Results for 'contingency'

1000+ found
Order:
  1.  93
    Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity.Richard Rorty - 1989 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this 1989 book Rorty argues that thinkers such as Nietzsche, Freud, and Wittgenstein have enabled societies to see themselves as historical contingencies, rather than as expressions of underlying, ahistorical human nature or as realizations of suprahistorical goals. This ironic perspective on the human condition is valuable on a private level, although it cannot advance the social or political goals of liberalism. In fact Rorty believes that it is literature not philosophy that can do this, by promoting a genuine sense (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   436 citations  
  2. Future Contingents and the Logic of Temporal Omniscience.Patrick Todd & Brian Rabern - 2021 - Noûs 55 (1):102-127.
    At least since Aristotle’s famous 'sea-battle' passages in On Interpretation 9, some substantial minority of philosophers has been attracted to the doctrine of the open future--the doctrine that future contingent statements are not true. But, prima facie, such views seem inconsistent with the following intuition: if something has happened, then (looking back) it was the case that it would happen. How can it be that, looking forwards, it isn’t true that there will be a sea battle, while also being true (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  3. Future Contingents Are All False! On Behalf of a Russellian Open Future.Patrick Todd - 2016 - Mind 125 (499):775-798.
    There is a familiar debate between Russell and Strawson concerning bivalence and ‘the present King of France’. According to the Strawsonian view, ‘The present King of France is bald’ is neither true nor false, whereas, on the Russellian view, that proposition is simply false. In this paper, I develop what I take to be a crucial connection between this debate and a different domain where bivalence has been at stake: future contingents. On the familiar ‘Aristotelian’ view, future contingent propositions are (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   23 citations  
  4. Contingent Existence and the Reduction of Modality to Essence.Trevor Teitel - 2019 - Mind 128 (509):39-68.
    This paper first argues that we can bring out a tension between the following three popular doctrines: (i) the canonical reduction of metaphysical modality to essence, due to Fine, (ii) contingentism, which says that possibly something could have failed to be something, and (iii) the doctrine that metaphysical modality obeys the modal logic S5. After presenting two such arguments (one from the theorems of S4 and another from the theorems of B), I turn to exploring various conclusions we might draw (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   20 citations  
  5. Contingent Identity.Allan Gibbard - 1975 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 4 (2):187-222.
    Identities formed with proper names may be contingent. this claim is made first through an example. the paper then develops a theory of the semantics of concrete things, with contingent identity as a consequence. this general theory lets concrete things be made up canonically from fundamental physical entities. it includes theories of proper names, variables, cross-world identity with respect to a sortal, and modal and dispositional properties. the theory, it is argued, is coherent and superior to its rivals, in that (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   253 citations  
  6. The Contingency of Composition.Ross P. Cameron - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 136 (1):99-121.
    There is widespread disagreement as to what the facts are concerning just when a collection of objects composes some further object; but there is widespread agreement that, whatever those facts are, they are necessary. I am unhappy to simply assume this, and in this paper I ask whether there is reason to think that the facts concerning composition hold necessarily. I consider various reasons to think so, but find fault with each of them. I examine the theory of composition as (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   86 citations  
  7. Contingency Anxiety and the Epistemology of Disagreement.Andreas L. Mogensen - 2017 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 98 (1):n/a-n/a.
    Upon discovering that certain beliefs we hold are contingent on arbitrary features of our background, we often feel uneasy. I defend the proposal that if such cases of contingency anxiety involve defeaters, this is because of the epistemic significance of disagreement. I note two hurdles to our accepting this Disagreement Hypothesis. Firstly, some cases of contingency anxiety apparently involve no disagreement. Secondly, the proposal may seem to make our awareness of the influence of arbitrary background factors irrelevant in (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  8. Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity.Richard Rorty - 1989 - The Personalist Forum 5 (2):149-152.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   592 citations  
  9.  23
    The Nature of Contingency: Quantum Physics as Modal Realism.Alastair Wilson - 2020 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    This book defends a radical new theory of contingency as a physical phenomenon. Drawing on the many-worlds approach to quantum theory and cutting-edge metaphysics and philosophy of science, it argues that quantum theories are best understood as telling us about the space of genuine possibilities, rather than as telling us solely about actuality. When quantum physics is taken seriously in the way first proposed by Hugh Everett III, it provides the resources for a new systematic metaphysical framework encompassing possibility, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   17 citations  
