Results for 'context-shifting'

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  1. Context Shifting Arguments.Ernie Lepore & Herman Cappelen - 2003 - Philosophical Perspectives 17 (1):25–50.
    Context Shifting Arguments (CSA) ask us to consider two utterances of an unambiguous, non-vague, non-elliptic sentence S. If the consensus intuition is that what’s said, or expressed or the truth-conditions, and so possibly the truthvalues, of these utterances differ, then CSA concludes S is context sensitive. Consider, for example, simultaneous utterances of ‘I am wearing a hat’, one by Stephen, one by Jason. Intuitively, these utterances can vary in truth-value contingent upon who is speaking the sentence, while (...)
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  2. Indexicality and Context-Shift.François Recanati - unknown
    I distinguish, and discuss the relations between, five types of context-shift involving indexicals. For 'intentional' indexicals - indexicals whose value depends upon the speaker's intention - we can shift the context more or less 'at will', by manifesting one's intention to do so. For other indexicals we can shift the context through pretense. Following a number of authors, I distinguish two types of context-shifting pretense, corresponding to two sets of linguistic phenomena. The fourth type of (...)
     
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  3.  67
    Moving Parts: A New Indexical Treatment of Context-Shifting Predication.Daniel Giberman - 2016 - Synthese 193 (1):95-124.
    A context-shifting example involves a putatively non-ambiguous, non-elliptical, non-indexical declarative sentence, some distinct utterances of which differ in truth value despite sameness of place, time, surrounding objects, and other physical factors. Charles Travis has spawned a large literature by arguing that such examples undermine compositional truth-conditional semantics. After explaining how prior responses to Travis’s examples fail in the metaphysical details, the present essay develops a new approach that treats a wide range of subject terms as disguised indexicals sensitive (...)
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  4. On an Alleged Truth/Falsity Asymmetry in Context Shifting Experiments.Nat Hansen - 2012 - Philosophical Quarterly 62 (248):530-545.
    Keith DeRose has argued that context shifting experiments should be designed in a specific way in order to accommodate what he calls a ‘truth/falsity asymmetry’. I explain and critique DeRose's reasons for proposing this modification to contextualist methodology, drawing on recent experimental studies of DeRose's bank cases as well as experimental findings about the verification of affirmative and negative statements. While DeRose's arguments for his particular modification to contextualist methodology fail, the lesson of his proposal is that there (...)
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  5.  23
    Separating Perceptual and Linguistic Effects of Context Shifts Upon Absolute Judgments.David L. Krantz & Donald T. Campbell - 1961 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (1):35.
  6.  14
    Verbal Context Shifts and Free Recall.Alan S. Brown & Benton J. Underwood - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (1):133.
  7.  6
    Inferentialism, Context-Shifting and Background Assumptions.Bartosz Kaluziński - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-20.
    In this paper I present how the normative inferentialist can make the distinction between sentence meaning and content of the utterance. The inferentialist can understand sentence meaning as a role conferred to that sentence by the rules governing inferential transitions and content of the utterance as just a part of sentence meaning. I attempt to show how such a framework can account for prominent scenarios presented by contextualists as a challenge to semantic minimalism/literalism. I argue that inferentialism can address contextualist (...)
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  8.  11
    Ineliminable Underdetermination and Context-Shifting Arguments.Mark Bowker - forthcoming - Tandf: Inquiry:1-22.
    The truth-conditions of utterances are often underdetermined by the meaning of the sentence uttered, as suggested by the observation that the same sentence has different intuitive truth-values in different contexts. The intuitive difference is usually explained by assigning different truth-conditions to different utterances. This paper poses a problem for explanations of this kind: These truth-conditions, if they exist, are epistemically inaccessible. I suggest instead that truth-conditional underdetermination is ineliminable and these utterances have no truth-conditions. Intuitive truth-values are explained by the (...)
