Results for 'contingency'

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  1.  42
    A Paean to Contingency: Léna Soler, Emiliano Trizio, and Andrew Pickering : Science As It Could Have Been: Discussing the Contingency/Inevitability Problem. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburg Press, 2015, x+462pp, $61.95 HB. [REVIEW]Joseph D. Martin - 2016 - Metascience 25 (3):437-441.
    The contingency/inevitability (C/I) problem consists in questions about the extent to which science is contingent or inevitable, what parts of it are contingent or inevitable, and whether alternative scientific trajectories might be just as successful as the one we have. It is relatively new as a well-delineated object of philosophical inquiry, dating to Ian Hacking’s observation in The Social Construction of What? (1999) that the social construction movement raises questions about contingency and inevitability that can be understood as (...)
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  2. Existence and contingency.Timothy Williamson - 2000 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 100 (1):117–139.
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  3.  35
    The Category of Contingency i n the Hegelian Logic.George di Giovanni - 1980 - In Warren E. Steinkraus & Kenneth L. Schmitz (eds.), Art and logic in Hegel's philosophy. [Brighton], Sussex: Harvester Press. pp. 179-200.
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  4. The conceptual contingency of mathematical objects.Hartry Field - 1993 - Mind 102 (406):285-299.
  5. The necessity of contingency.John Burbidge - 1980 - In Warren E. Steinkraus & Kenneth L. Schmitz (eds.), Art and logic in Hegel's philosophy. [Brighton], Sussex: Harvester Press. pp. 201--18.
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  6. Theism and Ultimate Explanation: The Necessary Shape of Contingency.Timothy O'Connor - 2008 - Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
    An expansive, yet succinct, analysis of the Philosophy of Religion – from metaphysics through theology. Organized into two sections, the text first examines truths concerning what is possible and what is necessary. These chapters lay the foundation for the book’s second part – the search for a metaphysical framework that permits the possibility of an ultimate explanation that is correct and complete. A cutting-edge scholarly work which engages with the traditional metaphysician’s quest for a true ultimate explanation of the most (...)
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  7.  5
    6. On Contingency and Necessity.Nicholas Rescher - 2014 - In Logical Inquiries: Basic Issues in Philosophical Logic. Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 67-77.
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  8. Nominalism and the contingency of abstract objects.Crispin Wright & Bob Hale - 1992 - Journal of Philosophy 89 (3):111-135.
  9.  52
    Synesthesia, Sensory-Motor Contingency, and Semantic Emulation: How Swimming Style-Color Synesthesia Challenges the Traditional View of Synesthesia.Aleksandra Mroczko-Wąsowicz & Markus Werning - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3.
  10.  51
    Familiarity inferences, subjective attitudes and counterstance contingency: towards a pragmatic theory of subjective meaning.Christopher Kennedy & Malte Willer - 2022 - Linguistics and Philosophy 45 (6):1395-1445.
    Subjective predicates have two interpretive and distributional characteristics that have resisted a comprehensive analysis. First, the use of a subjective predicate to describe an object is in general felicitous only when the speaker has a particular kind of familiarity with relevant features of the object; characterizing an object as _tasty,_ for example, implies that the speaker has experience of its taste. Second, subjective predicates differ from objective predicates in their distribution under certain types of propositional attitude verbs. The goal of (...)
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  11.  16
    Revisiting the relation between contingency awareness and attention: Evaluative conditioning relies on a contingency focus.Florian Kattner - 2012 - Cognition and Emotion 26 (1):166-175.
  12.  81
    Truth, futurity, and contingency.Peter Wolff - 1960 - Mind 69 (275):398-402.
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  13.  5
    Polemicization: The Contingency of the Commonplace.Benjamin Arditi & Jeremy Valentine - 1999 - Edinburgh University Press.
    Covering the theories of, among others, Derrida, Lefort and Laclau, this volume opens up space to the political (polemicisation). Chapters cover themes such as social structure, ethical arguments, and political organisation.
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  14. Authority as a contingency plan.Carla Bagnoli - 2019 - Philosophical Explorations 22 (2):130-145.
    Humean constructivists object to Kantian constructivism that by endorsing the constitutivist strategy, which grounds moral obligations in rational agency, this position discounts the impact of cont...
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  15. On "a priori" contingency.Douglas Odegard - 1976 - Analysis 36 (4):201.
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  16.  26
    Counterfactuals and history: Contingency and convergence in histories of science and life.Ian Hesketh - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 58:41-48.
  17. Ceteris paribus — an inadequate representation for biological contingency.Sandra D. Mitchell - 2002 - Erkenntnis 57 (3):329-350.