  10. Future Contingents and Relative Truth.John MacFarlane - 2003 - Philosophical Quarterly 53 (212):321–336.
    If it is not now determined whether there will be a sea battle tomorrow, can an assertion that there will be one be true? The problem has persisted because there are compelling arguments on both sides. If there are objectively possible futures which would make the prediction true and others which would make it false, symmetry considerations seem to forbid counting it either true or false. Yet if we think about how we would assess the prediction tomorrow, when a sea (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   252 citations  
  11. Deeply Contingent a Priori Knowledge.John Hawthorne - 2002 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (2):247-269.
    The argument is not, however, problem-free. First: while the meaning of s might not guarantee a verifying state of affairs, mightn’t the fact of one’s believing that s is true guarantee a verifying state of affairs? And mightn’t this fact be exploited to secure knowledge of truths that are deeply contingent? Second: the argument seems to rely on the principle that if I can conceive that not P is actually the case, then I do not know that P. But it (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   75 citations  
  12. Explaining Contingent Facts.Fatema Amijee - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (4):1163-1181.
    I argue against a principle that is widely taken to govern metaphysical explanation. This is the principle that no necessary facts can, on their own, explain a contingent fact. I then show how this result makes available a response to a longstanding objection to the Principle of Sufficient Reason—the objection that the Principle of Sufficient Reason entails that the world could not have been otherwise.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  13.  56
    Contingent Transcranialism and Deep Functional Cognitive Integration: The Case of Human Emotional Ontogenesis.Jennifer Greenwood - 2013 - Philosophical Psychology 26 (3):420-436.
    Contingent transcranialists claim that the physical mechanisms of mind are not exclusively intracranial and that genuine cognitive systems can extend into cognizers' physical and socio-cultural environments. They further claim that extended cognitive systems must include the deep functional integration of external environmental resources with internal neural resources. They have found it difficult, however, to explicate the precise nature of such deep functional integration and provide compelling examples of it. Contingent intracranialists deny that extracranial resources can be components of genuine extended (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  14. Contingent A Priori Knowledge.John Turri - 2011 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 83 (2):327-344.
    I argue that you can have a priori knowledge of propositions that neither are nor appear necessarily true. You can know a priori contingent propositions that you recognize as such. This overturns a standard view in contemporary epistemology and the traditional view of the a priori, which restrict a priori knowledge to necessary truths, or at least to truths that appear necessary.
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   22 citations  
  15. Grounding, Contingency and Transitivity.Roberto Loss - 2017 - Ratio 30 (1):1-14.
    Grounding contingentism is the doctrine according to which grounds are not guaranteed to necessitate what they ground. In this paper I will argue that the most plausible version of contingentism is incompatible with the idea that the grounding relation is transitive, unless either ‘priority monism’ or ‘contrastivism’ are assumed.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  16.  76
    Contingency Inattention: Against Causal Debunking in Ethics.Regina Rini - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (2):369-389.
