Results for 'contradiction'

995 found
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  1.  6
    What Practical Reasoning Must Be If We Act for Our Own Reasons.Perceiving Contradictions & Deductivism Surpassed - 1999 - European Journal of Philosophy 7 (2).
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  2.  14
    Kisor Kumar Chakrabarti.Change Time & Joseph Wayne Smith Contradiction - 1989 - International Philosophical Quarterly 29 (2).
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  3. In contradiction: a study of the transconsistent.Graham Priest - 1987 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    In Contradiction advocates and defends the view that there are true contradictions, a view that flies in the face of orthodoxy in Western philosophy since Aristotle. The book has been at the center of the controversies surrounding dialetheism ever since its first publication in 1987. This second edition of the book substantially expands upon the original in various ways, and also contains the author’s reflections on developments over the last two decades. Further aspects of dialetheism are discussed in the (...)
  4. Aristotle, Protagoras, and Contradiction: Metaphysics Γ 4-6.Evan Keeling - 2013 - Journal of Ancient Philosophy 7 (2):75-99.
    In both Metaphysics Γ 4 and 5 Aristotle argues that Protagoras is committed to the view that all contradictions are true. Yet Aristotle’s arguments are not transparent, and later, in Γ 6, he provides Protagoras with a way to escape contradictions. In this paper I try to understand Aristotle’s arguments. After examining a number of possible solutions, I conclude that the best way of explaining them is to (a) recognize that Aristotle is discussing a number of Protagorean opponents, and (b) (...)
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  5.  32
    Contradiction In Hegel's Science of Logic. Bole - 1987 - Review of Metaphysics 40 (3):515-534.
  6. Entail contradictions? 1 Michael Thrush university of notre dame.Objects Do Meinong'S. Impossible - 2001 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 62 (1):157-173.
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  7. Contradiction in motion: Hegel's organic concept of life and value.Susan Songsuk Hahn - 2007 - Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.
    In this analysis of one of the most difficult and neglected topics in Hegelian studies, Songsuk Susan Hahn tackles the status of contradiction in Hegel's ...
  8.  10
    Contradiction Resolves Itself” – An Analysis of the Arguments in the Chapter “The Essentialities or the Determinations of Reflection” in Hegel’s Doctrine of Essence.Folko Zander - 2024 - Boston, Massachusetts: BRILL.
    It is well known that Hegel departs from tradition in his treatment of the concept of contradiction in a way that is scandalous to some. This book explores the question of what Hegel means by contradiction and how it can be made useful for philosophy. Bekannt ist, dass Hegel in seiner Behandlung des Widerspruchs in einer für manche skandalösen Art von der Tradition abweicht. Vorliegendes Buch geht der Frage nach, was Hegel unter einem Widerspruch überhaupt versteht und auf (...)
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  9. Contradiction and Kant’s Formula of Universal Law.Pauline Kleingeld - 2017 - Kant Studien 108 (1):89-115.
    Kant’s most prominent formulation of the Categorical Imperative, known as the Formula of Universal Law (FUL), is generally thought to demand that one act only on maxims that one can will as universal laws without this generating a contradiction. Kant's view is standardly summarized as requiring the 'universalizability' of one's maxims and described in terms of the distinction between 'contradictions in conception' and 'contradictions in the will'. Focusing on the underappreciated significance of the simultaneity condition included in the FUL, (...)
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  10.  78
    Contradiction, Quantum Mechanics, and the Square of Opposition.Jonas R. B. Arenhart & Décio Krause - unknown
    We discuss the idea that superpositions in quantum mechanics may involve contradictions or contradictory properties. A state of superposition such as the one comprised in the famous Schrödinger’s cat, for instance, is sometimes said to attribute contradictory properties to the cat: being dead and alive at the same time. If that were the case, we would be facing a revolution in logic and science, since we would have one of our greatest scientific achievements showing that real contradictions exist.We analyze that (...)
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  11.  41
    Contradiction Club: Dialetheism and the Social World.Matthew J. Cull & Emma Bolton - 2019 - Journal of Social Ontology 5 (2):169-180.