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  9.  9
    Preconditions, Common Sense Reasoning, and Context Shifts.Tomoyuki Yamada - unknown
    SOCREAL 2013 : 3rd International Workshop on Philosophy and Ethics of Social Reality 2013. Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, 25-27 October 2013. Session 4 : Agency, Responsibility, and Intentionality.
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  10.  5
    Shifting Ground: Context and Change in Two Australian Legal Systems.Richard Mohr - 2002 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 15 (1):1-24.
    Indigenous land claims in Australia havebrought Indigenous law into contact with theAustralian common law, changing some of theterms of each of these systems of law. Bytracing these contacts back to one of the firstengagements, when the Yolngu people of northernAustralia framed a petition to parliament inpictorial descriptions of their law, I explorethe means by which changes have occurred. Thisis characterised as a process of mutualframings and re-framings.The delicate and contentious issue ofmeaning change in Yolngu law and in Australiancommon law's dealings (...)
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  11.  65
    Context-Free Semantics.Paolo Santorio - 2019 - In Ernie LePore & David Sosa (eds.), Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Language, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. pp. 208-239.
    On a traditional view, the semantics of natural language makes essential use of a context parameter, i.e. a set of coordinates that represents the situation of speech. In classical semantic frameworks, this parameter plays two key roles: first, context contributes to determining the content of utterance; second, it is crucial for defining logical consequence. I point out that recent empirical proposals about context shift in natural language (in particular, context-shifting semantics in the style of Anand (...)
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  12. Language Shifts in Free Indirect Discourse.Emar Maier - 2014 - Journal of Literary Semantics 43 (2):143--167.
    In this paper I present a linguistic investigation of the literary style known as free indirect discourse within the framework of formal semantics. I will argue that a semantics for free indirect discourse involves more than a mechanism for the independent context shifting of pronouns and other deictic elements. My argumentation is fueled by literary examples of free indirect discourse involving what I call language shifts: -/- Most of the great flame-throwers were there and naturally, handling Big John (...)
     
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  13. What Shifts? : Thresholds, Standards, or Alternatives?Jonathan Schaffer - 2005 - In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds.), Contextualism in Philosophy: Knowledge, Meaning, and Truth. Oxford University Press.
    Much of the extant discussion focuses on the question of whether contextualism resolves skeptical paradoxes. Understandably. Yet there has been less discussion as to the internal structure of contextualist theories. Regrettably. Here, for instance, are two questions that could stand further discussion: (i) what is the linguistic basis for contextualism and (ii) what is the parameter that shifts with context?
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  14. Context-Dependent Shifts in Odor Quality.Ht Lawless - 1988 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 26 (6):504-504.
     
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  15. Shifting to Structures in Physics and Biology: A Prophylactic for Promiscuous Realism.Steven French - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 42 (2):164-173.
    Within the philosophy of science, the realism debate has been revitalised by the development of forms of structural realism. These urge a shift in focus from the object oriented ontologies that come and go through the history of science to the structures that remain through theory change. Such views have typically been elaborated in the context of theories of physics and are motivated by, first of all, the presence within such theories of mathematical equations that allow straightforward representation of (...)
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  16.  52
    Mothers, Babies, and Breastfeeding in Late Capitalist America: The Shifting Contexts of Feminist...Linda M. Blum - 1993 - Feminist Studies 19 (2):290-311.
  17.  70
    Who Needs Empathy? A Response to Goldie's Arguments Against Empathy and Suggestions for an Account of Mutual Perspective-Shifting in Contexts of Help and Care.Mark Coeckelbergh - 2007 - Ethics and Education 2 (1):61-72.
    According to an influential view, empathy has, and should have, a role in ethics, but it is by no means clear what is meant by 'empathy', and why exactly it is supposed to be morally good. Recently, Peter Goldie has challenged that view. He shows how problematic empathy is, and argues that taking an external perspective is morally superior: we should focus on the other, rather than ourselves. But this argument is misguided in several ways. If we consider conversation, there (...)
