Results for 'conservation'

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  1. Laws and Meta-Laws of Nature: Conservation Laws and Symmetries.Marc Lange - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (3):457-481.
    Symmetry principles are commonly said to explain conservation laws—and were so employed even by Lagrange and Hamilton, long before Noether's theorem. But within a Hamiltonian framework, the conservation laws likewise entail the symmetries. Why, then, are symmetries explanatorily prior to conservation laws? I explain how the relation between ordinary (i.e., first-order) laws and the facts they govern (a relation involving counterfactuals) may be reproduced one level higher: as a relation between symmetries and the ordinary laws they govern. (...)
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  2. Leibniz: Creation and Conservation and Concurrence.Jeffrey K. McDonough - 2007 - The Leibniz Review 17:31-60.
    In this paper I argue that the hoary theological doctrine of divine concurrence poses no deep threat to Leibniz’s views on theodicy and creaturely activity even as those views have been traditionally understood. The first three sections examine respectively Leibniz’s views on creation, conservation and concurrence, with an eye towards showing their sys­tematic compatibility with Leibniz’s theodicy and metaphysics. The fourth section takes up remaining worries arising from the bridging principle that conservation is a continued or continuous creation, (...)
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  3.  23
    The Multi-Dimensional Nature of Environmental Attitudes Among Farmers in Indiana: Implications for Conservation Adoption.Adam P. Reimer, Aaron W. Thompson & Linda S. Prokopy - 2012 - Agriculture and Human Values 29 (1):29-40.
    Attempts to understand farmer conservation behavior based on quantitative socio-demographic, attitude, and awareness variables have been largely inconclusive. In order to understand fully how farmers are making conservation decisions, 32 in-depth interviews were conducted in the Eagle Creek watershed in central Indiana. Coding for environmental attitudes and practice adoption revealed several dominant themes, representing multi-dimensional aspects of environmental attitudes. Farmers who were motivated by off-farm environmental benefits and those who identified responsibilities to others (stewardship) were most likely to (...)
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  4.  46
    Conservation Laws and Interactionist Dualism.Ben White - 2017 - Philosophical Quarterly 67 (267):387–405.
    The Exclusion Argument for physicalism maintains that since (1) every physical effect has a sufficient physical cause, and (2) cases of causal overdetermination are rare, it follows that if (3) mental events cause physical events as frequently as they seem to, then (4) mental events must be physical in nature. In defence of (1), it is sometimes said that (1) is supported if not entailed by conservation laws. Against this, I argue that conservation laws do not lend sufficient (...)
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  5. Searching for Sustainability: Interdisciplinary Essays in the Philosophy of Conservation Biology.Bryan G. Norton - 2002 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book examines from a multidisciplinary viewpoint the question of what we mean - what we should mean - by setting sustainability as a goal for environmental management. The author, trained as a philosopher of science and language, explores ways to break down the disciplinary barriers to communication and deliberation about environment policy, and to integrate science and evaluations into a more comprehensive environmental policy. Choosing sustainability as the keystone concept of environmental policy, the author explores what we can learn (...)
     
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  6. Nature’s Legacy: On Rohwer and Marris and Genomic Conservation.Richard Christian - 2015 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (3):265-267.
    Rohwer & Marris claim that “many conservation biologists” believe that there is a prima facie duty to preserve the genetic integrity of species. (A prima facie duty is a necessary pro tanto moral reason.) They describe three possible arguments for that belief and reject them all. They conclude that the biologists they cite are mistaken, and that there is no such duty: duties to preserve genetic integrity are merely instrumental: we ought act to preserve genetic integrity only because doing (...)
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  7.  6
    In the Name of Conservation: CAFE Practices and Fair Trade in Mexico. [REVIEW]Marie-Christine Renard - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):287 - 299.
    Consumers' concerns for the environment have led to the creation of niche markets, quality certifications and labelling systems. Built by activists and NGOs, these systems were adopted by agribusiness. Such firms try to capture consumers and react to opinion campaigns, whilst appropriating the conservation (or 'fair') discourse. This leads to the rise of new forms of third-party certifications of food production based on private standards and, hence, to new forms of contract relations between producers and buyers. The nature of (...)
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  8.  47
    Captivity for Conservation? Zoos at a Crossroads.Jozef Keulartz - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (2):335-351.