    It has been claimed that ceteris paribus laws, rather than strict laws are the proper aim of the special sciences. This is so because the causal regularities found in these domains are exception-ridden, being contingent on the presence of the appropriate conditions and the absence of interfering factors. I argue that the ceteris paribus strategy obscures rather than illuminates the important similarities and differences between representations of causal regularities in the exact and inexact sciences. In particular, a detailed account of (...)
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  18.  26
    Situatedness and Place: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on the Spatio-Temporal Contingency of Human Life.Annika Schlitte & Thomas Hünefeldt (eds.) - 2018 - Cham: Springer Verlag.
    This book explores the ways in which the spatio-temporal contingency of human life is being conceived in different fields of research. Specifically, it looks at the relationship between the situatedness of human life, the situation or place in which human life is supposed to be situated, and the dimensions of space and time in which both situation and place are usually themselves supposed to be situated. Over the last two or three decades, the spatio-temporal contingency of human life (...)
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  19. Leiniz's dynamics and contingency in nature.Margaret D. Wilson - 1981 - In Roger Stuart Woolhouse (ed.), Leibniz, Metaphysics and Philosophy of Science. Oxford University Press.
  20.  91
    On A Priori Contingency.Douglas Odegard - 1976 - Analysis 36 (4):201 - 203.
  21.  20
    Uniformity and Contingency: The Presidential Address.A. N. Whitehead - 1923 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 23:1 - 18.
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  22. Dissociation of contingency and blocking effects.Ba Williams - 1991 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (6):481-481.
  23.  41
    Mapping the Relationship Among Political Ideology, CSR Mindset, and CSR Strategy: A Contingency Perspective Applied to Chinese Managers.Fuming Jiang, Tatiana Zalan, Herman H. M. Tse & Jie Shen - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 147 (2):419-444.
    The literature on antecedents of corporate social responsibility strategies of firms has been predominately content driven. Informed by the managerial sense-making process perspective, we develop a contingency theoretical framework explaining how political ideology of managers affects the choice of CSR strategy for their firms through their CSR mindset. We also explain to what extent the outcome of this process is shaped by the firm’s internal institutional arrangements and external factors impacting on the firm. We develop and test several hypotheses (...)
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  24. Present truth and future contingency.Rogers Albritton - 1957 - Philosophical Review 66 (1):29-46.
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  25.  45
    Necessity and Relative Contingency.Claudio Pizzi - 2007 - Studia Logica 85 (3):395-410.
    The paper introduces a contingential language extended with a propositional constant τ axiomatized in a system named KΔτ , which receives a semantical analysis via relational models. A definition of the necessity operator in terms of Δ and τ allows proving (i) that KΔτ is equivalent to a modal system named K□τ (ii) that both KΔτ and K□τ are tableau-decidable and complete with respect to the defined relational semantics (iii) that the modal τ -free fragment of KΔτ is exactly the (...)
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  26.  13
    Wittgenstein and the 'contingency' of community.Edward H. Minar - 1991 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 72 (3):203-234.
  27. Counterfactual Histories of Science and the Contingency Thesis.Luca Tambolo - 2016 - In Lorenzo Magnani & Claudia Casadio (eds.), Model Based Reasoning in Science and Technology. Logical, Epistemological, and Cognitive Issues. Springer Verlag. pp. 619-637.
    Within the debate on the inevitability versus contingency of science for which Hacking’s writings have provided the basic terminology, the devising of counterfactual histories of science is widely assumed by champions of the contingency thesis to be an effective way to challenge the inevitability thesis. However, relatively little attention has been devoted to the problem of how to defend counterfactual history of science against the criticism that it is too speculative an endeavor to be worth bothering with—the same (...)
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  28. Continuity, Naturalism, and Contingency: A Theology of Evolution Drawing on the Semiotics of C. S. Peirce and Trinitarian Thought.Andrew J. Robinson - 2004 - Zygon 39 (1):111-136.
    The starting point for this article is the question of the relationship between Darwinism and Christian theology. I suggest that evolutionary theory presents three broad issues of relevance to theology: the phenomena ofcontinuity, naturalism, andcontingency. In order to formulate a theological response to these issues I draw on the semiotics (theory of signs) and cosmology of the American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce. Peirce developed a triadic theory of signs, underpinned by a threefold system of metaphysical categories. I propose a semiotic (...)
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  29. Are laws of nature consistent with contingency?Nancy Cartwright & Pedro Merlussi - 2018 - In Walter Ott & Lydia Patton (eds.), Laws of Nature. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Are the laws of nature consistent with contingency about what happens in the world? That depends on what the laws of nature actually are, but it also depends on what they are like. The latter is the concern of this chapter, which looks at three views that are widely endorsed: ‘Humean’ regularity accounts, laws as relations among universals, and disposition/powers accounts. Given an account of what laws are, what follows about how much contingency, and of what kinds, laws (...)