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  18. The Semantics of Contextual Shifting and Sensitivity.Brian Rabern - 2012 - Dissertation, The Australian National University
    This thesis argues for two main points concerning the philosophy of natural language semantics. Firstly, that the objects of assertion are distinct from the entities appealed to in the compositional rules of natural language semantics. Secondly, natural languages contain context-shifting operators known as "monsters". In fact, it will be shown that these theses are simply two sides of the same coin.
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  19.  10
    Shifting From Research Governance to Research Ethics: A Novel Paradigm for Ethical Review in Community-Based Research.Jay Marlowe & Martin Tolich - 2015 - Research Ethics 11 (4):178-191.
    This study examines a significant gap in the role of providing ethical guidance and support for community-based research. University and health-based ethical review committees in New Zealand predominantly serve as ‘gatekeepers’ that consider the ethical implications of a research design in order to protect participants and the institution from harm. However, in New Zealand, community-based researchers routinely do not have access to this level of support or review. A relatively new group, the New Zealand Ethics Committee, formed in 2012, responds (...)
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  20.  8
    Metonymic Sense Shift: Its Origins in Hearers' Abductive Construal of Usage in Context.Kurt Queller - 2003 - In H. Cuyckens, René Dirven & John R. Taylor (eds.), Cognitive Approaches to Lexical Semantics. Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 23--211.
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  21.  8
    Shifts in the Treatment of Knowledge in Academic Reading and Writing: Adding Complexity to Students’ Transitions Between A-Levels and University in the UK.Sally Baker - 2018 - Arts and Humanities in Higher Education 17 (4):388-409.
    Although “transition” is an established area of educational research, there has been little empirically exploration of how shifts in the ways that knowledge is packaged and valued impact on students’ reading and writing as they transition into higher education. This article draws on a longitudinal ethnographic study that traced the experiences, practices and understandings of 11 students from their last year of A-levels through to their second year of undergraduate study. Analysis shows that the forms of knowledge privileged and the (...)
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  22. Color, Context, and Compositionality.Christopher Kennedy & Louise Mcnally - 2010 - Synthese 174 (1):79-98.
    Color adjectives have played a central role in work on language typology and variation, but there has been relatively little investigation of their meanings by researchers in formal semantics. This is surprising given the fact that color terms have been at the center of debates in the philosophy of language over foundational questions, in particular whether the idea of a compositional, truth-conditional theory of natural language semantics is even coherent. The challenge presented by color terms is articulated in detail in (...)
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  23.  6
    Shifting Understandings of Labour Pain in Canadian Medical History.Whitney Wood - 2018 - Medical Humanities 44 (2):82-88.
    While pain in childbirth is a universal, cross-cultural, biological reality, individual experiences and perceptions of this pain are historically and culturally specific. At the turn of the 20th century—a key period in terms of both the medicalisation of birth and the professionalisation of obstetrics in the Canadian context—Canadian physicians understood and conceptualised ‘birth pangs’ in a number of varying ways. Throughout the 19th century, doctors emphasised the broader utility of pain as a diagnostic tool and a physiologically necessary part (...)
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  24.  6
    Metonymic Sense Shift: Its Origins in Hearers' Abductive Construal of Usage in Context.John R. Taylor, René Dirven & Hubert Cuyckens - 2003 - In John R. Taylor, René Dirven & Hubert Cuyckens (eds.), Cognitive Approaches to Lexical Semantics. Mouton de Gruyter.
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  25. Context, Interest Relativity and the Sorites.Jason Stanley - 2003 - Analysis 63 (4):269–281.
    According to what I will call a contextualist solution to the sorites paradox, vague terms are context-sensitive, and one can give a convincing dissolution of the sorites paradox in terms of this context-dependency. The reason, according to the contextualist, that precise boundaries for expressions like “heap” or “tall for a basketball player” are so difficult to detect is that when two entities are sufficiently similar (or saliently similar), we tend to shift the interpretation of the vague expression so (...)
