Results for 'conflict of interest'

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  1. Conflict of Interest in the Professions.Michael Davis & Andrew Stark (eds.) - 2001 - Oxford University Press.
    Conflicts of interest pose special problems for the professions. Even the appearance of a conflict of interest can undermine essential trust between professional and public. This volume is a comprehensive and accessible guide to the ramifications and problems associated with important issue. It contains fifteen new essays by noted scholars and covers topics in law, medicine, journalism, engineering, financial services, and others.
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  2.  27
    Biomedical Conflicts of Interest: A Defence of the Sequestration Thesis--Learning From the Cases of Nancy Olivieri and David Healy.A. Schafer - 2004 - Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (1):8-24.
    No discussion of academic freedom, research integrity, and patient safety could begin with a more disquieting pair of case studies than those of Nancy Olivieri and David Healy. The cumulative impact of the Olivieri and Healy affairs has caused serious self examination within the biomedical research community. The first part of the essay analyses these recent academic scandals. The two case studies are then placed in their historical context—that context being the transformation of the norms of science through increasingly close (...)
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  3.  28
    Institutional Conflicts of Interest in Academic Research.David B. Resnik - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (6):1661-1669.
    Financial relationships in academic research can create institutional conflicts of interest because the financial interests of the institution or institutional officials may inappropriately influence decision-making. Strategies for dealing with institutional COIs include establishing institutional COI committees that involve the board of trustees in conflict review and management, developing policies that shield institutional decisions from inappropriate influences, and establishing private foundations that are independent of the institution to own stock and intellectual property and to provide capital to start-up companies.
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  4.  94
    Conflict of Interest Policies in Science and Medical Journals: Editorial Practices and Author Disclosures.Sheldon Krimsky & L. S. Rothenberg - 2001 - Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (2):205-218.
    This study examines the extent to which scientific and biomedical journals have adopted conflict of interest (COI) policies for authors, and whether the adoption and content of such policies leads to the publishing of authors’ financial interest disclosure statements by such journals. In particular, it reports the results of a survey of journal editors about their practices regarding COI disclosures. About 16 percent of 1396 highly ranked scientific and biomedical journals had COI policies in effect during 1997. (...)
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  5.  92
    Clarifying Conflict of Interest.Howard Brody - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (1):23 - 28.
    As the debate over how to manage or discourage physicians? financial conflicts of interest with the drug and medical device industries has become more heated, critics have questioned or dismissed the concept of ?conflict of interest? itself. A satisfactory definition relates conflict of interest to concerns about maintaining social trust and distinguishes between breaches of ethical duty and temptations to breach duty. Numerous objections to such a definition have been offered, none of which prevails on (...)
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  6.  57
    Conflicts of Interest in Recommendations to Use Computerized Neuropsychological Tests to Manage Concussion in Professional Football Codes.Bradley Partridge & Wayne Hall - 2013 - Neuroethics 7 (1):63-74.
    Neuroscience research has improved our understanding of the long term consequences of sports-related concussion, but ethical issues related to the prevention and management of concussion are an underdeveloped area of inquiry. This article exposes several examples of conflicts of interest that have arisen and been tolerated in the management of concussion in sport (particularly professional football codes) regarding the use of computerized neuropsychological (NP) tests for diagnosing concussion. Part 1 outlines how the recommendations of a series of global protocols (...)
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  7.  19
    Conflicts of Interest and the Future of Medicine: The United States, France, and Japan.Marc A. Rodwin - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    The heart of the matter -- The evolution of the French medicine -- Coping with physicians' conflicts of interest in France -- The rise of a protected medical market : the United States before 1950 -- The commercial transformation : the United States, 1950-1980 -- The logic of medical markets : the United States, 1980 to the present -- Coping with physicians' conflicts of interest in the United States -- The evolution of Japanese medicine -- Coping with physicians' (...)
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  8.  91
    Charitable Conflicts of Interest.Chris MacDonald, Michael McDonald & Wayne Norman - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 39 (1-2):67 - 74.
    This paper looks at conflicts of interest in the not-for-profit sector. It examines the nature of conflicts of interest and why they are of ethical concern, and then focuses on the way not-for-profit organisations are especially prone to and vulnerable to conflict-of-interest scandals. Conflicts of interest corrode trust; and stakeholder trust (particularly from donors) is the lifeblood of most charities. We focus on some specific challenges faced by charitable organisations providing funding for scientific (usually medical) (...)
