Results for 'consilience'

92 found
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  1.  8
    Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge.Edward O. Wilson - 1998 - Random House.
    An enormous intellectual adventure. In this groundbreaking new book, the American biologist Edward O. Wilson, considered to be one of the world's greatest living scientists, argues for the fundamental unity of all knowledge and the need to search for consilience --the proof that everything in our world is organized in terms of a small number of fundamental natural laws that comprise the principles underlying every branch of learning. Professor Wilson, the pioneer of sociobiology and biodiversity, now once again breaks (...)
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  2.  21
    Whewell's Consilience of Inductions--An Evaluation.Menachem Fisch - 1985 - Philosophy of Science 52 (2):239-255.
    The paper attempts to elucidate and evaluate William Whewell's notion of a "consilience of inductions." In section I Whewellian consilience is defined and shown to differ considerably from what latter-day writers talk about when they use the term. In section II a primary analysis of consilience is shown to yield two types of consilient processes, one in which one of the lower-level laws undergoes a conceptual change (the case aptly discussed in Butts [1977]), and one in which (...)
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  3.  12
    Accounting for Dependence: Relative Consilience as a Correction Factor in Cumulative Case Arguments.Lydia McGrew - 2017 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 95 (3):560-572.
    I propose a measure of dependence that relates a set of items of evidence to an hypothesis H and to H's negation. I dub this measure relative consilience and propose a method for using it as a correction factor for dependence among items of evidence. Using RC, I examine collusion and testimonial independence, the value of diverse evidence, and the strengthening of otherwise weak or non-existent cases. RC provides a valuable tool for formal epistemologists interested in analyzing cumulative case (...)
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  4.  19
    Likelihood and Consilience: On Forster’s Counterexamples to the Likelihood Theory of Evidence.Jiji Zhang & Kun Zhang - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):930-940.
    Forster presented some interesting examples having to do with distinguishing the direction of causal influence between two variables, which he argued are counterexamples to the likelihood theory of evidence. In this article, we refute Forster’s arguments by carefully examining one of the alleged counterexamples. We argue that the example is not convincing as it relies on dubious intuitions that likelihoodists have forcefully criticized. More important, we show that contrary to Forster’s contention, the consilience-based methodology he favored is accountable within (...)
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  5.  19
    A Computational Definition of 'Consilience'.José Hernandez-Orallo - 1998 - Philosophica 61 (1):19-37.
    This paper defines in a formal and computational way the notion of ‘consilience’, a term introduced by Whewell in 1847 for the evaluation of scientific theories. Informally, as has been used to date, a model or theory is ‘consilient’ if it is predictive, explanatory and unifies the evide-nce. Centred in a constructive framework, where new terms can be intro-duced, we essay a formalisation of the idea of unification based on the avoidance of ‘sepa-ration’. However, it is soon manifest that (...)
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  6.  13
    Creating Consilience: Integrating the Sciences and the Humanities.Edward Slingerland & Mark Collard (eds.) - 2011 - Oup Usa.
    This volume takes a new approach to bridging the cultures of science and the humanities. The editors and contributors formulate how to develop a new shared framework of consilience beyond mere interdisciplinarity, in a way that both sides can accept.
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  7. Consilience and Natural Kind Reasoning (in Newton's Argument for Universal Gravitation) in An Intimate Relation. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science.W. Harper - 1989 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 116:115-152.
  8.  37
    Portable Causal Dependence: A Tale of Consilience.Christopher Hitchcock - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (5):942-951.
    This article describes research pursued by members of the McDonnell Collaborative on Causal Learning. A number of members independently converged on a similar idea: one of the central functions served by claims of actual causation is to highlight patterns of dependence that are highly portable into novel contexts. I describe in detail how this idea emerged in my own work and also in that of the psychologist Tania Lombrozo. In addition, I use the occasion to reflect on the nature of (...)
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  9.  79
    Strong Versus Weak Sustainability: Economics, Natural Sciences, and Consilience.Robert Ayres, Jeroen van den Berrgh & John Gowdy - 2001 - Environmental Ethics 23 (2):155-168.
    The meaning of sustainability is the subject of intense debate among environmental and resource economists. Perhaps no other issue separates more clearly the traditional economic view from the views of most natural scientists. The debate currently focuses on the substitutability between the economy and the environment or between “natural capital” and “manufactured capital”—a debate captured in terms of weak versus strong sustainability. In this article, we examine the various interpretations of these concepts. We conclude that natural science and economic perspectives (...)
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  10. The Significance of Consilience: Psychoanalysis, Attachment, Neuroscience, and Evolution.Jim Hopkins - forthcoming - In L. Brakel & V. Talvete (eds.), Psychoanalysis and Philosophy of Mind: Unconscious mentality in the 21st century. Karnac.