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  26.  50
    The Shift to Mechanistic Explanation and Classification.Kelso Cratsley - 2017 - In S. Tekin & J. Poland (eds.), Extraordinary Science and Psychiatry: Responses to the Crisis in Mental Health Research. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press. pp. 163-196.
    Despite widespread recognition that psychiatry would be better served by a classificatory system based on etiology rather than mere description, it goes without saying that much of the necessary work is yet to be done. In this chapter I take up the increasingly important question of how mechanistic explanation fits into the larger effort to build a scientifically sound etiological and nosological framework. I sketch a rough picture of what mechanistic explanation should look like in the context of psychiatric (...)
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  27. Indexicals, Contexts and Unarticulated Constituents.John Perry - 1998 - In Atocha Aliseda-Llera, Rob J. Van Glabbeek & Dag Westerståhl (eds.), Proceedings of the 1995 CSLI-Armsterdam Logic, Language and Computation Conference. CSLI Publications.
    Philosophers and logicians use the term “indexical” for words such as “I”, “you” and “tomorrow”. Demonstratives such as “this” and “that” and demonstratives phrases such as “this man” and “that computer” are usually reckoned as a subcategory of indexicals. (Following [Kaplan, 1989a].) The “context-dependence” of indexicals is often taken as a defining feature: what an indexical designates shifts from context to context. But there are many kinds of shiftiness, with corresponding conceptions of context. Until we clarify (...)
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  28.  52
    Evolving Friendships and Shifting Ethical Dilemmas: Fieldworkers’ Experiences in a Short Term Community Based Study in K Enya.Dorcas M. Kamuya, Sally J. Theobald, Patrick K. Munywoki, Dorothy Koech, Wenzel P. Geissler & Sassy C. Molyneux - 2013 - Developing World Bioethics 13 (1):1-9.
    Fieldworkers (FWs) are community members employed by research teams to support access to participants, address language barriers, and advise on culturally appropriate research conduct. The critical role that FWs play in studies, and the range of practical and ethical dilemmas associated with their involvement, is increasingly recognised. In this paper, we draw on qualitative observation and interview data collected alongside a six month basic science study which involved a team of FWs regularly visiting 47 participating households in their homes. The (...)
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  29.  10
    Ethics of Task Shifting in the Health Workforce: Exploring the Role of Community Health Workers in HIV Service Delivery in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.Hayley Mundeva, Jeremy Snyder, David Paul Ngilangwa & Angela Kaida - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):71.
    Task shifting is increasingly used to address human resource shortages impacting HIV service delivery in low- and middle-income countries. By shifting basic tasks from higher- to lower-trained cadres, such as Community Health Workers, task shifting can reduce overhead costs, improve community outreach, and provide efficient scale-up of essential treatments like antiretroviral therapies. Although there is rich evidence outlining positive outcomes that CHWs bring into HIV programs, important questions remain over their place in service delivery. These challenges often (...)
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  30.  17
    Shifting Configurations of Shopping Practices and Food Safety Dynamics in Hanoi, Vietnam: A Historical Analysis.Sigrid C. O. Wertheim-Heck & Gert Spaargaren - 2016 - Agriculture and Human Values 33 (3):655-671.
    This paper offers a historical analysis of contemporary practices of shopping for vegetables in the highly dynamic context of urban Hanoi during the period from 1975 to 2014. Focusing on everyday shopping practices from a food safety perspective, we assess the extent to which the policy-enforced process of supermarketization has proven to be an engine of change in daily vegetable purchasing while improving food safety. In depicting transitions in shopping practices, we combine a social practices approach with historical analysis. (...)
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  31.  4
    Context-Dependent “Upper Anchors” for Learning Progressions.Tiffany-Rose Sikorski - 2019 - Science & Education 28 (8):957-981.