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  9.  67
    Conflicts of Interest in Financial Intermediation.Guido Palazzo & Lena Rethel - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (1):193-207.
    The last years have seen a surge of scandals in financial intermediation. This article argues that the agency structure inherent to most forms of financial intermediation gives rise to conflicts of interest. Though this does not excuse scandalous behavior it points out market imperfections. There are four types of conflicts of interest: personal-individual, personal-organizational, impersonal-individual, and finally, impersonal-organizational conflicts. Analyzing recent scandals we find that all four types of conflicts of interest prevail in financial intermediation.
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  10.  24
    Conflicts of Interest: Challenges and Solutions in Business, Law, Medicine, and Public Policy.Don A. Moore (ed.) - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    This collection explores the subject of conflicts of interest. It investigates how to manage conflicts of interest, how they can affect well-meaning professionals, and how they can limit the effectiveness of corporate boards, undermine professional ethics, and corrupt expert opinion. Legal and policy responses are considered, some of which (e.g., disclosure) are shown to backfire and even fail. The results offer a sobering prognosis for professional ethics and for anyone who relies on professionals who have conflicts of (...). The contributors are leading authorities on the subject in the fields of law, medicine, management, public policy, and psychology. The nuances of the problems posedby conflicts of interest will be highlighted for readers in an effort to demonstrate the manyways that structuring incentives can affect decision making and organizations' financial well-being. (shrink)
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  11.  16
    Financial Conflicts of Interest in Human Subjects Research: The Problem of Institutional Conflicts.Mark Barnes & Patrik S. Florencio - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (3):390-402.
    In both academic literature and the media, financial conflicts of interest in human subjects research have come center-stage. The cover of a recent edition of Time magazine features a research subject in a cage with the caption human guinea pigs, signifying perhaps that human research subjects are no more protected from research abuses than are laboratory animals. That magazine issue highlights three well-publicized cases of human subjects research violations that occurred at the University of Oklahoma, the University of Pennsylvania, (...)
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  12.  18
    Conflicts of Interest, Institutional Corruption, and Pharma: An Agenda for Reform.Marc A. Rodwin - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (3):511-522.
    Why do physicians have financial conflicts of interest? They arise because society expects physicians to act in their patients’ interest, while simultaneously, financial incentives encourage physicians to practice medicine in ways that promote their own interests or those of third parties. Because physicians’ clinical choices, referrals, and prescriptions affect the fortune of third parties, these third parties may offer physicians financial incentives to make income-driven clinical choices. In the past, physicians and scholars typically conceived of conflicts of (...) as an ethical issue to be resolved according to individual judgment or professional and organizational norms. However, society can mitigate or eliminate conflicts of interest by changing financial and organizational arrangements in medicine. Conflicts of interest, therefore, are as much matters of public policy and management as individual choices or social norms. (shrink)
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  13.  18
    Financial Conflicts of Interest in Human Subjects Research: The Problem of Institutional Conflicts.Mark Barnes & Patrik S. Florencio - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (3):390-402.
    In both academic literature and the media, financial conflicts of interest in human subjects research have come center-stage. The cover of a recent edition of Time magazine features a research subject in a cage with the caption human guinea pigs, signifying perhaps that human research subjects are no more protected from research abuses than are laboratory animals. That magazine issue highlights three well-publicized cases of human subjects research violations that occurred at the University of Oklahoma, the University of Pennsylvania, (...)
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  14.  28
    Conflict of Interest and its Significance in Science and Medicine Warsaw, Poland, 5–6 April, 2002.Wendy Baldwin - 2002 - Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (3):469-475.
    This article summarizes the April 5–6, 2002 conference on Conflict of Interest and Its Significance in Science and Medicine. Several themes are identified and addressed, including the globalization of science, the widespread presence of conflicts, the increased interest and involvement in conflict of interest by a number of organizations, the difference between academic research and research conducted by industry, and the tension between science and medicine. At the heart of the matter lies objectivity in research (...)
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  15.  25
    Compound Conflicts of Interest in the US Proxy System.Cynthia E. Clark & Harry J. Van Buren - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 116 (2):355-371.
    The current proxy voting system in the United States has become the subject of considerable controversy. Because institutional investment managers have the authority to vote their clients’ proxies, they have a fiduciary obligation to those clients. Frequently, in an attempt to fulfill that obligation, these institutional investors employ proxy advisory services to manage the thousands of votes they must cast. However, many proxy advisory services have conflicts of interest that inhibit their utility to those seeking to discharge their fiduciary (...)