    This paper illuminates a variety of issues that speak to the question of whether ‘captivity for conservation’ can be an ethically acceptable goal of the modern zoo. Reflecting on both theoretical disagreements and practical challenges , the paper explains why the ‘Noah’s Ark’ paradigm is being replaced by an alternative ‘integrated approach.’ It explores the changes in the zoo’s core tasks that the new paradigm implies. And it pays special attention to the changes that would have to be made (...)
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  9.  81
    The World's Continuance: Divine Conservation or Existential Inertia?John Beaudoin - 2007 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 61 (2):83 - 98.
    According to the Doctrine of Divine Conservation, the world could not endure through time were God not actively sustaining its existence. An alternative to the conservationist view is one according to which the existence of whatever is the fundamental material of our universe is characterized by inertia, so that its continuance stands in no need of active causal intervention by some other being. In this article I develop in some detail the Doctrine of Existential Inertia and reply to some (...)
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  10.  27
    Aleksandr Bogdanov: Proletkult and Conservation.Arran Gare - 1994 - Capitalism, Nature, Socialism: A Journal of Socialist Ecology 5 (2):65-94.
    The most important figure among Russia's radical Marxists was A.A. Bogdanov (the pseudonym of Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Malinovskii). Not only was he the prime exponent of a proletarian cultural revolution; it was Bogdanov's ideas which provided justification for concern for the environment. And his ideas are not only important to environmentalists because they were associated with this conservation movement; more significantly they are of continuing relevance because they confront the root causes of environmental destruction in the present, and offer what (...)
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  11. Disciplinary Capture and Epistemological Obstacles to Interdisciplinary Research: Lessons From Central African Conservation Disputes.Evelyn Brister - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 56:82-91.
    Complex environmental problems require well-researched policies that integrate knowledge from both the natural and social sciences. Epistemic differences can impede interdisciplinary collaboration, as shown by debates between conservation biologists and anthropologists who are working to preserve biological diversity and support economic development in central Africa. Disciplinary differences with regard to 1) facts, 2) rigor, 3) causal explanation, and 4) research goals reinforce each other, such that early decisions about how to define concepts or which methods to adopt may tilt (...)
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  12.  46
    Biography of a "Feathered Pig": The California Condor Conservation Controversy. [REVIEW]Peter S. Alagona - 2004 - Journal of the History of Biology 37 (3):557 - 583.
    In the early 20th century, after hundreds of years of gradual decline, the California condor emerged as an object of intensive scientific study, an important conservation target, and a cultural icon of the American wilderness preservation movement. Early condor researchers generally believed that the species' survival depended upon the preservation of its wilderness habitat. However, beginning in the 1970s, a new generation of scientists argued that no amount of wilderness could prevent the condor's decline and that only intensive scientific (...)
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  13.  46
    Naturalness in Biological Conservation.Helena Siipi - 2004 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 17 (6):457-477.
    Conservation scientists are arguing whether naturalness provides a reasonable imperative for conservation. To clarify this debate and the interpretation of the term natural, I analyze three management strategies – ecosystem preservation, ecosystem restoration, and ecosystem engineering – with respect to the naturalness of their outcomes. This analysis consists in two parts. First, the ambiguous term natural is defined in a variety of ways, including (1) naturalness as that which is part of nature, (2) naturalness as a contrast to (...)
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  14.  21
    Integrating Culture and Community Into Environmental Policy: Community Tradition and Farm Size in Conservation Decision Making. [REVIEW]Jason Shaw Parker - 2013 - Agriculture and Human Values 30 (2):159-178.
    Community research by anthropologists and sociologists details the effects that centralization of decision making has on local communities. As governance and regulation move toward global scales, conservation policy has devolved to the local levels, creating tensions in resource management and protection. Centralization without local participation can place communities at risk by eroding the environmental knowledge and decision making capacity of local people. Environmental problems such as water quality impairments require perception, interpretation, and ability to act locally. Through a presentation (...)
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  15.  32
    Land Tenure and Agricultural Management: Soil Conservation on Rented and Owned Fields in Southwest British Columbia. [REVIEW]Evan D. G. Fraser - 2004 - Agriculture and Human Values 21 (1):73-79.