    In the spirit of model revision, researchers continue to refine the notion of a learning progression. Despite many advances in learning progressions research, one key design element has eluded scholarly critique, the upper anchor. Drawing on science education research and studies of science, this essay argues for a shift from the predominant model of the upper anchor as the fixed, “most sophisticated” way of thinking toward a more expansive “upper reach” that acknowledges plurality and context-dependence in ways of knowing. (...)
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  32.  43
    Context Sensitivity: Indexicalism, Contextualism, Relativism.Dan Zeman - 2007 - In D. C. Richardson B. Kokinov (ed.), Modeling and Using Context. Springer. pp. 545--557.
    The paper is primarily concerned with laying out the space of positions that purport to account for semantic context sensitivity of natural language expressions and with making a prima facie case for relativism. I start with distinguishing between pre-semantic, semantic and post-semantic context sensitivity. In the following section I briefly present the classic picture of indexicals due to David Kaplan and assess some arguments for the introduction of certain parameters in the circumstances of evaluation (specifically, time). In section (...)
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  33.  80
    Are Explanatory Trials Ethical? Shifting the Burden of Justification in Clinical Trial Design.Kirstin Borgerson - 2013 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (4):293-308.
    Most phase III clinical trials today are explanatory. Because explanatory, or efficacy, trials test hypotheses under “ideal” conditions, they are not well suited to providing guidance on decisions made in most clinical care contexts. Pragmatic trials, which test hypotheses under “usual” conditions, are often better suited to this task. Yet, pragmatic, or effectiveness, trials are infrequently carried out. This mismatch between the design of clinical trials and the needs of health care professionals is frustrating for everyone involved, and explains some (...)
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  34. Belief in Context: Towards a Unified Semantics of De Re and De Se Attitude Reports.Emar Maier - 2006 - Dissertation, Radboud University Nijmegen
    This thesis deals with the phenomenon of attitude reporting. More specifically, it provides a unified semantics of de re and de se belief reports. After arguing that de se belief is best thought of as a special case of de re belief, I examine whether we can extend this unification to the realm of belief reports. I show how, despite very promising first steps, previous attempts in this direction ultimately fail with respect to some relatively recent linguistic data involving quantified (...)
     
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  35. Health Care Standards and the Politics of Singularities: Shifting In and Out of Context[REVIEW]Tiago Moreira - 2012 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 37 (4):307-331.
    Context is a pivotal concept for social scientists in their attempt to weave singularities or universals to moral codes and political orders. However, in this, social scientists might be neglecting the ways in which individuals or groups who are excluded from the collective production of knowledge want to politicize their concerns also by claiming their uniqueness and singularity. In this article, drawing on the public controversy about access to dementia drugs on the U.K. National Health Service and on the (...)
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  36.  54
    Content and Context in Incremental Processing: “The Ham Sandwich” Revisited.Petra B. Schumacher - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 168 (1):151-165.
    The interplay of content and context is observable in a moment to moment manner as propositional content unfolds. The current contribution illustrates this through data from real-time language comprehension indicating that propositional content is not computed in isolation but relies in important ways on context during every step of the computation of meaning. The relevant notion of context that we have to adopt includes all aspects of possible worlds and draws on a variety of knowledge representations, which (...)
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  37.  10
    Shifting Tacitisms. Style and Composition in Grotius's Annales.Jan Waszink - 2008 - Grotiana 29 (1):85-132.
    The purpose of this article is to assess the nature and proper context of Grotius's imitation of Tacitus. It starts by establishing how the Tacitean style is characterised in the literary criticism around 1600. It then explores the qualities of Grotius's imitation from both the seventeenth-century and the modern perspective. It concludes that Grotius's imitation shows Tacitus's style in a characteristically seventeenth-century mirror, in that it emphasises Tacitean syntax, brevity and choice of words , as well as political edge (...)
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  38.  89
    On Context Shifters and Compositionality in Natural Languages.Adrian Briciu - 2018 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 25 (1):2-20.