    Putative examples of true contradictions in the social world have been given by dialetheists such as Graham Priest, Richard Routley, and Val Plumwood. However, we feel that it has not been decisively argued that these examples are in fact true contradictions rather than merely apparent. In this paper we adopt a new strategy to show that there are some true contradictions in the social world, and hence that dialetheism is correct. The strategy involves showing that a group of sincere dialetheists (...)
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  12. Contradictions at the borders.David Ripley - 2011 - In Rick Nouwen, Robert van Rooij, Uli Sauerland & Hans-Christian Schmitz (eds.), Vagueness in Communication. Springer. pp. 169--188.
    The purpose of this essay is to shed some light on a certain type of sentence, which I call a borderline contradiction. A borderline contradiction is a sentence of the form F a ∧ ¬F a, for some vague predicate F and some borderline case a of F , or a sentence equivalent to such a sentence. For example, if Jackie is a borderline case of ‘rich’, then ‘Jackie is rich and Jackie isn’t rich’ is a borderline (...). Many theories of vague language have entailments about borderline contradictions; correctly describing the behavior of borderline contradictions is one of the many tasks facing anyone offering a theory of vague language. Here, I first briefly review claims made by various theorists about these borderline contradictions, attempting to draw out some predictions about the behavior of ordinary speakers. Second, I present an experiment intended to gather relevant data about the behavior of ordinary speakers. Finally, I discuss the experimental results in light of several different theories of vagueness, to see what explanations are available. My conclusions are necessarily tentative; I do not attempt to use the present experiment to demonstrate that any single theory is incontrovertibly true. Rather, I try to sketch the auxiliary hypotheses that would need to be conjoined to several extant theories of vague language to predict the present result, and offer some considerations regarding the plausibility of these various hypotheses. In the end, I conclude that two of the theories I consider are better-positioned to account for the observed data than are the others. But the field of logically-informed research on people’s actual responses to vague predicates is young; surely as more data come in we will learn a great deal more about which (if any) of these theories best accounts for the behavior of ordinary speakers. (shrink)
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  13.  49
    Disentangling Contradiction from Contrariety via Incompatibility.Jean-Yves Beziau - 2016 - Logica Universalis 10 (2-3):157-170.
    Contradiction is often confused with contrariety. We propose to disentangle contrariety from contradiction using the hexagon of opposition, providing a clear and distinct characterization of three notions: contrariety, contradiction, incompatibility. At the same time, this hexagonal structure describes and explains the relations between them.
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  14. Absolute Contradiction, Dialetheism, and Revenge.Francesco Berto - 2014 - Review of Symbolic Logic 7 (2):193-207.
    Is there a notion of contradiction—let us call it, for dramatic effect, “absolute”—making all contradictions, so understood, unacceptable also for dialetheists? It is argued in this paper that there is, and that spelling it out brings some theoretical benefits. First it gives us a foothold on undisputed ground in the methodologically difficult debate on dialetheism. Second, we can use it to express, without begging questions, the disagreement between dialetheists and their rivals on the nature of truth. Third, dialetheism has (...)
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  15.  50
    Paraconsistent Logic: Consistency, Contradiction and Negation.Walter Carnielli & Marcelo Esteban Coniglio - 2016 - Basel, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. Edited by Marcelo Esteban Coniglio.
    This book is the first in the field of paraconsistency to offer a comprehensive overview of the subject, including connections to other logics and applications in information processing, linguistics, reasoning and argumentation, and philosophy of science. It is recommended reading for anyone interested in the question of reasoning and argumentation in the presence of contradictions, in semantics, in the paradoxes of set theory and in the puzzling properties of negation in logic programming. Paraconsistent logic comprises a major logical theory and (...)
  16. A Contradiction of the Right Kind: Convenience Killing and Kant’s Formula of Universal Law.Pauline Kleingeld - 2019 - Philosophical Quarterly 69 (274):64-81.