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  30. Possible Worlds in the Tahafut al-Falasifa: Al-Ghazali on Creation and Contingency.Taneli Kukkonen - 2000 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 38 (4):479-502.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Journal of the History of Philosophy 38.4 (2000) 479-502 [Access article in PDF] Possible Worlds in the Tahâfut al-Falâsifa Al-Ghazâlî on Creation and Contingency Taneli Kukkonen University of Helsinki 1. This article is the second half in an inquiry into the debate between al-Ghazâlî (1058-1111) and Averroes (1126-1198) on the metaphysical basis of modalities. The first article focused on Averroes' exposition of the Arabic Aristotelian position on the (...)
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  31.  94
    The Contingency of the Cultural Evolution of Morality, Debunking, and Theism vs. Naturalism.Matthew Braddock - 2021 - In Johan De Smedt & Helen De Cruz (eds.), Empirically Engaged Evolutionary Ethics. Synthese Library. Springer - Synthese Library. pp. 179-201.
    Is the cultural evolution of morality fairly contingent? Could cultural evolution have easily led humans to moral norms and judgments that are mostly false by our present lights? If so, does it matter philosophically? Yes, or so we argue. We empirically motivate the contingency of cultural evolution and show that it makes two major philosophical contributions. First, it shows that moral objectivists cannot explain the reliability of our moral judgments and thus strengthens moral debunking arguments. Second, it shows that (...)
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  32. Avicenna's Proof from Contingency for God's Existence in the Metaphysics of the Shifā'.Michael E. Marmura - 1980 - Mediaeval Studies 42 (1):337-352.
  33.  58
    On voluntarism and the role of governments in CSR: towards a contingency approach.Nikolay A. Dentchev, Mitchell Balen & Elvira Haezendonck - 2014 - Business Ethics: A European Review 24 (4):378-397.
    In the corporate social responsibility literature, the principle of voluntarism is predominant and implies that responsible business activities are discretionary and reach beyond the rule of law. This principle fails to explain that governments have a great interest in CSR and exercise influence on firms’ CSR activities. Therefore, we argue in favour of a contingency approach on voluntarism in CSR. To this end, we analyse the academic literature to demonstrate how governments are part of the CSR debate. We selected (...)
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  34.  59
    Foucault across the disciplines: introductory notes on contingency in critical inquiry.Colin Koopman - 2011 - History of the Human Sciences 24 (4):1-12.
    Foucault is one of the most widely cited thinkers across social sciences and humanities disciplines today. Foucault’s appeal, and ongoing value, across the disciplines has much to do with the power of his thought and his method to help us see the contingency of practices we take to be inevitable. It is argued in this introductory article that Foucault’s emphasis on contingency is as misunderstood as it is influential. I distinguish two senses of contingency in Foucault. A (...)
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  35. From Self-Reflexivity to Contingency: Nishida Kitarō on Self-Knowledge.Takushi Odagiri - 2008 - In Odagiri Takushi (ed.), Frontiers of Japanese Philosophy: Origins and Possibilities. Nanzan Institute for Religion & Culture. pp. 73-92.
     
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  36.  21
    On voluntarism and the role of governments in CSR: towards a contingency approach.Nikolay A. Dentchev, Mitchell van Balen & Elvira Haezendonck - 2014 - Business Ethics: A European Review 24 (4):378-397.
    In the corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature, the principle of voluntarism is predominant and implies that responsible business activities are discretionary and reach beyond the rule of law. This principle fails to explain that governments have a great interest in CSR and exercise influence on firms’ CSR activities. Therefore, we argue in favour of a contingency approach on voluntarism in CSR. To this end, we analyse the academic literature to demonstrate how governments are part of the CSR debate. We (...)
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  37. Leibniz on contingency and infinite analysis.David Blumenfeld - 1985 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 45 (4):483-514.
  38.  52
    Time and Contingency in St. Augustine.Robert Jordan - 1955 - Review of Metaphysics 8 (3):394 - 417.
    St. Augustine's understanding of time is such that it makes time a problem not of physics nor of cosmology, although there are cosmological implications too, but of moral philosophy. And since moral philosophy, for Augustine, is inseparable from the problem of the ultimate destiny of the soul, his conception of time is a part of his conception of the religious life of man. Accordingly, I propose to summarize Augustine's theory of the nature of time in the first part of the (...)
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  39. Existence and contingency: A note.David Wiggins - 2003 - Philosophy 78 (4):483-494.