    It is a philosophical truism that we must think of others as moral agents, not merely as causal or statistical objects. But why? I argue that this follows from the best resolution of an antinomy between our experience of morality as necessarily binding on the will and our knowledge that all moral beliefs originate in contingent histories. We can address this antinomy only by understanding moral deliberation via interpersonal relationships, which simultaneously vindicate and constrains morality’s bind on the will. This (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  17. The Contingent a Priori and Rigid Designators.Keith S. Donnellan - 1977 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 2 (1):12-27.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   97 citations  
  18.  8
    Contingent Pacifism: Revisiting Just War Theory.Larry May - 2015 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this, the first major philosophical study of contingent pacifism, Larry May offers a new account of pacifism from within the Just War tradition. Written in a non-technical style, the book features real-life examples from contemporary wars and applies a variety of approaches ranging from traditional pacifism and human rights to international law and conscientious objection. May considers a variety of thinkers and theories, including Hugo Grotius, Kant, Socrates, Seneca on restraint, Tertullian on moral purity, Erasmus's arguments against just war, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  19.  45
    Evolutionary Contingency, Stability, and Biological Laws.Jani Raerinne - 2015 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 46 (1):45-62.
    The contingency of biological regularities—and its implications for the existence of biological laws—has long puzzled biologists and philosophers. The best argument for the contingency of biological regularities is John Beatty’s evolutionary contingency thesis, which will be re-analyzed here. First, I argue that in Beatty’s thesis there are two versions of strong contingency used as arguments against biological laws that have gone unnoticed by his commentators. Second, Beatty’s two different versions of strong contingency are analyzed in (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  20.  14
    Towards Contingent World Descriptions in Description Logics.Farshad Badie - 2020 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 29 (1):115-141.
    The philosophical, logical, and terminological junctions between Description Logics (DLs) and Modal Logic (ML) are important because they can support the formal analysis of modal notions of ‘possibility’ and ‘necessity’ through the lens of DLs. This paper introduces functional contingents in order to (i) structurally and terminologically analyse ‘functional possibility’ and ‘functional necessity’ in DL world descriptions and (ii) logically and terminologically annotate DL world descriptions based on functional contingents. The most significant contributions of this research are the logical characterisation (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  21. Knowledge of Future Contingents.Andrea Iacona - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies.
    This paper addresses the question whether future contingents are knowable, that is, whether one can know that things will go a certain way even though it is possible that things will not go that way. First I will consider a long-established view that implies a negative answer, and draw attention to some endemic problems that affect its credibility. Then I will sketch an alternative line of thought that prompts a positive answer: future contingents are knowable, although our epistemic access of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  22.  34
    Contingency and Fortune in Aquinas’s Ethics.John Bowlin - 1999 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this study John Bowlin argues that Aquinas's moral theology receives much of its character and content from an assumption about our common lot: the good we desire is difficult to know and to will, in particular because of contingencies of various kinds - within ourselves, in the ends and objects we pursue, and in the circumstances of choice. Since contingencies are fortune's effects, Aquinas insists that it is fortune that makes good choice difficult. Bowlin then explicates Aquinas's treatment of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  23. A (Contingent) Content-Parthood Analysis of Indirect Speech Reports.Alex Davies - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
    This paper presents a semantic analysis of indirect speech reports. The analysis aims to explain a combination of two phenomena. Firstly, there are true utterances of sentences of the form α said that φ which are used to report an utterance u of a sentence wherein φ’s content is not u’s content. This implies that in uttering a single sentence, one can say several things. Secondly, when the complements of these reports (and indeed, these reports themselves) are placed in conjunctions, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  24.  66
    Historical Contingency and the Impact of Scientific Imperialism.Ian James Kidd - 2013 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (3):317–326.
    In a recent article in this journal, Steve Clarke and Adrian Walsh propose a normative basis for John Dupré’s criticisms of scientific imperialism, namely, that scientific imperialism can cause a discipline to fail to progress in ways that it otherwise would have. This proposal is based on two presuppositions: one, that scientific disciplines have developmental teleologies, and two, that these teleologies are optimal. I argue that we should reject both of these presuppositions and so conclude that Clarke and Walsh’s proposal (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  25. Contingent Objects, Contingent Propositions, and Essentialism.Jonas Werner - forthcoming - Mind.