    This paper considers clinical psychoanalysis together with developmental psychology (particularly attachment theory), evolution, and neuroscience in the context a Bayesian account of confirmation and disconfrimation. -/- In it I argue that these converging sources of support indicate that the combination of relatively low predictive power and broad explanatory scope that characterise the theories of both Freud and Darwin suggest that Freud's theory, like Darwin's, may strike deeply into natural phenomena. -/- The same argument, however, suggests that conclusive confirmation for Freudian (...)
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  11. Consilience, Cultural Evolution, and the Humanities.Jiro Tanaka - 2010 - Philosophy and Literature 34 (1):pp. 32-47.
  12.  66
    Miraculous Consilience of Quantum Mechanics.Malcolm R. Forster - 2010 - In Ellery Eells & James Fetzer (eds.), The Place of Probability in Science. Springer. pp. 201--228.
  13.  79
    William Whewell on the Consilience of Inductions.Larry Laudan - 1971 - The Monist 55 (3):368-391.
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  14.  33
    Transcendentalism or Empiricism? A Discussion of a Problem Raised in E. O. Wilson's Book Consilience.Rudolf Brun - 2005 - Zygon 40 (3):769-778.
    . E. O. Wilson writes that the “choice between transcendentalism and empiricism” is this century's “version of the struggle for men's soul” . The transcendentalist argues for theism—that there is a God, a creator of the world. The empiricist instead makes the point that the notion of God, including morality and ethics, are adaptive structures of human evolution. Before entering the debate of the transcendentalist/empiricist controversy I analyze how things exist and suggest that all that is exists as united diversity, (...)
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  15.  63
    Is Management an Art or a Science? A Clue in Consilience.Nicholas C. Peroff - 1999 - Emergence: Complexity and Organization 1 (1):92-109.
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  16.  22
    Consilience of Los and Urizen.Hugo Meynell - 2011 - The Lonergan Review 3 (1):117-139.
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  17.  63
    A Note on Consilience.L. Jonathan Cohen - 1968 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 19 (1):70-71.
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  18. Consilience, Historicity, and the Species Problem.Marc Ereshefsky - 2014 - In R. Paul Thompson & Denis Walsh (eds.), Evolutionary biology: conceptual, ethical, and religious issues. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 65-86.
     
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  19.  17
    Consilience, Confirmation, and Realism.Laura J. Snyder - 2005 - In P. Achinstein (ed.), Scientific Evidence: Philosophical Theories & Applications. The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 129--149.
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  20. Consilience, Complexity and Communication: Three Challenges at the Start of the New Century.A. Wilkins - 1999 - Bioessays 21:983-984.
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  21.  15
    Edward O. Wilson, Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. [REVIEW]Amitrajeet A. Batabyal - 2000 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 12 (2):223-225.
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  22.  26
    Race, Brain Size, and IQ: The Case for Consilience.J. Philippe Rushton - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (5):648-649.
    Data from magnetic resonance imaging, autopsy, endocranial measurements, and other techniques show that: brain size correlates 0.40 with cognitive ability; average brain size varies by race; and average cognitive ability varies by race. These results are as replicable as one will find in the social and behavioral sciences. They pose serious problems for Rose 's claim that reductionistic science is inadequate, inefficient, and/or unproductive.
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  23.  13
    Consilience.Toni Vogel Carey - 2013 - Philosophy Now 95:25-27.
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  24.  8
    Consilience and Complexity.Edward O. Wilson - 1998 - Complexity 3 (5):17-21.
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  25.  2
    Genetic Anthropology: Understanding of Human Nature in Consilience.Eul-Sang Lee - 2012 - Journal of Ethics: The Korean Association of Ethics 1 (85):103-132.
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  26.  5
    Wilson's Consilience and Literary Study.Joseph Carroll - 1999 - Philosophy and Literature 23 (2):393-413.
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  27.  1
    Consilience of Los and Urizen: Insight and Oversight in William Blake.Hugo Meynell - 2011 - The Lonergan Review 3 (1):117-139.
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  28.  8
    Moral Consilience.Miguel Capó, Marcos Nadal & Camilo J. Cela-Conde - 2006 - Biological Theory 1 (2):133-135.
  29. Reaffirming the Englightenment Vision A Review of Edward O. Wilson's Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge.R. E. Backhouse - 2000 - Journal of Economic Methodology 7 (1):153-156.
  30.  1
    A Critical Study on Consilience of Sociobiology and Ethics.Jihan Lyou - 2012 - Journal of Ethics: The Korean Association of Ethics 1 (85):77-102.