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  16.  12
    Conflicts of Interest in Clinical Practice and Research.Roy G. Spece, David S. Shimm & Allen E. Buchanan (eds.) - 1996 - Oxford University Press.
    Our society has long sanctioned, at least tacitly, a degree of conflict of interest in medical practice and clinical research as an unavoidable consequence of the different interests of the physician or clinical investigator, the patient or clinical research subject, third party payers or research sponsors, the government, and society as a whole, to name a few. In the past, resolution of these conflicts has been left to the conscience of the individual physician or clinical investigator and to (...)
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  17.  46
    Financial Conflicts of Interest and Criteria for Research Credibility.Kevin C. Elliott - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (S5):917-937.
    The potential for financial conflicts of interest (COIs) to damage the credibility of scientific research has become a significant social concern, especially in the wake of high-profile incidents involving the pharmaceutical, tobacco, fossil-fuel, and chemical industries. Scientists and policy makers have debated whether the presence of financial COIs should count as a reason for treating research with suspicion or whether research should instead be evaluated solely based on its scientific quality. This paper examines a recent proposal to develop criteria (...)
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  18.  9
    Financial Conflicts of Interest Are of Higher Ethical Priority Than “Intellectual” Conflicts of Interest.Daniel S. Goldberg - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (2):217-227.
    The primary claim of this paper is that intellectual conflicts of interest exist but are of lower ethical priority than COIs flowing from relationships between health professionals and commercial industry characterized by financial exchange. The paper begins by defining intellectual COIs and framing them in the context of scholarship on non-financial COIs. However, the paper explains that the crucial distinction is not between financial and non-financial COIs but is rather between motivations for bias that flow from relationships and those (...)
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  19.  7
    Trust, Conflicts of Interest, and Concussion Reporting in College Football Players.Christine M. Baugh, Emily Kroshus, William P. Meehan & Eric G. Campbell - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (2):307-314.
    Sports medicine clinicians face conflicts of interest in providing medical care to athletes. Using a survey of college football players, this study evaluates whether athletes are aware of these conflicts of interest, whether these conflicts affect athlete trust in their health care providers, or whether conflicts or athletes' trust in stakeholders are associated with athletes' injury reporting behaviors.
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  20.  2
    Conflict of Interest Disclosure in Biomedical Research: A Review of Current Practices, Biases, and the Role of Public Registries in Improving Transparency. [REVIEW]Florence T. Bourgeois, Kenneth D. Mandl, Enrico Coiera & Adam G. Dunn - 2016 - Research Integrity and Peer Review 1 (1).
    Conflicts of interest held by researchers remain a focus of attention in clinical research. Biases related to these relationships have the potential to directly impact the quality of healthcare by influencing decision-making, yet conflicts of interest remain underreported, inconsistently described, and difficult to access. Initiatives aimed at improving the disclosure of researcher conflicts of interest are still in their infancy but represent a vital reform that must be addressed before potential biases associated with conflicts of interest (...)
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  21.  12
    Conflict of Interest in Scientific Research in China: A Socio-Ethical Analysis of He Jiankui’s Human Genome-Editing Experiment.Jing-Bao Nie, Guangkuan Xie, Hua Chen & Yali Cong - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (2):191-201.
    Extensive conflicts of interest at both individual and institutional levels are identifiable in scientific research and healthcare in China, as in many other parts of the world. A prominent new case from China is He Jiankui’s experiment that produced the world’s first gene-edited babies and that raises numerous ethical, political, socio-cultural, and transnational questions. Serious financial and other COI were involved in He’s genetic adventure. Using He’s infamous experiment as a case study, this paper explores the wider issue of (...)
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  22.  16
    Conflicts of Interest and Your Physician: Psychological Processes That Cause Unexpected Changes in Behavior.Sunita Sah - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (3):482-487.
    The medical profession is under a state of increasing scrutiny. Recent high profile scandals regarding substantial industry payments to physicians, surgeons, and medical researchers have raised serious concerns over conflicts of interest. Amidst this background, the public, physicians, and policymakers alike appear to make the same assumption regarding conflicts of interest; that doctors who succumb to influences from industry are making a deliberate choice of self-interest over professionalism and that these doctors are corrupt. In reality, a myriad (...)
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  23.  15
    Conflicts of Interest in E‐Cigarette Research: A Public Good and Public Interest Perspective.Benjamin Capps, Yvette van der Eijk & Timothy M. Krahn - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (1):114-122.
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  24. Conflict of Interest.Michael Davis - 1982 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 1 (4):17-27.