    One of the most important difficulties facing Kant’s Formula of Universal Law (FUL) is its apparent inability to show that it is always impermissible to kill others for the sake of convenience. This difficulty has led current Kantian ethicists to de-emphasize the FUL or at least complement it with other Kantian principles when dealing with murder. The difficulty stems from the fact that the maxim of convenience killing fails to generate a ‘contradiction in conception’, producing only a ‘contradiction (...)
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  17. Hyper-contradictions, generalized truth values and logics of truth and falsehood.Yaroslav Shramko & Heinrich Wansing - 2006 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 15 (4):403-424.
    In Philosophical Logic, the Liar Paradox has been used to motivate the introduction of both truth value gaps and truth value gluts. Moreover, in the light of “revenge Liar” arguments, also higher-order combinations of generalized truth values have been suggested to account for so-called hyper-contradictions. In the present paper, Graham Priest's treatment of generalized truth values is scrutinized and compared with another strategy of generalizing the set of classical truth values and defining an entailment relation on the resulting sets of (...)
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  18. Contradicting effects of subjective economic and cultural values on ocean protection willingness: preliminary evidence of 42 countries.Quang-Loc Nguyen, Minh-Hoang Nguyen, Tam-Tri Le, Thao-Huong Ma, Ananya Singh, Thi Minh-Phuong Duong & Quan-Hoang Vuong - manuscript
    Coastal protection is crucial to human development since the ocean has many values associated with the economy, ecosystem, and culture. However, most ocean protecting efforts are currently ineffective due to the burdens of finance, lack of appropriate management, and international cooperation regimes. For aiding bottom-up initiatives for ocean protection support, this study employed the Mindsponge Theory to examine how the public’s perceived economic and cultural values influence their willingness to support actions to protect the ocean. Analyzing the European-Union-Horizon-2020-funded dataset of (...)
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  19. Contradictions of the Welfare State.Claus Offe - 1984 - MIT Press.
    Contradictions of the Welfare State is the first collection of Offe's essays to appear in a single volume in English, and it contains a selection of his most important recent work on the breakdown of the post-war settlement.
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  20. Imagining fictional contradictions.Michel-Antoine Xhignesse - 2020 - Synthese 199 (1-2):3169-3188.
    It is widely believed, among philosophers of literature, that imagining contradictions is as easy as telling or reading a story with contradictory content. Italo Calvino’s The Nonexistent Knight, for instance, concerns a knight who performs many brave deeds, but who does not exist. Anything at all, they argue, can be true in a story, including contradictions and other impossibilia. While most will readily concede that we cannot objectually imagine contradictions, they nevertheless insist that we can propositionally imagine them, and regularly (...)
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  21.  31
    Contradiction and Abstraction: A Reply to Finelli.Christopher Arthur - 2009 - Historical Materialism 17 (1):170-182.
    Following the publication of my book The New Dialectic and Marx's 'Capital', and the symposium on it in Historical Materialism 13.2, a critique by Roberto Finelli recently appeared: 'Abstraction versus Contradiction: Observations on Chris Arthur's The New Dialectic and Marx's “Capital”' in Historical Materialism 15.2. Finelli argues that my systematic dialectic is not taken sufficiently far, in that I retain presuppositions not posited by the capitalist totality. Here, I argue against Finelli's closed totality of wholly abstract forms, not least (...)
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  22. How to Sell a Contradiction: The Logic and Metaphysics of Inconsistency.Francesco Berto - 2007 - College Publications.
    There is a principle in things, about which we cannot be deceived, but must always, on the contrary, recognize the truth – viz. that the same thing cannot at one and the same time be and not be": with these words of the Metaphysics, Aristotle introduced the Law of Non-Contradiction, which was to become the most authoritative principle in the history of Western thought. However, things have recently changed, and nowadays various philosophers, called dialetheists, claim that this Law does (...)
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  23. Heraclitus, Change and Objective Contradictions in Aristotle’s Metaphysics Γ.Celso Vieira - 2022 - Rhizomata 10 (2):183-214.
