Results for 'conservation'

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  1.  63
    Conservation: Zero Net Energy Homes for Low‐Income Families.Anne Perkins - 2011 - Zygon 46 (4):929-941.
    The Wisdom Way Solar Village in Greenfield, Massachusetts is a zero net energy mixed‐income, mixed‐ability subdivision/condominium of 20 solar homes. It stands as an ethical response to climate change in that it demonstrates that homes in the northern United States can be built to use almost no fossil fuel for heat or electricity and to use very little water. It also demonstrates that small groups of people can learn to work together and to enjoy the benefits of living in a (...)
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  2. Conservation Laws and Interactionist Dualism.Ben White - 2017 - Philosophical Quarterly 67 (267):387–405.
    The Exclusion Argument for physicalism maintains that since (1) every physical effect has a sufficient physical cause, and (2) cases of causal overdetermination are rare, it follows that if (3) mental events cause physical events as frequently as they seem to, then (4) mental events must be physical in nature. In defence of (1), it is sometimes said that (1) is supported if not entailed by conservation laws. Against this, I argue that conservation laws do not lend sufficient (...)
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  3.  48
    Conservation Laws in Scientific Explanations: Constraints or Coincidences?Marc Lange - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (3):333-352.
    A conservation law in physics can be either a constraint on the kinds of interaction there could be or a coincidence of the kinds of interactions there actually are. This is an important, unjustly neglected distinction. Only if a conservation law constrains the possible kinds of interaction can a derivation from it constitute a scientific explanation despite failing to describe the causal/mechanical details behind the result derived. This conception of the relation between “bottom-up” scientific explanations and one kind (...)
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  4. Energy Conservation in GTR.Carl Hoefer - 2000 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 31 (2):187-199.
    The topics of gravitational field energy and energy-momentum conservation in General Relativity theory have been unjustly neglected by philosophers. If the gravitational field in space free of ordinary matter, as represented by the metric g ab itself, can be said to carry genuine energy and momentum, this is a powerful argument for adopting the substantivalist view of spacetime.This paper explores the standard textbook account of gravitational field energy and argues that (a) so-called stress-energy of the gravitational field is well-defined (...)
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  5.  63
    Conservation Laws and the Philosophy of Mind: Opening the Black Box, Finding a Mirror.J. Brian Pitts - 2020 - Philosophia 48 (2):673-707.
    Since Leibniz's time, Cartesian mental causation has been criticized for violating the conservation of energy and momentum. Many dualist responses clearly fail. But conservation laws have important neglected features generally undermining the objection. Conservation is _local_, holding first not for the universe, but for everywhere separately. The energy in any volume changes only due to what flows through the boundaries. Constant total energy holds if the global summing-up of local conservation laws converges; it probably doesn't in (...)
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  6.  16
    Conservation in Behavior.James Allison, Melinda Miller & Mark Wozny - 1979 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 108 (1):4-34.
  7.  20
    Conservation, Inertia, and Spacetime Geometry.James Owen Weatherall - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 67:144-159.
    As Harvey Brown emphasizes in his book Physical Relativity, inertial motion in general relativity is best understood as a theorem, and not a postulate. Here I discuss the status of the "conservation condition", which states that the energy-momentum tensor associated with non-interacting matter is covariantly divergence-free, in connection with such theorems. I argue that the conservation condition is best understood as a consequence of the differential equations governing the evolution of matter in general relativity and many other theories. (...)
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  8. Are Conservation Laws Metaphysically Necessary?Johanna Wolff - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (5):898-906.
    Are laws of nature necessary, and if so, are all laws of nature necessary in the same way? This question has played an important role in recent discussion of laws of nature. I argue that not all laws of nature are necessary in the same way: conservation laws are perhaps to be regarded as metaphysically necessary. This sheds light on both the modal character of conservation laws and the relationship between different varieties of necessity.