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  25.  35
    Conflicts of Interest and the Quality of Recommendations in Clinical Guidelines.Lisa Cosgrove, Harold J. Bursztajn, Deborah R. Erlich, Emily E. Wheeler & Allen F. Shaughnessy - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (4):674-681.
  26.  51
    Independence, Conflict of Interest and the Actuarial Profession.Sally Gunz, John McCutcheon & Frank Reynolds - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 89 (1):77-89.
    The actuarial profession has a long history of providing critical expertise to society. The services delivered are some of the most complex and mysterious to outsiders of all professions but little has been written about the professional responsibilities of actuaries in the academic literature beyond that of the profession itself. This paper makes the case that the issues surrounding professional independence of actuaries are, in principle, similar to those that faced the audit profession before the scandals and resultant regulatory changes (...)
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  27. Conflicts of Interest.Thomas L. Carson - 1994 - Journal of Business Ethics 13 (5):387 - 404.
    This paper has two distinct objectives. (1) I defend an analysis of the concept of a conflict of interest. On my analysis the concept of a conflict of interest is broader than is generally supposed. I argue that a very large class of cases not ordinarily regarded as conflicts of interest should be so regarded. Conflicts of interest are an integral feature of many professional relationships and do not (as is often supposed) require the (...)
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  28.  75
    Intrinsic Conflicts of Interest in Clinical Research: A Need for Disclosure.Sharmon Sollitto, Sharona Hoffman, Maxwell J. Mehlman, Robert J. Lederman, Stuart J. Youngner & Michael M. Lederman - 2003 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 13 (2):83-91.
    : Protection of human subjects from investigators' conflicts of interest is critical to the integrity of clinical investigation. Personal financial conflicts of interest are addressed by university policies, professional society guidelines, publication standards, and government regulation, but "intrinsic conflicts of interest"—conflicts of interest inherent in all clinical research—have received relatively less attention. Such conflicts arise in all clinical research endeavors as a result of the tension among professionals' responsibilities to their research and to their patients and (...)
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  29.  16
    After Conflicts of Interest: From Procedural Short-Cut to Ethico-Political Debate.Christopher Mayes - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (2):245-255.
    This paper critically examines the proliferation of conflicts of interest discourse and how the most common conceptions of COI presuppose a hierarchy of primary and secondary interests. I show that a form of professional virtue or duty is commonly employed to give the primary interest normative force. However, I argue that in the context of increasingly commercialized healthcare neither virtue nor duty can do the normative work expected of them. Furthermore, I suggest that COI discourse is symptom of (...)
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  30.  14
    Potential Conflict of Interest and Bias in the RACGP’s Smoking Cessation Guidelines: Are GPs Provided with the Best Advice on Smoking Cessation for Their Patients?Ross MacKenzie & Wendy Rogers - 2015 - Public Health Ethics 8 (3):319-331.
    Patient visits are an important opportunity for general practitioners to discuss the risks of smoking and cessation strategies. In Australia, the guidelines on cessation published by the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners represent a key resource for GPs in this regard. The predominant message of the Guidelines is that pharmacotherapy should be recommended as first-line therapy for smokers expressing an interest in quitting. This, however, ignores established evidence about the success of unassisted quitting. Our analysis of the Guidelines (...)
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  31.  15
    Conflict of Interest in Online Point-of-Care Clinical Support Websites: Table 1.Kyle T. Amber, Gaurav Dhiman & Kenneth W. Goodman - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (8):578-580.
    Point-of-care evidence-based medicine websites allow physicians to answer clinical queries using recent evidence at the bedside. Despite significant research into the function, usability and effectiveness of these programmes, little attention has been paid to their ethical issues. As many of these sites summarise the literature and provide recommendations, we sought to assess the role of conflicts of interest in two widely used websites: UpToDate and Dynamed. We recorded all conflicts of interest for six articles detailing treatment for the (...)
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  32.  35
    Conflict of Interest Policies at Canadian Universities: Clarity and Content. [REVIEW]Bryn Williams-Jones & Chris MacDonald - 2008 - Journal of Academic Ethics 6 (1):79-90.
    Discussions of conflict of interest (COI) in the university have tended to focus on financial interests in the context of medical research; much less attention has been given to COI in general or to the policies that seek to manage COI. Are university COI policies accessible and understandable? To whom are these policies addressed (faculty, staff, students)? Is COI clearly defined in these policies and are procedures laid out for avoiding or remedying such situations? To begin tackling these (...)