    According to literature,insecure land tenure biases against soilconservation on farmland. However, there islittle evidence to test whether farmers need toown their land to conserve it, or if long-termleases are adequate. One way to infer whetheror not different land tenure arrangementspromote long-term management is throughanalyzing the types of crops planted on fieldswith different land tenure arrangements.Perennials, forage legumes, grasslands, andgrain are all important parts of sustainablecrop rotation in southwest British Columbia butprovide little cash return in the year they areplanted. Annual crops (...)
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  16.  34
    Indian Science for Indian Tigers?: Conservation Biology and the Question of Cultural Values. [REVIEW]Michael Lewis - 2005 - Journal of the History of Biology 38 (2):185 - 207.
    The implementation of Project Tiger in India, 1973-1974, was justly hailed as a triumph of international environmental advocacy. It occurred as a growing number of conservation-oriented biologists were beginning to argue forcefully for scientifically managed conservation of species and ecosystems -- the same scientists who would, by the mid-1980s, call themselves conservation biologists. Although India accepted international funds to implement Project Tiger, it strictly limited research posts to Government of India Foresters, against the protests of Indian and (...)
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  17.  17
    Conservation by Native Peoples.Michael S. Alvard - 1994 - Human Nature 5 (2):127-154.
    Native peoples have often been portrayed as natural conservationists, living a “balanced” existence with nature. It is argued that this perspective is a result of an imprecise operational definition of conservation. Conservation is defined here in contrast to the predictions of foraging theory, which assumes that foragers will behave to maximize their short-term harvesting rate. A behavior is deemed conservation when a short-term cost is paid by the resource harvester in exchange for long-term benefits in the form (...)
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  18.  29
    Farmers' Views of Soil Erosion Problems and Their Conservation Knowledge at Beressa Watershed, Central Highlands of Ethiopia.Aklilu Amsalu & Jan de Graaff - 2006 - Agriculture and Human Values 23 (1):99-108.
    Farmers’ decisions to conserve natural resources generally and soil and water particularly are largely determined by their knowledge of the problems and perceived benefits of conservation. In Ethiopia, however, farmer perceptions of erosion problems and farmer conservation practices have received little analysis or use in conservation planning. This research examines farmers’ views of erosion problems and their conservation knowledge and practices in the Beressa watershed in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Data were obtained from a survey (...)
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  19.  5
    Conservation in a Brave New World.Douglas Ian Campbell & Patrick Michael Whittle - 2017 - In Resurrecting Extinct Species: Ethics and Authenticity. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 1-28.
    This chapter introduces the two main philosophical questions that are raised by the prospect of extinct species being brought back from the dead—namely, the ‘Authenticity Question’ and the ‘Ethical Question’. It distinguishes different types of de-extinction, and different methods by which de-extinction can be accomplished. Finally, it examines the aims of wildlife conservation with a view to whether they are compatible with de-extinction, or not.
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  20.  23
    Just Small Potatoes (and Ulluco)? The Use of Seed-Size Variation in “Native Commercialized” Agriculture and Agrobiodiversity Conservation Among Peruvian Farmers.Karl S. Zimmerer - 2003 - Agriculture and Human Values 20 (2):107-123.
    Farmers of the Peruvian Andesmake use of seed-size variation as a source offlexibility in the production of ``nativecommercial'' farmer varieties of Andeanpotatoes and ulluco. In a case study of easternCuzco, the use of varied sizes of seed tubers isfound to underpin versatile farm strategiessuited to partial commercialization (combinedwith on-farm consumption and the next season'sseed). Use of seed-size variation also providesadaptation to diverse soil-moistureenvironments. The importance and widespread useof seed-size variation among farmers isdemonstrated in the emphasis and consistency oflinguistic expressions about (...)
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  21.  17
    Agriculture, Livelihoods, and Globalization: The Analysis of New Trajectories (and Avoidance of Just-so Stories) of Human-Environment Change and Conservation[REVIEW]Karl S. Zimmerer - 2007 - Agriculture and Human Values 24 (1):9-16.