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  9. The Conservation of Races.W. E. B. DuBois - unknown
    This chapter presents an essay by W. E. B. Du Bois that deals with the issue of race. He raises questions such as: What is the real meaning of race. What has, in the past, been the law of race development? What lessons has the past history of race development to teach the rising Negro people? He describes the American Negro Academy, which aims at once to be the epitome and expression of the intellect of the black-blooded people of America, (...)
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  10. Conservation of Energy is Relevant to Physicalism.Ole Koksvik - 2007 - Dialectica 61 (4):573-582.
    I argue against Barbara Montero's claim that Conservation of Energy has nothing to do with physicalism. I reject her reconstruction of the argument for physicalism from CoE, and offer an alternative reconstruction that better captures the intuitions of those who believe that there is a conflict between interactionist dualism and CoE.
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  11.  23
    Conservation of Energy: Missing Features in Its Nature and Justification and Why They Matter.J. Brian Pitts - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-26.
    Misconceptions about energy conservation abound due to the gap between physics and secondary school chemistry. This paper surveys this difference and its relevance to the 1690s-2010s Leibnizian argument that mind-body interaction is impossible due to conservation laws. Justifications for energy conservation are partly empirical, such as Joule's paddle wheel experiment, and partly theoretical, such as Lagrange's statement in 1811 that energy is conserved if the potential energy does not depend on time. In 1918 Noether generalized results like (...)
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  12. Conservation, Foresight, and the Future Generations Problem.Steve Vanderheiden - 2006 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 49 (4):337 – 352.
    The practice of conservation assumes that current persons have some obligations to future generations, but these obligations are complicated by a number of philosophical problems, chief among which is what Derek Parfit calls the Non-Identity Problem. Because our actions now will affect the identities of persons to be born in the distant future, we cannot say that those actions either benefit or harm those persons. Thus, a causal link between our acts and their consequences for particular persons is severed, (...)
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  13.  39
    Conservation Biology.Sahotra Sarkar - 2004 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Conservation biology emerged as an organized academic discipline in the United States in the 1980s though much of its theoretical framework was originally developed in Australia. Significant differences of approach in the two traditions were resolved in the late 1990s through the formulation of a consensus framework for the design and adaptive management of conservation area networks. This entry presents an outline of that framework along with a critical analysis of conceptual issues concerning the four theoretical problems that (...)
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  14.  23
    Conservation by Native Peoples.Michael S. Alvard - 1994 - Human Nature 5 (2):127-154.
    Native peoples have often been portrayed as natural conservationists, living a “balanced” existence with nature. It is argued that this perspective is a result of an imprecise operational definition of conservation. Conservation is defined here in contrast to the predictions of foraging theory, which assumes that foragers will behave to maximize their short-term harvesting rate. A behavior is deemed conservation when a short-term cost is paid by the resource harvester in exchange for long-term benefits in the form (...)
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  15.  58
    Conservation and Preservation: A Conceptual Rehabilitation.Bryan G. Norton - 1986 - Environmental Ethics 8 (3):195-220.
    Philosophers have paid little attention to the distinction between conservation and preservation, apparently because they have accepted John Passmore’s suggestion that conservationism is an expression of anthropocentric motives and that “true” preservationism is an expression of nonanthropocentric motives. Philosophers have therefore concentrated their efforts on this distinction in motives. This reduction,however, is insensitive to important nuances of environmentalist objectives: there are a wide variety of human reasons for preserving natural ecosystems and wild species. Preservationist policies represent a concem to (...)
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  16.  23
    Conservation Through Commodification?Jozef Keulartz - 2013 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 16 (3):297-307.
    During the past decade, we have seen the introduction of market-based mechanisms in biodiversity policy. Biodiversity markets are considered powerful tools to slow down or even stop the ongoing loss of biodiversity by internalizing costs that are traditionally externalized. This paper questions these optimistic expectations. Can we save nature by selling it? Is conservation through commodification a viable option? This paper maps both the social and ecological problems of the commodification of nature that is a necessary precondition for biodiversity (...)
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  17.  51
    Conservation Accidents.James McGarrigle & Margaret Donaldson - 1974 - Cognition 3 (4):341-350.