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  33.  37
    Financial Conflicts of Interest and the Ethical Obligations of Medical School Faculty and the Profession.Kirsten Austad, David H. Brendel & Rebecca W. Brendel - 2010 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 53 (4):534-544.
    Interactions between medicine and the pharmaceutical and device industries have become widespread in medicine. Despite their promise for improving patient care through innovation, there are ways in which these relationships may compromise patient care by creating conflicts of interest for physicians—both actual and perceived—that may result in delivery of poorly justified treatment, mistrust of doctors by the public, and an undermining of the integrity of the medical profession (IOM 2009). Conflicts of interest can arise in all arenas of (...)
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  34.  49
    Conflict of Interest and the Talmud.Joshua Fogel & Hershey H. Friedman - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 78 (1-2):237-246.
    A core value of Judaism is leading an ethical life. The Talmud, an authoritative source on Jewish law and tradition, has a number of discussions that deal with honesty in business and decision-making. One motive that can cause individuals to be unscrupulous is the presence of a conflict of interest. This paper will define, discuss, and review five Talmudic concepts relevant to conflict of interest. They are (1) Nogea B’Davar (being an interested party), (2) V’hiyitem N’keyim (...)
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  35.  4
    Institutional Conflict of Interest: Attempting to Crack the Deferiprone Mystery.Arthur Schafer - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (8):531-538.
    A recent study by Olivieri et al, published in PLOS ONE, reports that between 2009 and 2015 a third of patients with thalassaemia in Canada’s largest hospital were switched from first-line licensed drugs to regimens of deferiprone, an unlicensed drug of unproven safety and efficacy. Based on retrospective data from patient records, the PLOS Study reports that patients treated with deferiprone, either as monotherapy or in combination with first-line drugs, suffered serious adverse effects. The data reported by Olivieri et al (...)
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  36.  6
    Conflicts of Interest Result From Relationships But Are Not Resolved by Preventing Relationships.Carlo Petrini & Luciana Riva - 2021 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 18 (1):187-188.
    Goldberg notes that the relationship is a component of Conflicts of Interests. Networks of relationships and the simultaneous presence of several interests are not negative per se but become so when they generate a conflict that undermines impartiality. The solution to the problem of COIs, therefore, cannot be to abolish relationships and the interests that they necessarily express but rather to verify whether those relationships are such as to unduly affect an individual’s judgement. The evolution of an Italian legislation (...)
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  37.  16
    Undisclosed Conflicts of Interest Among Biomedical Textbook Authors.Brian J. Piper, Drew A. Lambert, Ryan C. Keefe, Phoebe U. Smukler, Nicolas A. Selemon & Zachary R. Duperry - 2018 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 9 (2):59-68.
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  38.  21
    Conflict of Interest Disclosure and the Polarisation of Scientific Communities.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (4):356-358.
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  39.  27
    Conflict of Interest in Biomedical Research: A View From Europe.Maurizio Salvi - 2003 - Science and Engineering Ethics 9 (1):101-108.
    In this paper I address the conflict of interest (CoI) issue from a legal point of view at a European level. We will see that the regulatory framework that exists in Europe does state the need for the independence of ethics committee involved in authorisation of research and clinical trials. We will see that CoI is an element that has to be closely monitored at National and International level. Therefore, Member States and Newly Associated States do have to (...)
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  40.  4
    Conflicts of Interest and Recommendations for Clinical Treatments That Benefit Researchers.Benjamin S. Wilfond, Devan M. Duenas & Liza-Marie Johnson - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (10):90-91.
    Volume 20, Issue 10, October 2020, Page 90-91.
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  41.  10
    Conflicts of Interest, Selective Inertia, and Research Malpractice in Randomized Clinical Trials: An Unholy Trinity.Vance W. Berger - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (4):857-874.
    Recently a great deal of attention has been paid to conflicts of interest in medical research, and the Institute of Medicine has called for more research into this important area. One research question that has not received sufficient attention concerns the mechanisms of action by which conflicts of interest can result in biased and/or flawed research. What discretion do conflicted researchers have to sway the results one way or the other? We address this issue from the perspective of (...)
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  42. Conflicts of Interest in Medicine: A Philosophical and Ethical Morphology.Edmund L. Erde - 1996 - In Roy G. Spece, David S. Shimm & Allen E. Buchanan (eds.), Conflicts of Interest in Clinical Practice and Research. Oxford University Press. pp. 12--41.