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  31. An Argument That Confirmation Functors for Consilience Are Empirical Hypotheses.L. Jonathan Cohen - 1968 - In Imre Lakatos (ed.), The Problem of Inductive Logic. Amsterdam: North Holland Pub. Co.. pp. 247--250.
     
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  32. A Simple Model of Consilience'.J. L. Mackie - 1968 - In Imre Lakatos (ed.), The Problem of Inductive Logic. Amsterdam: North Holland Pub. Co..
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  33. Edward O. Wilson Versus the Postmodernists Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge, Edward O. Wilson , 348 Pp., $25.50 Cloth, $14.00 Paper. [REVIEW]Mary Maxwell - 1999 - Ethics and International Affairs 13:243-245.
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  34. Creating Consilience: Issues and Case Studies in Teh Integration of the Sciences and Humanities.Edward Slingerland & Mark Collard (eds.) - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
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  35. How (Not) to Bring Psychology and Biology Together.Mark Fedyk - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (4):949-967.
    Evolutionary psychologists often try to “bring together” biology and psychology by making predictions about what specific psychological mechanisms exist from theories about what patterns of behaviour would have been adaptive in the EEA for humans. This paper shows that one of the deepest methodological generalities in evolutionary biology—that proximate explanations and ultimate explanations stand in a many-to-many relation—entails that this inferential strategy is unsound. Ultimate explanations almost never entail the truth of any particular proximate hypothesis. But of course it does (...)
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  36.  27
    Jumping Together: A Way From Sociobiology to Bio‐Socio‐Humanities.Kang Shin Ik - 2016 - Zygon 51 (1):176-190.
    Sociobiology is a grand narrative of evolutionary biology on which to build unified knowledge. Consilience is a metaphorical representation of that narrative. I take up the same metaphor but apply it differently. I evoke the image of jumping together, not on solid ground but on the strong, flexible canvas sheet of a trampoline, on which natural sciences, social sciences, and the humanities jump together. This image overlaps with the traditional East Asian way of understanding—that is, the “Heaven-Earth-Person Triad.” Using (...)
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  37.  24
    Heuristics and Biases in Evolutionary Biology.David Magnus - 1997 - Biology and Philosophy 12 (1):21-38.
    Approaching science by considering the epistemological virtues which scientists see as constitutive of good science, and the way these virtues trade-off against one another, makes it possible to capture action that may be lost by approaches which focus on either the theoretical or institutional level. Following Wimsatt (1984) I use the notion of heuristics and biases to help explore a case study from the history of biology. Early in the 20th century, mutation theorists and natural historians fought over the role (...)
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  38. Who Knows What - The War Between Science and the Humanities.Massimo Pigliucci - 2012 - Aeon.
    Whenever we try to make an inventory of humankind’s store of knowledge, we stumble into an ongoing battle between what CP Snow called ‘the two cultures’. On one side are the humanities, on the other are the sciences (natural and physical), with social science and philosophy caught somewhere in the middle. This is more than a turf dispute among academics. It strikes at the core of what we mean by human knowledge.
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  39.  29
    Religion Generalized and Naturalized.Loyal Rue - 2000 - Zygon 35 (3):587-602.
  40.  12
    Exceeding Our Grasp: Curricular Change and the Challenge to the Assumptive World.Samuel M. Natale & Sebastian A. Sora - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (1):79-85.
    The recent global economic collapse brings new calls for reform and change as well as a re-examination of the ethical foundations underpining it. Most professors as well as students remain profoundly unhappy with the Business Curricula. The curricula appear to swing between technological training and academic theory. There is little genuine focus on the central issue of the problem: the students’ and faculty’s assumptive world which drives the selection of the materials chosen for presentation as well as the decision-making process. (...)
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  41.  1
    Contamination Appraisals, Pollution Beliefs, and the Role of Cultural Inheritance in Shaping Disease Avoidance Behavior.Yitzhaq Feder - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (6):1561-1585.
    Despite the upsurge of research on disgust, the implications of this research for the investigation of cultural pollution beliefs has yet to be adequately explored. In particular, the sensitivity of both disgust and pollution to a common set of elicitors suggests a common psychological basis, though several obstacles have prevented an integrative account, including methodological differences between the relevant disciplines. Employing a conciliatory framework that embraces both naturalistic and humanistic levels of explanation, this article examines the dynamic reciprocal process by (...)
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  42. When is Consensus Knowledge Based? Distinguishing Shared Knowledge From Mere Agreement.Boaz Miller - 2013 - Synthese 190 (7):1293-1316.
    Scientific consensus is widely deferred to in public debates as a social indicator of the existence of knowledge. However, it is far from clear that such deference to consensus is always justified. The existence of agreement in a community of researchers is a contingent fact, and researchers may reach a consensus for all kinds of reasons, such as fighting a common foe or sharing a common bias. Scientific consensus, by itself, does not necessarily indicate the existence of shared knowledge among (...)