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  18. Inferring Conservation Laws in Particle Physics: A Case Study in the Problem of Induction.Oliver Schulte - 2000 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (4):771-806.
    This paper develops a means–end analysis of an inductive problem that arises in particle physics: how to infer from observed reactions conservation principles that govern all reactions among elementary particles. I show that there is a reliable inference procedure that is guaranteed to arrive at an empirically adequate set of conservation principles as more and more evidence is obtained. An interesting feature of reliable procedures for finding conservation principles is that in certain precisely defined circumstances they must (...)
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  19. Conservation Principles.Gordon Belot - 2006 - In D. Borchert (ed.), Encyclopedia of Philosophy. MacMillan. pp. v. 2 461-464.
    A conservation principles tell us that some quantity, quality, or aspect remains constant through change. Such principles appear already in ancient and medieval natural philosophy. In one important strand of Greek cosmology, the rotatory motion of the celestial orbs is eternal and immutable. In optics, from at least the time of Euclid, the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence when a ray of light is reflected. According to some versions of the medieval impetus theory of (...)
     
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  20. Leibniz: Creation and Conservation and Concurrence.Jeffrey K. McDonough - 2007 - The Leibniz Review 17:31-60.
    In this paper I argue that the hoary theological doctrine of divine concurrence poses no deep threat to Leibniz’s views on theodicy and creaturely activity even as those views have been traditionally understood. The first three sections examine respectively Leibniz’s views on creation, conservation and concurrence, with an eye towards showing their sys­tematic compatibility with Leibniz’s theodicy and metaphysics. The fourth section takes up remaining worries arising from the bridging principle that conservation is a continued or continuous creation, (...)
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  21.  46
    Conservation and Self-Realization: A Deep Ecology Perspective.Freya Mathews - 1988 - Environmental Ethics 10 (4):347-355.
    Nature in its wider cosmic sense is not at risk from human exploitation and predation. To see life on Earth as but a local manifestation of this wider, indestructable and inexhaustible nature is to shield ourselves from despair over the fate of our Earth. But to take this wide view also appears to make interventionist political action on behalf of nature-which is to say, conservation-superfluous. If we identify with nature in its widest sense, as deep ecology prescribes, then the (...)
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  22.  22
    Political Conservation, or How to Prevent Institutional Decay.Martin Beckstein - 2019 - Constellations 26 (4):623-637.
  23.  7
    Conservation Agriculture and Gendered Livelihoods in Northwestern Cambodia: Decision-Making, Space and Access.Stéphane Boulakia, Maria Christie & Daniel Sumner - 2017 - Agriculture and Human Values 34 (2):347-362.
    Smallholder farmers in Rattanakmondol District, Battambang Province, Cambodia face challenges related to soil erosion, declining yields, climate change, and unsustainable tillage-based farming practices in their efforts to increase food production within maize-based systems. In 2010, research for development programs began introducing agricultural production systems based on conservation agriculture to smallholder farmers located in four communities within Rattanakmondol District as a pathway for addressing these issues. Understanding gendered practices and perspectives is integral to adapting CA technologies to the needs of (...)
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  24.  23
    Science, Conservation, and Stewardship: Evolving Codes of Conduct in Archaeology.Alison Wylic - 1999 - Science and Engineering Ethics 5 (3):319-336.
    The Society for American Archaeology (SAA) has developed an extensive body of ethics guidelines for its members, most actively in the last two decades. This coincides with the period in which the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has taken a strong stand on the need for its affiliates to develop clear. enforceable codes of conduct. The ethics guidelines instituted by the SAA now realize the central recommendations of the AAAS, and in this they illustrate both the importance (...)
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  25.  13
    Charge Conservation, Klein’s Paradox and the Concept of Paulions in the Dirac Electron Theory: New Results for the Dirac Equation in External Fields.Y. V. Kononets - 2010 - Foundations of Physics 40 (5):545-572.