    My modest aim in this paper is to prove certain relations between some type of hyper-intensional operators, namely context shifting operators, and compositionality in natural languages. Various authors (e.g. von Fintel & Matthewson 2008; Stalnaker 2014) have argued that context-shifting operators are incompatible with compositionality. In fact, some of them understand Kaplan’s (1989) famous ban on context-shifting operators as a constraint on compositionality. Others, (e.g. Rabern 2013) take contextshifting operators to be compatible with compositionality (...)
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  39. Monsters and the Theoretical Role of Context.Brian Rabern & Derek Ball - 2019 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 98 (2):392-416.
    Kaplan (1989) famously claimed that monsters--operators that shift the context--do not exist in English and "could not be added to it". Several recent theorists have pointed out a range of data that seem to refute Kaplan's claim, but others (most explicitly Stalnaker 2014) have offered a principled argument that monsters are impossible. This paper interprets and resolves the dispute. Contra appearances, this is no dry, technical matter: it cuts to the heart of a deep disagreement about the fundamental structure (...)
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  40.  38
    Sweet Little Lies: Social Context and the Use of Deception in Negotiation.Mara Olekalns, Carol T. Kulik & Lin Chew - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 120 (1):13-26.
    Social context shapes negotiators’ actions, including their willingness to act unethically. We use a simulated negotiation to test how three dimensions of social context—dyadic gender composition, negotiation strategy, and trust—interact to influence one micro-ethical decision, the use of deception. Deception in all-male dyads was relatively unaffected by trust or the other negotiator’s strategy. In mixed-sex dyads, negotiators consistently increased their use of deception when three forms of trust were low and opponents used an accommodating strategy. However, in all-female (...)
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  41.  33
    Adapt or Perish? Assessing the Recent Shift in the European Research Funding Arena From ‘ELSA’ to ‘RRI’.Laurens Landeweerd & Hub Zwart - 2014 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 10 (1):1-19.
    Two decades ago, in 1994, in the context of the 4th EU Framework Programme, ELSA was introduced as a label for developing and funding research into the ethical, legal and social aspects of emerging sciences and technologies. Currently, particularly in the context of EU funding initiatives such as Horizon2020, a new label has been forged, namely Responsible Research and Innovation. What is implied in this metonymy, this semantic shift? What is so new about RRI in comparison to ELSA? (...)
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  42.  31
    Shifting Helen: An Interpretation of Sappho, Fragment 16 (Voigt).Ilja Leonard Pfeijffer - 2000 - Classical Quarterly 50 (01):1-.
    Denys Page, discussing this poem in his classic Sappho and Alcaeus, seemed unimpressed by its aesthetic merits. In his note on line 7 he says: ‘The sequence of thought might have been clearer.... It seems then inelegant to begin this parable, the point of which is that Helen found O Krλλιστον in her lover, by stating that she herself surpassed all mortals in this very quality’ . His interpretative essay phrases further objections. ‘In a phrase which rings dull in our (...)
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  43.  15
    Context and scale: Distinctions for improving debates about physician “rationing”.Jon C. Tilburt & Daniel P. Sulmasy - 2017 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 2017 12:1 12 (1):5.
    Important discussions about limiting care based on professional judgment often devolve into heated debates over the place of physicians in bedside rationing. Politics, loaded rhetoric, and ideological caricature from both sides of the rationing debate obscure precise points of disagreement and consensus, and hinder critical dialogue around the obligations and boundaries of professional practice. We propose a way forward by reframing the rationing conversation, distinguishing between the scale of the decision and its context avoiding the word “rationing.” We propose (...)
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  44.  69
    Conditioning and Interpretation Shifts.Jan-Willem Romeijn - 2012 - Studia Logica 100 (3):583-606.