    In Metaphysics Γ, Aristotle argues against those who seem to accept contradictions. He distinguishes between the Sophists, who deny the principle of non-contradiction through arguments, and the Natural Philosophers, whose physical investigations lead to the acceptance of objective contradictions. Heraclitus’ name appears throughout the discussion. Usually, he is associated with the discussion against the Sophists. In this paper, I explore how the discussion with the Natural Philosophers may illuminate both the interpretation of Heraclitus by Aristotle and Heraclitus’ own worldview. (...)
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  24.  3
    On a Supposed Contradiction in Max Weber’s Logic of Science.Sonja Rinofner-Kreidl - 2023 - Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 44 (1):125-168.
    This paper grapples with two objections against Max Weber’s methodology that arise because Weber borrows some ideas from Heinrich Rickert’s neo-Kantian philosophical system. The first objection (“the contradiction argument”) is raised by Julius J. Schaaf who disagrees with Weber’s claim that historical objects are constituted through retrospectively and hypothetically applied selections of value relations and that we can understand these objects. Weber’s idea that the relating ideal type constructions are also non-arbitrary—i.e., not merely subjective—and can be rectified, Schaaf maintains, (...)
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  25. Contradictions are theoretical, neither material nor practical. On dialectics in Tong, Mao and Hegel.Asger Sørensen - 2011 - Danish Yearbook of Philosophy 46 (1):37-59.
    Tong Shijun holds a concept of dialectics which can also be found in Mao’s writings and in classical Chinese philosophy. Tong, however, is ambivalent in his attitude to dialectics in this sense, and for this reason he recommends Chinese philosophy to focus more on formal logic. My point will be that with another concept of dialectics Tong can have dialectics without giving up on logic and epistemology. This argument is given substance by an analysis of texts by Mao, Tong and (...)
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  26.  92
    Contradictions: Logic, History, Actuality.Elena Ficara (ed.) - 2014 - Boston: De Gruyter.
    The papers in this volume present some of the most recent results of the work about contradictions in philosophical logic and metaphysics; examine the history of contradiction in crucial phases of philosophical thought; consider the relevance of contradictions for political and philosophical actuality. From this consideration a common question emerges: the question of the irreducibility, reality and productive force of (some) contradictions.
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  27. Transforming Contradictions: Dialectics of Nonviolence in ‘Martin and Mao’.Greg Moses - 2022 - In Sanjay Lal (ed.), Peaceful Approaches for a More Peaceful World. Leiden: BRILL. pp. 143–169.
    This chapter explores how the dialectical approaches by Mao Zedong and Martin Luther King, Jr., may assist philosophical analysis of nonviolent social change applied to achievement of economic justice and positive peace in this life. “Martin and Mao” are both interested in the theoretical and practical problems of creating conditions for a world where economic justice and positive peace may be pursued from within dialectical processes that are, in Mao’s words, “non-antagonistic.” The dialectical logics of Mao and King reveal a (...)
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  28. Contradiction and overdetermination.Louis Althusser - unknown
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  29.  9
    Managing contradictions of corporate social responsibility: the sustainability of diversity in a frontrunner firm.Toke Bjerregaard & Jakob Lauring - 2013 - Business Ethics: A European Review 22 (2):131-142.
    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has attracted increasing attention in business and research. Studies have documented how management concepts such as diversity management are translated and adapted to differential local sociocultural contexts outside their countries of origin. More research is needed concerning how CSR concepts are translated and practiced locally within particular organizations. This research is based on an organizational ethnography of the management of multiple social, ethical and business logics of CSR in a Danish frontrunner firm. The study contributes with (...)
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  30. True Contradictions.Terence Parsons - 1990 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 20 (3):335 - 353.
    In In Contradiction, Graham Priest shows, as clearly as anything like this can be shown, that it is coherent to maintain that some sentences can be both true and false at the same time. As a consequence, some contradictions are true, and an appreciation of this possibility advances our understanding of the nature of logic and language.
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  31. Future Contradictions.Jc Beall - 2012 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 90 (3):547-557.