    An algebraic block-diagonalization of the Dirac Hamiltonian in a time-independent external field reveals a charge-index conservation law which forbids the physical phenomena of the Klein paradox type and guarantees a single-particle nature of the Dirac equation in strong external fields. Simultaneously, the method defines simpler quantum-mechanical objects—paulions and antipaulions, whose 2-component wave functions determine the Dirac electron states through exact operator relations. Based on algebraic symmetry, the presented theory leads to a new understanding of the Dirac equation physics, including (...)
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  26.  15
    Conservation and Self-Realization: A Deep Ecology Perspective.Freya Mathews - 1988 - Environmental Ethics 10 (4):347-355.
    Nature in its wider cosmic sense is not at risk from human exploitation and predation. To see life on Earth as but a local manifestation of this wider, indestructable and inexhaustible nature is to shield ourselves from despair over the fate of our Earth. But to take this wide view also appears to make interventionist political action on behalf of nature-which is to say, conservation-superfluous. If we identify with nature in its widest sense, as deep ecology prescribes, then the (...)
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  27.  25
    Biodiversity, Conservation Biology, and Rational Choice.David Frank - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 45 (1):101-104.
    This paper critically discusses two areas of Sahotra Sarkar’s recent work in environmental philosophy : biodiversity and conservation biology and roles for decision theory in incorporating values explicitly in the environmental policy process. I argue that Sarkar’s emphasis on the practices of conservation biologists, and especially the role of social and cultural values in the choice of biodiversity constituents, restricts his conception of biodiversity to particular practical conservation contexts. I argue that life scientists have many reasons to (...)
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  28. ``Divine Conservation and the Persistence of the World&Quot.Jonathan L. Kvanvig & Hugh J. McCann - 1988 - In Thomas V. Morris (ed.), Divine and Human Action: Essays in the Metaphysics of Theism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. pp. 13-49.
     
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  29. How Dualists Should (Not) Respond to the Objection From Energy Conservation.Alin C. Cucu & J. Brian Pitts - 2019 - Mind and Matter 17 (1):95-121.
    The principle of energy conservation is widely taken to be a se- rious difficulty for interactionist dualism (whether property or sub- stance). Interactionists often have therefore tried to make it satisfy energy conservation. This paper examines several such attempts, especially including E. J. Lowe’s varying constants proposal, show- ing how they all miss their goal due to lack of engagement with the physico-mathematical roots of energy conservation physics: the first Noether theorem (that symmetries imply conservation laws), (...)
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  30. What Does the Conservation of Energy Have to Do with Physicalism?Barbara Montero - 2006 - Dialectica 60 (4):383-396.
    The conservation of energy law, a law of physics that states that the total energy of any closed system is always conserved, is a bedrock principle that has achieved both broad theoretical and experimental support. Yet if interactive dualism is correct, it is thought that the mind can affect physical objects in violation of the conservation of energy. Thus, some claim, the conservation of energy grounds an argument for physicalism. Although critics of the argument focus on the (...)
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  31.  92
    Conservation, Discontinuous Time, and Causal Continuity.Eric Timothy Yang - 2009 - Religious Studies 45 (1):85.
    William Vallicella poses a dilemma for continuous-creation accounts of conservation, which he attempts to solve by conjoining presentism and four-dimensionalism. I claim that presentist four-dimensionalism fails to appreciate the real problem behind continuous creation and persistence, which is a presumption of the discontinuity of time. I will argue that if we assume that time is discontinuous, then, (1) presentist four-dimensionalism cannot alone account for persistence, and (2) created entities are also not in clear need of conservation in Vallicella’s (...)
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  32.  69
    Naturalness in Biological Conservation.Helena Siipi - 2004 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 17 (6):457-477.
    Conservation scientists are arguing whether naturalness provides a reasonable imperative for conservation. To clarify this debate and the interpretation of the term natural, I analyze three management strategies – ecosystem preservation, ecosystem restoration, and ecosystem engineering – with respect to the naturalness of their outcomes. This analysis consists in two parts. First, the ambiguous term natural is defined in a variety of ways, including (1) naturalness as that which is part of nature, (2) naturalness as a contrast to (...)