    Timothy Williamson offers a proof of the counterintuitive claim that, if an object exists, then it exists necessarily. David Wiggins argues that this result reveals the philosophical disadvantage of a first level (or ‘ticking over’) view of the very ‘exists’ and the advantage of the second level account offered by Frege and Russell. The author seeks to show how, using an idea of G. Evans but without the use of the resources of ‘free logic’, all occurrences of ‘exist’, including its (...)
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  40.  8
    In critique of moral resilience: UK healthcare professionals’ experiences working with asylum applicants housed in contingency accommodation during the COVID-19 pandemic.Louise Tomkow, Gabrielle Prager, Kitty Worthing & Rebecca Farrington - 2024 - Journal of Medical Ethics 50 (1):33-38.
    This research explores the experiences of UK NHS healthcare professionals working with asylum applicants housed in contingency accommodation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a critical understanding of the concept of moral resilience as a theoretical framework, we explore how the difficult circumstances in which they worked were navigated, and the extent to which moral suffering led to moral transformation. Ten staff from a general practice participated in semistructured interviews. Encountering the harms endured by people seeking asylum prior to arrival (...)
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  41.  40
    Open-Mindedness and.. Normative Contingency.Valerie Tiberius - 2012 - Oxford Studies in Metaethics 7:182.
  42.  29
    Rorty, irony and the consequences of contingency for liberal society.Michael Bacon - 2017 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 43 (9):953-965.
    This article examines Richard Rorty’s much criticized figure of the ironist, and the role that it plays in liberal society. It argues that, against Rorty’s own presentation, irony might have positive social consequences. It does so by examining Rorty’s description of the ironist, arguing that it contains different ideas which emerge at different points in Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity. It takes up William Curtis’ claim that irony is a civic virtue, one closely associated with liberal ideas such as tolerance (...)
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  43.  37
    Dissociating the effects of attention and contingency awareness on evaluative conditioning effects in the visual paradigm.Andy P. Field & Annette C. Moore - 2005 - Cognition and Emotion 19 (2):217-243.
    Two experiments are described that investigate the effects of attention in moderating evaluative conditioning (EC) effects in a picture‐picture paradigm in which previously discovered experimental artifacts (e.g., Field & Davey, 1999 Field, AP, and Davey, GCL, (1999). Reevaluating evaluative conditioning: A nonassociative explanation of conditioning effects in the visual evaluative conditioning paradigm, Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Behavior Processes 25 ((1999)), pp. 211–224.[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]) were overcome by counterbalancing conditioned stimuli (CSs) and unconditioned stimuli (USs) (...)
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  44.  19
    Counterfactuals, Causes and Contingency in the History of Science.Katherina Kinzel - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 60:92-96.
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  45.  18
    Is there evidence for unaware evaluative conditioning in a valence contingency learning task?Anne Gast, Jasmin Richter & Borys Ruszpel - 2020 - Cognition and Emotion 34 (1):57-73.
    ABSTRACTIn three experiments we investigated whether memory-independent evaluative conditioning and other memory-independent contingency learning effects occur in the valence contingency...
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  46.  73
    Human finitude, ineffability, idealism, contingency.A. W. Moore - 1992 - Noûs 26 (4):427-446.
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  47.  41
    Conventional Necessity and the Contingency of Convention.Neil Tennant - 1987 - Dialectica 41 (1‐2):79-95.
    SummaryI defend a conventionalist view of logical and mathematical truths against the criticisms of Quine and Stroud. Conventionalism is best formulated by appealing to sense‐conferring rules governing important logical and mathematical expressions. Conventional necessity can be understood as arising from these rules in a way that is immune to Quine's and Stroud's criticisms of the earlier formulation of conventionalism, in which stress was incorrectly laid on axiomatic systems of logic.RésuméJe soutiens, en dépit des critiques de Quine et de Stroud, une (...)
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  48. Rigid designation and the contingency of identity.André Gallois - 1986 - Mind 95 (377):57-76.
  49.  35
    Bridging Necessity And Contingency In Quantum Mechanics: Potentiality, Actuality, and the Scientific Rehabilitation of Process Ontology.Michael Epperson - 2016 - In Timothy E. Eastman, Michael Epperson & David Ray Griffin (eds.), Physics and Speculative Philosophy: Potentiality in Modern Science. Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 55-106.
    Through both an historical and philosophical analysis of the concept of possibility, we show how including both potentiality and actuality as part of the real is both compatible with experience and contributes to solving key problems of fundamental process and emergence. The book is organized into four main sections that incorporate our routes to potentiality: (1) potentiality in modern science [history and philosophy; quantum physics and complexity]; (2) Relational Realism [ontological interpretation of quantum physics; philosophy and logic]; (3) Process Physics (...)
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  50. Compatibilism and contingency in Aquinas.Calvin G. Normore - 1983 - Journal of Philosophy 80 (10):650-652.
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