    Globalization offers a mix of new trajectories for agriculture, livelihoods, resource use, and environmental conservation. The papers in this issue share elements that advance our understanding of these new trajectories. The shared elements suggest an approach that places stress on: (i) the common ground of theoretical concepts (local-global interactions), methodologies (case study design), and analytical frameworks (spatio-temporal emphasis); (ii) farm-level economic diversification and the dynamics of agricultural intensification-disintensification; (iii) the pervasive role of agricultural as well as environmental institutions, organizations, (...)
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  22.  9
    From Burgers to Biodiversity? The McDonaldization of on-Farm Nature Conservation in the UK.Carol Morris & Matt Reed - 2007 - Agriculture and Human Values 24 (2):207-218.
    This paper uses George Ritzer’s account of McDonaldization – the socially transformative process of rationalization – to undertake a critical analysis of agri-environment schemes, the dominant form of on-farm nature conservation in England. Drawing on a wide range of evidence, including social surveys of the participants and non-participants of agri-environment schemes, government files, and interviews with government officials, the four key dimensions of McDonaldization – efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control (through non-human technologies) – are applied to the analysis of (...)
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  23.  47
    Biodiversity, Biological Uncertainty, and Setting Conservation Priorities.K. S. Shrader-Frechette & E. D. Mccoy - 1994 - Biology and Philosophy 9 (2):167-195.
    In a world of massive extinctions where not all taxa can be saved, how ought biologists to decide their preservation priorities? When biologists make recommendations regarding conservation, should their analyses be based on scientific criteria, on public or lay criteria, on economic or some other criteria? As a first step in answering this question, we examine the issue of whether biologists ought to try to save the endangered Florida panther, a well known glamour taxon. To evaluate the merits of (...)
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  24.  38
    Common Origin of No-Cloning and No-Deleting Principles Conservation of Information.Michał Horodecki, Ryszard Horodecki, Aditi Sen & Ujjwal Sen - 2005 - Foundations of Physics 35 (12):2041-2049.
    We discuss the role of the notion of information in the description of physical reality. We consider theories for which dynamics is linear with respect to stochastic mixing. We point out that the no-cloning and no-deleting principles emerge in any such theory, if law of conservation of information is valid, and two copies contain more information than one copy. We then describe the quantum case from this point of view.
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  25. Conservation Principles.Gordon Belot - 2006 - In D. Borchert (ed.), Encyclopedia of Philosophy. MacMillan. pp. v. 2 461-464.
    A conservation principles tell us that some quantity, quality, or aspect remains constant through change. Such principles appear already in ancient and medieval natural philosophy. In one important strand of Greek cosmology, the rotatory motion of the celestial orbs is eternal and immutable. In optics, from at least the time of Euclid, the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence when a ray of light is reflected. According to some versions of the medieval impetus theory of (...)
     
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  26.  37
    “Culling the Herd”: Eugenics and the Conservation Movement in the United States, 1900–1940. [REVIEW]Garland E. Allen - 2013 - Journal of the History of Biology 46 (1):31-72.
    While from a late twentieth- and early twenty-first century perspective, the ideologies of eugenics (controlled reproduction to eliminate the genetically unfit and promote the reproduction of the genetically fit) and environmental conservation and preservation, may seem incompatible, they were promoted simultaneously by a number of figures in the progressive era in the decades between 1900 and 1950. Common to the two movements were the desire to preserve the “best” in both the germ plasm of the human population and natural (...)
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  27.  32
    Neutrino Oscillations: Entanglement, Energy-Momentum Conservation and QFT. [REVIEW]E. K. Akhmedov & A. Y. Smirnov - 2011 - Foundations of Physics 41 (8):1279-1306.
    We consider several subtle aspects of the theory of neutrino oscillations which have been under discussion recently. We show that the S-matrix formalism of quantum field theory can adequately describe neutrino oscillations if correct physics conditions are imposed. This includes space-time localization of the neutrino production and detection processes. Space-time diagrams are introduced, which characterize this localization and illustrate the coherence issues of neutrino oscillations. We discuss two approaches to calculations of the transition amplitudes, which allow different physics interpretations: (i) (...)
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  28.  27
    Institutional Support and in Situ Conservation in Mexico: Biases Against Small-Scale Maize Farmers in Post-NAFTA Agricultural Policy. [REVIEW]Alder Keleman - 2010 - Agriculture and Human Values 27 (1):13-28.