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  33.  13
    Conservation Through Sustainable Use: The Wild Kangaroo Harvest Plan.Rob Irvine - 2012 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (4):509-510.
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  34.  36
    Some Conservation Results on Weak König's Lemma.Stephen G. Simpson, Kazuyuki Tanaka & Takeshi Yamazaki - 2002 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 118 (1-2):87-114.
    By , we denote the system of second-order arithmetic based on recursive comprehension axioms and Σ10 induction. is defined to be plus weak König's lemma: every infinite tree of sequences of 0's and 1's has an infinite path. In this paper, we first show that for any countable model M of , there exists a countable model M′ of whose first-order part is the same as that of M, and whose second-order part consists of the M-recursive sets and sets not (...)
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  35.  20
    The Conservation of Authenticity: Political Commitment and Racial Reality.Michael Monahan - 2005 - Philosophia Africana 8 (1):37-50.
    Discusses issues related to the conservation of racial authenticity, political commitment and racial reality in the U.S. Growing interest in racial ontology in philosophical circles; Analysis of the concept of social constructivism.
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  36.  13
    Evolutionary Conservation in Genes Underlying Human Psychiatric Disorders.Lisa M. Ogawa & Eric J. Vallender - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  37.  21
    Conservation and Wildlife Management in South African National Parks 1930s–1960s.Jane Carruthers - 2008 - Journal of the History of Biology 41 (2):203-236.
    In recent decades conservation biology has achieved a high position among the sciences. This is certainly true of South Africa, a small country, but the third most biodiverse in the world. This article traces some aspects of the transformation of South African wildlife management during the 1930s to the 1960s from game reserves based on custodianship and the "balance of nature" into scientifically managed national parks with a philosophy of "command and control" or "management by intervention." In 1910 the (...)
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  38. Divine Conservation, Secondary Causes, and Occasionalism.Philip L. Quinn - 1988 - In Thomas V. Morris (ed.), Divine and Human Action. Cornell Up. pp. 50-73.
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  39. Values, Advocacy and Conservation Biology.Jay Odenbaugh - 2003 - Environmental Values 12 (1):55 - 69.
    In this essay, I examine the controversy concerning the advocacy of ethical values in conservation biology. First, I argue, as others have, that conservation biology is a science laden with values both ethical and non-ethical. Second, after clarifying the notion of advocacy at work, I contend that conservation biologists should advocate the preservation of biological diversity. Third, I explore what ethical grounds should be used for advocating the preservation of ecological systems by conservation biologists. I argue (...)
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  40.  34
    Conservation or Preservation? A Qualitative Study of the Conceptual Foundations of Natural Resource Management.Ben A. Minteer & Elizabeth A. Corley - 2007 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 20 (4):307-333.
    Few disputes in the annals of US environmentalism enjoy the pedigree of the conservation-preservation debate. Yet, although many scholars have written extensively on the meaning and history of conservation and preservation in American environmental thought and practice, the resonance of these concepts outside the academic literature has not been sufficiently examined. Given the significance of the ideals of conservation and preservation in the justification of environmental policy and management, however, we believe that a more detailed analysis of (...)
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  41. On the Concept and Conservation of Critical Natural Capital.C. Tyler DesRoches - 2020 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science (N/A):1-22.
    Ecological economics is an interdisciplinary science that is primarily concerned with developing interventions to achieve sustainable ecological and economic systems. While ecological economists have, over the last few decades, made various empirical, theoretical, and conceptual advancements, there is one concept in particular that remains subject to confusion: critical natural capital. While critical natural capital denotes parts of the environment that are essential for the continued existence of our species, the meaning of terms commonly associated with this concept, such as ‘non-substitutable’ (...)
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  42. Laws and Meta-Laws of Nature: Conservation Laws and Symmetries.Marc Lange - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (3):457-481.