     
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  43. Underreporting of Conflicts of Interest in Clinical Practice Guidelines: Cross Sectional Study. [REVIEW]Julie Bolette Bindslev, Jeppe Schroll, Peter Gøtzsche & Andreas Lundh - 2013 - BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):19.
    Conflicts of interest affect recommendations in clinical guidelines and disclosure of such conflicts is important. However, not all conflicts of interest are disclosed. Using a public available disclosure list we determined the prevalence and underreporting of conflicts of interest among authors of clinical guidelines on drug treatments.
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  44.  52
    The Impact of Conflict of Interest on Trust in Science.Paul J. Friedman - 2002 - Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (3):413-420.
    Conflicts of interest have an erosive effect on trust in science, damaging first the attitude of the public toward scientists and their research, but also weakening the trusting interdependence of scientists. Disclosure is recognized as the key tool for management of conflicts, but rules with sanctions must be improved, new techniques for avoidance of financial conflicts by alternative funding of evaluative research must be sought, and there must be new thinking about institutional conflicts of interest. Our profession is (...)
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  45.  32
    Conflicts of Interest: A Moral Analysis.Alonso Villarán - 2020 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 39 (1):121-142.
    What is a conflict of interest? What is morally problematic about one? Beginning with the definition, this paper organizes the core literature and creates two continuums—one devoted to the more specific definition of ‘interest,’ and the other to that of ‘duty’. Each continuum places the authors according to the narrowness or broadness of their positions, which facilitates the understanding of the debate as well as what is at stake when defining conflicts of interest. The paper then (...)
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  46.  40
    Guanxi and Conflicts of Interest.Chris Provis - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 79 (1-2):57 - 68.
    "Guanxi" involves interpersonal obligations, which may conflict with other obligations people have that are based on general or abstract moral considerations. In the West, the latter have been widely accepted as the general source of obligations, which is perhaps tied to social changes associated with the rise of capitalism. Recently, Western ethicists have started to reconsider the extent to which personal relationships may form a distinct basis for obligation. In administration and management, salient bases for decision-Making include deontological, consequentialist (...)
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  47.  45
    Conflicts of Interest in Science.David B. Resnik - 1998 - Perspectives on Science 6 (4):381-408.
    : This essay provides an analysis of conflicts of interest in science. It gives an overview of some current conflict of interest policies and distinguishes between real, apparent, and potential conflicts of interest. The essay argues that scientists should disclose real, apparent, and potential conflicts of interest and that they should avoid conflicts that threaten scientific objectivity or trustworthiness. The essay also uses several hypothetical scenarios to illustrate some of the key points made in the (...)
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  48.  49
    Conflicts of Interest? The Ethics of Usury.Martin Lewison - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 22 (4):327 - 339.
    Social attitudes toward usury (here defined using the archaic meaning as the taking of interest on loans) have changed dramatically over the centuries. From antiquity until the Protestant Reformation, usury was regarded as an inherently evil activity. Today, with few exceptions, usury is met with moral indifference. Modern objections to usury are limited to protest against "excessive" interest rates rather than interest per se. With this change in focus, the very meaning of the term "usury" has also (...)
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  49.  63
    A Comparison of Conflict of Interest Policies at Peer-Reviewed Journals in Different Scientific Disciplines.Jessica S. Ancker & Annette Flanagin - 2007 - Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (2):147-157.
    Scientific journals can promote ethical publication practices through policies on conflicts of interest. However, the prevalence of conflict of interest policies and the definition of conflict of interest appear to vary across scientific disciplines. This survey of high-impact, peer-reviewed journals in 12 different scientific disciplines was conducted to assess these variations. The survey identified published conflict of interest policies in 28 of 84 journals (33%). However, when representatives of 49 of the 84 journals (...)
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  50.  46
    Managing Conflicts of Interest Should Begin with Dialogue and Education, Not Punitive Measures: Comment on “Toward a Sociology of Conflict of Interest in Medical Research” by Sarah Winch and Michael Sinnott.Ghislaine Mathieu & Bryn Williams-Jones - 2012 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (2):221-222.
    Managing Conflicts of Interest Should Begin with Dialogue and Education, Not Punitive Measures Content Type Journal Article Category Case Studies Pages 1-2 DOI 10.1007/s11673-012-9358-y Authors Ghislaine Mathieu, Programmes de bioéthique, Département de médicine sociale et préventive, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada Bryn Williams-Jones, Programmes de bioéthique, Département de médicine sociale et préventive, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada Journal Journal of Bioethical Inquiry Online ISSN 1872-4353 Print (...)
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