    One of the major adjustments brought on by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was a change in the relationship between Mexican agricultural support institutions and the small-scale agricultural sector. Post-NAFTA restructuring programs sought to correct previous inefficiencies in this sector, but they have also had the effect of marginalizing the producers who steward and manage the country’s reserve of maize (Zea mays) genetic diversity. Framed by research suggesting that certain maize varieties in a rain-fed farming region in southern (...)
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  29.  47
    Agro-Biodiversity Conservation in Europe: Ethical Issues. [REVIEW]Valeria Negri - 2004 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (1):3-25.
    While it is commonly acknowledged that the ecosystemic, and the inter- and intra-specific diversity of natural life is under threat of being irremediably lost, there is much less awareness that the diversity in agro-ecosystems is also under threat. This paper is focused on the biodiverse agro-ecosystems generated by landraces (LRs), i.e., farmer-developed populations of cultivated species that show among- and within-population diversity and are linked to traditional cultures. The aim of this work is to arouse concern about their loss, to (...)
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  30.  25
    Chaos Beyond Order: Overcoming the Quest for Certainty and Conservation in Modern Western Sciences.Riccardo Baldissone - 2013 - Cosmos and History 9 (1):35-49.
    Chaos theory not only stretched the concept of chaos well beyond its traditional semantic boundaries, but it also challenged fundamental tenets of physics and science in general. Hence, its present and potential impact on the Western worldview cannot be underestimated. I will illustrate the relevance of chaos theory in regard to modern Western thought by tracing the concept of order, which modern thinkers emphasised as chaos’ dichotomic counterpart. In particular, I will underline how the concern of seventeenth-century natural philosophers with (...)
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  31.  19
    From Environmental Ethics to Nature Conservation Policy: Natura 2000 and the Burden of Proof. [REVIEW]Humberto D. Rosa & Jorge Marques Da Silva - 2005 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (2):107-130.
    Natura 2000 is a network of natural sites whose aim is to preserve species and habitats of relevance in the European Union. The policy underlying Natura 2000 has faced widespread opposition from land users and received extensive support from environmentalists. This paper addresses the ethical framework for Natura 2000 and the probable moral assumptions of its main stakeholders. Arguments for and against Natura 2000 were analyzed and classified according to “strong” or “weak” versions of the three main theories of environmental (...)
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  32.  23
    Bringing Compassion to the Ethical Dilemma in Killing Kangaroos for Conservation.Daniel Ramp - 2013 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (2):267-272.
    Ethical debate on the killing of kangaroos has polarised conservation and animal welfare science, yet at the heart of these scientific disciplines is the unifying aim of reducing harm to non-human animals. This aim provides the foundation for common ground, culminating in the development of compassionate conservation principles that seek to provide mechanisms for achieving both conservation and welfare goals. However, environmental decision-making is not devoid of human interests, and conservation strategies are commonly employed that suit (...)
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  33.  17
    Environmental Values and Forest Patch Conservation in a Rural Costa Rican Community.Terrence Jantzi, John Schelhas & James P. Lassoie - 1999 - Agriculture and Human Values 16 (1):29-39.
    Although conservation attention has generally focused on large forest tracts, there is increasing evidence that smaller forest patches are important for both conservation and rural development. A study of forest patch conservation in a rural Costa Rican community found that, although forest patch conservation was influenced by landholding size, material factors did not account for all the variation in forest patches conservation behavior or conservation orientations of farmers. A qualitative interpretive approach, using semi-structured interviews, (...)
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  34.  34
    But is It Progress? On the Alleged Advances of Conservation Biology Over Ecology.Stefan Linquist - 2008 - Biology and Philosophy 23 (4):529-544.
    As conservation biology has developed as a distinct discipline from ecology, conservation guidelines based on ecological theory have been largely cast aside in favor of theory-independent decision procedures for designing conservation reserves. I argue that this transition has failed to advance the field toward its aim of preserving biodiversity. The abandonment of island biogeography theory in favor of complementarity-based algorithms is a case in point. In what follows, I consider the four central objections raised against island biogeographic (...)