    Symmetry principles are commonly said to explain conservation laws—and were so employed even by Lagrange and Hamilton, long before Noether's theorem. But within a Hamiltonian framework, the conservation laws likewise entail the symmetries. Why, then, are symmetries explanatorily prior to conservation laws? I explain how the relation between ordinary (i.e., first-order) laws and the facts they govern (a relation involving counterfactuals) may be reproduced one level higher: as a relation between symmetries and the ordinary laws they govern. (...)
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  43.  2
    Asian Elephant Conservation: Too Elephantocentric? Towards a Biocultural Approach of Conservation.Nicolas Lainé - 2018 - Asian Bioethics Review 10 (4):279-293.
    Drawing from the example of Asian elephant conservation in Laos, this article primarily intends to reveal the elephantocentric vision adopted by mainstream conservation project in direction to the species. In the second part, I will present some ethnographic notes collected among local population who daily live and work with pachyderms. These notes will help in opening up a broader and more ecocentric approach of elephant conservation by highlighting links between biological and cultural diversity. By revealing the cosmo-ecological (...)
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  44.  19
    In the Name of Conservation: CAFE Practices and Fair Trade in Mexico. [REVIEW]Marie-Christine Renard - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):287 - 299.
    Consumers' concerns for the environment have led to the creation of niche markets, quality certifications and labelling systems. Built by activists and NGOs, these systems were adopted by agribusiness. Such firms try to capture consumers and react to opinion campaigns, whilst appropriating the conservation (or 'fair') discourse. This leads to the rise of new forms of third-party certifications of food production based on private standards and, hence, to new forms of contract relations between producers and buyers. The nature of (...)
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  45.  13
    What Does the Conservation of Energy Have to Do with Physicalism?Barbara Montero - 2006 - Dialectica 60 (4):383-396.
    The conservation of energy law, a law of physics that states that the total energy of any closed system is always conserved, is a bedrock principle that has achieved both broad theoretical and experimental support. Yet if interactive dualism is correct, it is thought that the mind can affect physical objects in violation of the conservation of energy. Thus, some claim, the conservation of energy grounds an argument for physicalism. Although critics of the argument focus on the (...)
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  46.  3
    1. Divine Conservation and the Persistence of the World.Jonathan L. Kvanvig & Hugh J. McCann - 2019 - In Thomas V. Morris (ed.), Divine and Human Action: Essays in the Metaphysics of Theism. Cornell University Press. pp. 13-49.
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  47. Captivity for Conservation? Zoos at a Crossroads.Jozef Keulartz - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (2):335-351.
    This paper illuminates a variety of issues that speak to the question of whether ‘captivity for conservation’ can be an ethically acceptable goal of the modern zoo. Reflecting on both theoretical disagreements and practical challenges , the paper explains why the ‘Noah’s Ark’ paradigm is being replaced by an alternative ‘integrated approach.’ It explores the changes in the zoo’s core tasks that the new paradigm implies. And it pays special attention to the changes that would have to be made (...)
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  48.  42
    The Discovery of the Conservation of Energy. Y. Elkana - 1976 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 27 (2):165-176.
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  49.  68
    Creation and Conservation Once More.William Lane Craig - 1998 - Religious Studies 34 (2):177-188.
    God is conceived in the Western theistic tradition to be both the Creator and Conservor of the universe. These two roles were typically classed as different aspects of creation, originating creation and continuing creation. On pain of incoherence, however, conservation needs to be distinguished from creation. Contrary to current analyses (such as Philip Quinn's), creation should be explicated in terms of God's bringing something into being, while conservation should be understood in terms of God's preservation of something over (...)
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  50.  32
    Environmental Conservation NGOs and the Concept of Sustainable Development: A Research Into the Value Systems of Greenpeace International, WWF International and IUCN International.Yvonne M. Scherrer - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 85 (S3):555 - 571.
    On the background of the widely known and controversially discussed concept of sustainable development and the ever increasing influence of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) on social, environmental and economic issues, this article focuses on how NGOs, specialised in environmental protection and conservation issues, reacted to the holistic societal concept of sustainable development which aims at finding solutions not only to environmental, but also to social and economic issues. For this purpose, the article investigates whether and to what extent the sustainability (...)
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