    Trevor Teitel has recently argued that combining the assumption that modality reduces to essence with the assumption that possibly some objects contingently exist leads to problems if one wishes to uphold that the logic of metaphysical modality is S5. In this paper I will argue that there is a way for the essentialist to evade the problem described by Teitel. The proposed solution crucially involves the assumption that some propositions possibly fail to exist. I will show how this assumption affords (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  26.  40
    Contingency, Hegemony, Universality: Contemporary Dialogues on the Left.Judith Butler - 2000 - Verso.
    In a series of memorable exchanges, three eminent theorists engage in a dialogue on central questions of contemporary philosophy and politics.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   49 citations  
  27. Reference, Contingency, and the Two-Dimensional Framework.Martin Davies - 2004 - Philosophical Studies 118 (1-2):83-131.
    I review and reconsider some of the themes of ‘Two notions of necessity’ (Davies and Humberstone, 1980) and attempt to reach a deeper understanding and appreciation of Gareth Evans’s reflections (in ‘Reference and contingency’, 1979) on both modality and reference. My aim is to plot the relationships between the notions of necessity that Humberstone and I characterised in terms of operators in two-dimensional modal logic, the notions of superficial and deep necessity that Evans himself described, and the epistemic notion (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   26 citations  
  28.  63
    Contingency and Knowing Whether.Jie Fan, Yanjing Wang & Hans van Ditmarsch - 2015 - Review of Symbolic Logic 8 (1):75-107.
    A proposition is noncontingent, if it is necessarily true or it is necessarily false. In an epistemic context, ‘a proposition is noncontingent’ means that you know whether the proposition is true. In this paper, we study contingency logic with the noncontingency operator? but without the necessity operator 2. This logic is not a normal modal logic, because?→ is not valid. Contingency logic cannot define many usual frame properties, and its expressive power is weaker than that of basic modal (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  29.  63
    Contingency Learning Without Awareness: Evidence for Implicit Control.James R. Schmidt, Matthew J. C. Crump, Jim Cheesman & Derek Besner - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2):421-435.
    The results of four experiments provide evidence for controlled processing in the absence of awareness. Participants identified the colour of a neutral distracter word. Each of four words was presented in one of the four colours 75% of the time or 50% of the time . Colour identification was faster when the words appeared in the colour they were most often presented in relative to when they appeared in another colour, even for participants who were subjectively unaware of any contingencies (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   29 citations  
  30.  8
    Deeply Contingent a Priori Knowledge.John Hawthorne - 2002 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (2):247-269.
    The argument is not, however, problem-free. First: while the meaning of s might not guarantee a verifying state of affairs, mightn’t the fact of one’s believing that s is true guarantee a verifying state of affairs? And mightn’t this fact be exploited to secure knowledge of truths that are deeply contingent? Second: the argument seems to rely on the principle that if I can conceive that not P is actually the case, then I do not know that P. But it (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   46 citations  
  31.  26
    Contingency’s Causality and Structural Diversity.Alison McConwell - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (2):26.
    What is the relationship between evolutionary contingency and diversity? The evolutionary contingency thesis emphasizes dependency relations and chance as the hallmarks of evolution. While contingency can be destructive of, for example, the fragile and complex dynamics in an ecosystem, I will mainly focus on the productive or causal aspect of contingency for a particular sort of diversity. There are many sorts of diversities: Gould is most famous for his diversity-to-decimation model, which includes disparate body plans distinguishing (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  32. Future Contingents and Aristotle’s Fantasy.Andrea Iacona - 2007 - Critica 39 (117):45-60.
    This paper deals with the problem of future contingents, and focuses on two classical logical principles, excluded middle and bivalence. One may think that different attitudes are to be adopted towards these two principles in order to solve the problem. According to what seems to be a widely held hypothesis, excluded middle must be accepted while bivalence must be rejected. The paper goes against that line of thought. In the first place, it shows how the rejection of bivalence leads to (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  33.  12
    Deeply Contingent A Priori Knowledge.John Hawthorne - 2002 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (2):247-269.