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  35.  14
    Conservation Biology.Sahotra Sarkar - 2004 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Conservation biology emerged as an organized academic discipline in the United States in the 1980s though much of its theoretical framework was originally developed in Australia. Significant differences of approach in the two traditions were resolved in the late 1990s through the formulation of a consensus framework for the design and adaptive management of conservation area networks. This entry presents an outline of that framework along with a critical analysis of conceptual issues concerning the four theoretical problems that (...)
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  36.  21
    Endorsement of Ethnomedicinal Knowledge Towards Conservation in the Context of Changing Socio-Economic and Cultural Values of Traditional Communities Around Binsar Wildlife Sanctuary in Uttarakhand, India.P. C. Phondani, R. K. Maikhuri & N. S. Bisht - 2013 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (3):573-600.
    The study of the interrelationship between ethnomedicinal knowledge and socio-cultural values needs to be studied mainly for the simple reason that culture is not only the ethical imperative for development, it is also the condition of its sustainability; for their exists a symbiotic relationship between habitats and cultures. The traditional communities around Binsar Wildlife Sanctuary of Uttarakhand state in India have a rich local health care tradition, which has been in practice for the past hundreds of years. The present study (...)
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  37.  12
    Utilization of Durum Wheat Landraces in East Shewa, Central Ethiopia: Are Home Uses an Incentive for on-Farm Conservation[REVIEW]Bayush Tsegaye & Trygve Berg - 2007 - Agriculture and Human Values 24 (2):219-230.
    The study was conducted in East Shewa, central Ethiopia, where durum wheat landraces were once popular, but were displaced and re-introduced. Combinations of survey techniques are employed to document the different home uses of durum wheat landraces and to assess whether these serve as an incentive to on-farm conservation. The findings reveal that wheat landraces have multiple dietary and sociocultural uses that contribute to the maintenance of landraces on-farm. Temporal analysis of historical information showed that (1) richness in food (...)
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  38.  24
    Transforming the Integrated Conservation and Development Project (ICDP) Approach: Observations From the Ranomafana National Park Project, Madagascar. [REVIEW]Joe Peters - 1998 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 11 (1):17-47.
    Preservation of the biological diversity and ecosystems in protected areas can be achieved through projects linking conservation of the protected areas with improved standards of living for resident peoples within surrounding buffer zones. This is the hypothetical claim of the integrated conservation and development project (ICDP) approach to protected area management. This paper, based on several years of experience with the Ranomafana National Park Project in Madagascar, questions the major assumptions of this approach from ethical and practical perspectives. (...)
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  39.  14
    Environmental Philosophy 2.0: Ethics and Conservation Biology for the 21st Century.Jay Odenbaugh - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 45 (1):92-96.
    In this essay, I critically engage Sahotra Sarkar’s Environmental Philosophy. The several topics include the conceptual foundations of conservation biology and traditional philosophy of science, naturalism and its implications, and ethical theory and specifically the status of human welfare.
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  40.  9
    Politics of Biodiversity Conservation and Socio Ecological Conflicts in a City: The Case of Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai.Amrita Sen & Sarmistha Pattanaik - 2016 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 29 (2):305-326.
    Loss of the green belts in the cities as an antecedent outcome of haphazard and irregular urbanization as one of the principle factors has a negative bearing on the socio ecological services that nature entails. Our paper represents the conditions under which the contemporary statist conservationist efforts to preserve the urban protected areas in India induces a marginal existence and livelihood vulnerability upon the survival of the population residing within these PAs. A recent survey to Sanjay Gandhi National Park in (...)
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  41.  8
    From “What is” to “What Should Become” Conservation Biology? Reflections on the Discipline’s Ethical Fundaments.Zina Skandrani - 2016 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 29 (3):541-548.
    In this essay, I build on the article by Soulé that established the foundation for the field of conservation biology. I analyze the presuppositions that have guided the discipline’s ethics in the 30 years since that article first appeared. I argue that conservation biology’s normative postulates introduced a paradigm shift that placed the diversity of the biota instead of the biota itself at the center of its ethics. I show that the ensuing priorities in the valuation of nature (...)
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  42.  20
    Defending God's Strong Conservation.Louis A. Mancha Jr - 2003 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 77:145-157.
    Defenders of the strong view of divine conservation hold that nothing that God creates is capable of sustaining its own existence from one moment to the next without His immediate and continual influence. Assuming a traditional view about efficient causality, I demonstrate that simply in virtue of being committedto creation ex nihilo, the theist is thereby committed to this strong view of conservation.