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  43.  64
    Confirmation, Heuristics, and Explanatory Reasoning.Timothy McGrew - 2003 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (4):553-567.
    Recent work on inference to the best explanation has come to an impasse regarding the proper way to coordinate the theoretical virtues in explanatory inference with probabilistic confirmation theory, and in particular with aspects of Bayes's Theorem. I argue that the theoretical virtues are best conceived heuristically and that such a conception gives us the resources to explicate the virtues in terms of ceteris paribus theorems. Contrary to some Bayesians, this is not equivalent to identifying the virtues with likelihoods or (...)
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  44. Novel Predictions and the No Miracle Argument.Mario Alai - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (2):297-326.
    Predictivists use the no miracle argument to argue that “novel” predictions are decisive evidence for theories, while mere accommodation of “old” data cannot confirm to a significant degree. But deductivists claim that since confirmation is a logical theory-data relationship, predicted data cannot confirm more than merely deduced data, and cite historical cases in which known data confirmed theories quite strongly. On the other hand, the advantage of prediction over accommodation is needed by scientific realists to resist Laudan’s criticisms of the (...)
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  45. Representation Theorems and Realism About Degrees of Belief.Lyle Zynda - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (1):45-69.
    The representation theorems of expected utility theory show that having certain types of preferences is both necessary and sufficient for being representable as having subjective probabilities. However, unless the expected utility framework is simply assumed, such preferences are also consistent with being representable as having degrees of belief that do not obey the laws of probability. This fact shows that being representable as having subjective probabilities is not necessarily the same as having subjective probabilities. Probabilism can be defended on the (...)
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  46. Psychoanalysis Representation and Neuroscience: The Freudian Unconscious and the Bayesian Brain.Jim Hopkins - 2012 - In A. Fotopoulu, D. Pfaff & M. Conway (eds.), From the Couch to the Lab: Psychoanalysis, Neuroscience and Cognitive Psychology in Dialoge. Oxford University Press.
    This paper argues that recent work in the 'free energy' program in neuroscience enables us better to understand both consciousness and the Freudian unconscious, including the role of the superego and the id. This work also accords with research in developmental psychology (particularly attachment theory) and with evolutionary considerations bearing on emotional conflict. This argument is carried forward in various ways in the work that follows, including 'Understanding and Healing', 'The Significance of Consilience', 'Psychoanalysis, Philosophical Issues', and 'Kantian Neuroscience (...)
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  47.  14
    Reasons to Be Fussy About Cultural Evolution.Olivier Morin - 2016 - Biology and Philosophy 31 (3):447-458.
    This discussion paper responds to two recent articles in Biology and Philosophy that raise similar objections to cultural attraction theory, a research trend in cultural evolution putting special emphasis on the fact that human minds create and transform their culture. Both papers are sympathetic to this idea, yet both also regret a lack of consilience with Boyd, Richerson and Henrich’s models of cultural evolution. I explain why cultural attraction theorists propose a different view on three points of concern for (...)
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  48. Biological Species: Natural Kinds, Individuals, or What?Michael Ruse - 1987 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38 (2):225-242.
    What are biological species? Aristotelians and Lockeans agree that they are natural kinds; but, evolutionary theory shows that neither traditional philosophical approach is truly adequate. Recently, Michael Ghiselin and David Hull have argued that species are individuals. This claim is shown to be against the spirit of much modern biology. It is concluded that species are natural kinds of a sort, and that any 'objectivity' they possess comes from their being at the focus of a consilience of inductions.
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  49. The Natural Kind Status of Emotion.Louis C. Charland - 2002 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 53 (4):511-37.
    It has been argued recently that some basic emotions should be considered natural kinds. This is different from the question whether as a class emotions form a natural kind; that is, whether emotion is a natural kind. The consensus on that issue appears to be negative. I argue that this pessimism is unwarranted and that there are in fact good reasons for entertaining the hypothesis that emotion is a natural kind. I interpret this to mean that there exists a distinct (...)
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  50. Models and Perspectives on Stage: Remarks on Giere's Scientific Perspectivism.Matthew J. Brown - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (2):213-220.
    Ron Giere's recent book Scientific Perspectivism sets out an account of science that attempts to forge a via media between two popular extremes: absolutist, objectivist realism on the one hand, and social constructivism or skeptical anti-realism on the other. The key for Giere is to treat both scientific observation and scientific theories as perspectives, which are limited, partial, contingent, context-, agent- and purpose-dependent, and pluralism-friendly, while nonetheless world-oriented and modestly realist. Giere's perspectivism bears significant similarly to early writings by Paul (...)
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