    The argument is not, however, problem-free. First: while the meaning of s might not guarantee a verifying state of affairs, mightn’t the fact of one’s believing that s is true guarantee a verifying state of affairs? And mightn’t this fact be exploited to secure knowledge of truths that are deeply contingent? Second: the argument seems to rely on the principle that if I can conceive that not P is actually the case, then I do not know that P. But it (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   35 citations  
  34. The Contingency of Creation and Divine Choice.Fatema Amijee - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion.
    According to the Principle of Sufficient Reason (‘PSR’), every fact has an explanation for why it obtains. If the PSR is true, there must be a sufficient reason for why God chose to create our world. But a sufficient reason for God’s choice plausibly necessitates that choice. It thus seems that God could not have done otherwise, and that our world exists necessarily. We therefore appear forced to pick between the PSR, and the contingency of creation and divine choice. (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35. Inevitability, Contingency, and Epistemic Humility.Ian James Kidd - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 55:12-19.
    I reject both (a) inevitabilism about the historical development of the sciences and (b) what Ian Hacking calls the "put up or shut up" argument against those who make contingentist claims. Each position is guilty of a lack of humility about our epistemic capacities.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  36.  52
    Issue-Contingent Effects on Ethical Decision Making: A Cross-Cultural Comparison. [REVIEW]Mark A. Davis, Nancy Brown Johnson & Douglas G. Ohmer - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (4):373-389.
    This experiment examined the effects of three elements comprising Jones' (1991) moral intensity construct, (social consensus, personal proximity, and magnitude of consequences) in a cross-cultural comparison of ethical decision making within a human resource management (HRM) context. Results indicated social consensus had the most potent effect on judgments of moral concern and judgments of immorality. An analysis of American, Eastern European, and Indonesian responses also indicted socio-cultural differences were moderated by the type of HRM ethical issue. In addition, individual differences (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   68 citations  
  37.  15
    Symmetric Contingency Logic with Unlimitedly Many Modalities.Jie Fan - 2019 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 48 (5):851-866.
    The completeness of the axiomatization of contingency logic over symmetric frames has been thought of as a nontrivial job, the unimodal case of which cannot be generalized to the finitely multimodal case, which in turn cannot be generalized to the infinitely multimodal case. This paper deals with the completeness of symmetric contingency logic with unlimitedly many modalities, no matter whether the set of modalities is finite or infinite.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  38. Contingency and Necessity: Human Agency in Musil’s The Man Without Qualities.Barbara Sattler - 2014 - The Monist 97 (1):86-103.
    This paper argues that the problem of how to act in the face of radical contingency is of central importance in Musil’s novel and intimately connected to what Musil calls the sense of possibility. There is a variety of different strategies by which individuals, and the state of Kakania as a whole, deal with contingency, and they all involve a claim to a kind of grounding or necessity; for example, the Parallel Campaign is one big attempt to ground (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  39.  19
    Contingency in Fear Conditioning: A Reexamination.H. M. Jenkins & Donald Shattuck - 1981 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 17 (3):159-162.
  40.  46
    Contingent Weighting in Judgment and Choice.Amos Tversky, Shmuel Sattath & Paul Slovic - 1988 - Psychological Review 95 (3):371-384.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   77 citations  
  41.  21
    Contingency and History.Kim Sterelny - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (4):521-539.
    Debates on the contingency of history have largely focused on the history of life. This article targets the supposed contingency of human history. It does not defend a global claim about the overall contingency of history. Rather, it aims to identify and explain the difference between robust and fragile historical trajectories. It does so by considering a set of contrasting cases and identifying critical differences among the cases. The analysis shows that one important source of contingency (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  42. Contingent Identity.Wolfgang Schwarz - 2013 - Philosophy Compass 8 (5):486-495.