    This paper develops a probabilistic model of belief change under interpretation shifts, in the context of a problem case from dynamic epistemic logic. Van Benthem [4] has shown that a particular kind of belief change, typical for dynamic epistemic logic, cannot be modelled by standard Bayesian conditioning. I argue that the problems described by van Benthem come about because the belief change alters the semantics in which the change is supposed to be modelled: the new information induces a shift (...)
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  45.  13
    Context and Scale: Distinctions for Improving Debates About Physician “Rationing”.Jon C. Tilburt & Daniel P. Sulmasy - 2017 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 12:5.
    Important discussions about limiting care based on professional judgment often devolve into heated debates over the place of physicians in bedside rationing. Politics, loaded rhetoric, and ideological caricature from both sides of the rationing debate obscure precise points of disagreement and consensus, and hinder critical dialogue around the obligations and boundaries of professional practice. We propose a way forward by reframing the rationing conversation, distinguishing between the scale of the decision and its context avoiding the word “rationing.” We propose (...)
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  46.  34
    Test Context Affects Recollection and Familiarity Ratings: Implications for Measuring Recognition Experiences.Cody Tousignant & Glen E. Bodner - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):994-1000.
    The binary remember/know task requires participants to dichotomize their subjective recognition experiences into those with recollection and those only with familiarity. Many variables have produced dissociative effects on remember/know judgments. In contrast, having participants make independent recollection/familiarity ratings has consistently produced parallel effects, suggesting the dissociations may be artifacts of using binary judgments. Bodner and Lindsay reported a test-list context effect with binary judgments: Increased remembering but decreased knowing for a set of critical items tested with a set of (...)
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  47. Expression, Truth, Predication, and Context: Two Perspectives.James Higginbotham - 2008 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 16 (4):473 – 494.
    In this article I contrast in two ways those conceptions of semantic theory deriving from Richard Montague's Intensional Logic (IL) and later developments with conceptions that stick pretty closely to a far weaker semantic apparatus for human first languages. IL is a higher-order language incorporating the simple theory of types. As such, it endows predicates with a reference. Its intensional features yield a conception of propositional identity (namely necessary equivalence) that has seemed to many to be too coarse to be (...)
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  48.  14
    Tandem Androgenic and Psychological Shifts in Male Reproductive Effort Following a Manipulated “Win” or “Loss” in a Sporting Competition.Daniel P. Longman, Michele K. Surbey, Jay T. Stock & Jonathan C. K. Wells - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (3):283-310.
    Male-male competition is involved in inter- and intrasexual selection, with both endocrine and psychological factors presumably contributing to reproductive success in human males. We examined relationships among men’s naturally occurring testosterone, their self-perceived mate value, self-esteem, sociosexuality, and expected likelihood of approaching attractive women versus situations leading to child involvement. We then monitored changes in these measures in male rowers from Cambridge, UK, following a manipulated “win” or “loss” as a result of an indoor rowing contest. Baseline results revealed that (...)
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  49.  55
    Reflection Principles and the Liar in Context.Julien Murzi & Lorenzo Rossi - 2018 - Philosophers' Imprint 18.
    Contextualist approaches to the Liar Paradox postulate the occurrence of a context shift in the course of the Liar reasoning. In particular, according to the contextualist proposal advanced by Charles Parsons and Michael Glanzberg, the Liar sentence L doesn’t express a true proposition in the initial context of reasoning c, but expresses a true one in a new, richer context c', where more propositions are available for expression. On the further assumption that Liar sentences involve propositional quantifiers (...)
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  50.  54
    Individual Responsibility Within Organizational Contexts.Robert F. Card - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 62 (4):397-405.
    Actions within organizational contexts should be understood differently as compared with actions performed outside of such contexts. This is the case due to the agentic shift, as discussed by social psychologist Stanley Milgram, and the role that systemic factors play in shaping the available alternatives from which individuals acting within institutions choose. The analysis stemming from Milgram’s experiments suggests not simply that individuals temporarily abdicate their moral agency on occasion, but that there is an erosion of agency within organizations. The (...)
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