credit the definition of a computable function? We present Turing’s notion [1939, §4] of an oracle machine and Post’s development of it in [1944, §11], [1948], and finally Kleene-Post [1954] into its present form. A number of topics arose from Turing functionals including continuous functionals on (...)
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