    It is widely held that if an object a is identical (or non-identical) to an object b, then it is necessary that a is identical (non-identical) to b. This view is supported an argument from Leibniz's Law and a popular conception of de re modality. On the other hand, there are good reasons to allow for contingent identity. Various alternative accounts of de re modality have been developed to achieve this kind of generality, and to explain what is wrong with (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  43.  77
    Future Contingents, Indeterminacy and Context.Paula Sweeney - 2015 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 96 (2):408-422.
    In Facing the Future, Belnap et al. reject bivalence and propose double time reference semantics to give a pragmatic response to the following assertion problem: how can we make sense of assertions about future events made at a time when the outcomes of those events are not yet determined? John MacFarlane employs the same semantics, now bolstered with a relative-truth predicate, to accommodate the following apparently conflicting intuitions regarding the truth-value of an uttered future contingent: at the moment of utterance, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  44. The Problem of Future Contingents: Scoping Out a Solution.Patrick Todd - 2020 - Synthese 197 (11):5051-5072.
    Various philosophers have long since been attracted to the doctrine that future contingent propositions systematically fail to be true—what is sometimes called the doctrine of the open future. However, open futurists have always struggled to articulate how their view interacts with standard principles of classical logic—most notably, with the Law of Excluded Middle. For consider the following two claims: Trump will be impeached tomorrow; Trump will not be impeached tomorrow. According to the kind of open futurist at issue, both of (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  45. Reference and Contingency.Gareth Evans - 1979 - The Monist 62 (2):161-189.
    ‘A logical theory may be tested by its capacity for dealing with puzzles, and it is a wholesome plan, in thinking about logic, to stock the mind with as many puzzles as possible, since these serve much the same purpose as is served by experiments in physical science.’ This paper is an attempt to follow Russell’s advice by using a puzzle about the contingent a priori to test and explore certain theories of reference and modality. No one could claim that (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   151 citations  
  46. Physically Contingent Laws and Counterfactual Support.Michael Strevens - 2008 - Philosophers' Imprint 8:1-20.
    The generalizations found in biology, psychology, sociology, and other high-level sciences are typically physically contingent. You might conclude that they play only a limited role in scientific investigation, on the grounds that physically contingent generalizations offer no or only feeble counterfactual support. But the link between contingency and counterfactual support is more complex than is commonly supposed. A certain class of physically contingent generalizations, comprising many, perhaps the vast majority, of those in the high-level sciences, provides strong counterfactual support (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  47. Contingency, Hegemony, Universality: Contemporary Dialogues on the Left.Judith Butler & Ernesto Laclau - 2002 - Political Theory 30 (1):167-170.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   56 citations  
  48.  14
    Contingency Awareness in Evaluative Conditioning: A Case for Unaware Affective-Evaluative Learning.Frank Baeyens, Paul Eelen & Omer van den Bergh - 1990 - Cognition and Emotion 4 (1):3-18.
  49.  19
    Questioning Contingency in Social Life: Roles, Agreement and Agency.Stephen Kemp & John Holmwood - 2012 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 42 (4):403-424.
    Structure/agency theories presuppose that there is a unity to structure that distinguishes it from the (potential) diversity of agents' responses. In doing so they formally divide the robust social processes shaping the social world (structure) from contingent agential variation (agency). In this article we question this division by critically evaluating its application to the concept of role in critical realism and structural functionalism. We argue that Archer, Elder-Vass and Parsons all mistakenly understand a role to have a singular structural definition (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  50.  28
    Contingent Work and Its Contradictions: Towards a Moral Economy Framework. [REVIEW]Sharon C. Bolton, Maeve Houlihan & Knut Laaser - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 111 (1):121-132.
    This article proposes the lens of moral economy as a useful ethical framework through which to assess HRM practice, with a particular focus on the strategic use of contingent work ('non-standard' employment practices including temporary, agency and outsourced work). While contingent work practices have a variety of impetuses we focus here on their strategic use in the pursuit of economic and flexibility goals. A review of the contingent work literature conveys mixed messages about its outcomes for individuals, and more opaquely, (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
1 — 50 / 1000