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  43.  27
    Chronic Toxicity of 1080 and its Implications for Conservation Management: A New Zealand Case Study. [REVIEW]Sean A. Weaver - 2006 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (4):367-389.
    Sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) is a mammalian pesticide used in different parts of the world for the control of mammalian pest species. In New Zealand it is used extensively and very successfully as a conservation management tool for the control of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) – an introduced marsupial that has become a substantial agricultural and conservation management pest. Possums pose a threat to cattle farming in New Zealand as they are a vector for bovine tuberculosis. In protected natural (...)
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  44.  19
    Conservation and Wildlife Management in South African National Parks 1930s-1960s.Jane Carruthers - 2008 - Journal of the History of Biology 41 (2):203 - 236.
    In recent decades conservation biology has achieved a high position among the sciences. This is certainly true of South Africa, a small country, but the third most biodiverse in the world. This article traces some aspects of the transformation of South African wildlife management during the 1930s to the 1960s from game reserves based on custodianship and the "balance of nature" into scientifically managed national parks with a philosophy of "command and control" or "management by intervention." In 1910 the (...)
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  45.  25
    Conservation or Preservation? A Qualitative Study of the Conceptual Foundations of Natural Resource Management.Ben A. Minteer & Elizabeth A. Corley - 2007 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 20 (4):307-333.
    Few disputes in the annals of US environmentalism enjoy the pedigree of the conservation-preservation debate. Yet, although many scholars have written extensively on the meaning and history of conservation and preservation in American environmental thought and practice, the resonance of these concepts outside the academic literature has not been sufficiently examined. Given the significance of the ideals of conservation and preservation in the justification of environmental policy and management, however, we believe that a more detailed analysis of (...)
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  46.  19
    Naturalness and Conservation in France.Annik Schnitzler, Jean-Claude Génot, Maurice Wintz & Brack W. Hale - 2008 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 21 (5):423-436.
    This article discusses the ecological and cultural criteria underlying the management practices for protected areas in France. It examines the evolution of French conservation from its roots in the 19th century, when it focused on the protection of scenic landscapes, to current times when the focus is on the protection of biodiversity. However, biodiversity is often socially defined and may not represent an ecologically sound objective for conservation. In particular, we question the current approach to protecting a specific (...)
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  47.  8
    Charge Conservation, Klein's Paradox and the Concept of Paulions in the Dirac Electron Theory.Y. V. Kononets - 2010 - Foundations of Physics 40 (5):545-572.
    An algebraic block-diagonalization of the Dirac Hamiltonian in a time-independent external field reveals a charge-index conservation law which forbids the physical phenomena of the Klein paradox type and guarantees a single-particle nature of the Dirac equation in strong external fields. Simultaneously, the method defines simpler quantum-mechanical objects—paulions and antipaulions, whose 2-component wave functions determine the Dirac electron states through exact operator relations. Based on algebraic symmetry, the presented theory leads to a new understanding of the Dirac equation physics, including (...)
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  48.  3
    From Opportunism to Nascent Conservation.William T. Vickers - 1994 - Human Nature 5 (4):307-337.
    Siona-Secoya hunters of the northwest Amazon strive to maximize short-term yields to provision their households with meat. The observed patterns of hunting more closely resemble the predictions of optimal foraging theory (OFT) than they do a conservation ethic. In the past the Siona-Secoya worried little about conservation because they believed that good shamans attracted abundant game. When hunting was poor, shamans performedyagé ceremonies and appealed to supernatural gamekeepers for the release of more animals from the underworld. The sustainability (...)
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  49.  29
    Method in Ecology: Strategies for Conservation.K. S. Shrader-Frechette - 1993 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this volume, the authors discuss what practical contributions ecology can and can't make in applied science and environmental problem solving. In the first section, they discuss conceptual problems that have often prevented the formulation and evaluation of powerful, precise, general theories, explain why island biogeography is still beset with controversy and examine the ways that science is value laden. In the second section, they describe how ecology can give us specific answers to practical environmental questions posed in individual case (...)
  50. Structural Learning and Concrete Operations: An Approach to Piagetian Conservation.Joseph M. Scandura - 1980 - Praeger.
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