    A common and much-explored thought is Łukasiewicz's idea that the future is ‘indeterminate’—i.e., ‘gappy’ with respect to some claims—and that such indeterminacy bleeds back into the present in the form of gappy ‘future contingent’ claims. What is uncommon, and to my knowledge unexplored, is the dual idea of an overdeterminate future—one which is ‘glutty’ with respect to some claims. While the direct dual, with future gluts bleeding back into the present, is worth noting, my central aim is simply to sketch (...)
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  32.  36
    Managing contradictions of corporate social responsibility: the sustainability of diversity in a frontrunner firm.Toke Bjerregaard & Jakob Lauring - 2013 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 22 (1):131-142.
    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has attracted increasing attention in business and research. Studies have documented how management concepts such as diversity management are translated and adapted to differential local sociocultural contexts outside their countries of origin. More research is needed concerning how CSR concepts are translated and practiced locally within particular organizations. This research is based on an organizational ethnography of the management of multiple social, ethical and business logics of CSR in a Danish frontrunner firm. The study contributes with (...)
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  33. The law of non-contradiction : new philosophical essays.Graham Priest, Jc Beall & Bradley P. Armour-Garb (eds.) - 2004 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    The Law of Non-Contradiction - that no contradiction can be true - has been a seemingly unassailable dogma since the work of Aristotle, in Book G of the Metaphysics. It is an assumption challenged from a variety of angles in this collection of original papers. Twenty-three of the world's leading experts investigate the 'law', considering arguments for and against it and discussing methodological issues that arise whenever we question the legitimacy of logical principles. The result is a balanced (...)
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  34.  46
    Contradiction and the Instant of Change Revisited.Graham Priest - 2017 - Vivarium 55 (1-3):217-226.
    Instantaneous changes may well be thought to give rise to contradiction. If one endorses an explosive logic, where contradictions entail everything, this is entirely unacceptable. However, if one deploys a paraconsistent logic, which keeps contradictions under control, one may give perfectly coherent and precise models of such changes. In In Contradiction the author showed how and he explored the philosophical implications of the model. Here, the author revisits the issue in the light of a recent critique by Greg (...)
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  35. Self-Contradictions of the Will: Reply to Jens Timmermann.Pauline Kleingeld - 2021 - Kant Studien 112 (4):611-622.
    In this article, I reply to Jens Timmermann’s critical discussion of my essay “Contradiction and Kant’s Formula of Universal Law”. I first consider Timmermann’s reasons for rejecting my interpretation of the Formula of Universal Law. I argue that the self-contradiction relevant to determining a maxim’s moral status should not be sought in the imagined world in which the maxim is a universal law. I then discuss Timmermann’s suggestion that something like a volitional self-contradiction is found within the (...)
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  36. Contradiction et nouvel entendement.Marc Beigbeder - 1972 - Paris,: Bordas.
     
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  37. Contradiction or non-contradiction? Hegel's dialectic between Brandom and Priest.Michela Bordignon - 2012 - Verifiche: Rivista Trimestrale di Scienze Umane 41 (1-3).
    The aim of the paper is to analyse Brandom’s account of Hegel’s conception of determinate negation and the role this structure plays in the dialectical process with respect to the problem of contradiction. After having shown both the merits and the limits of Brandom’s account, I will refer to Priest’s dialetheistic approach to contradiction as an alternative contemporary perspective from which it is possible to capture essential features of Hegel’s notion of contradiction, and I will test the (...)
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  38.  29
    Contradictions of Archaeological Theory: Engaging Critical Realism and Archaeological Theory.A. Martin Byers - 2012 - Journal of Critical Realism 11 (4):499-506.
    Contradictions of Archaeological Theory Content Type Journal Article Category Review Pages 499-506 DOI 10.1558/jcr.v11i4.499 Authors A. Martin Byers, Vanier College, Montreal Journal Journal of Critical Realism Online ISSN 1572-5138 Print ISSN 1476-7430 Journal Volume Volume 11 Journal Issue Volume 11, Number 4 / 2012.
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  39.  43
    Contradiction in Buddhist Argumentation.Mark Siderits - 2008 - Argumentation 22 (1):125-133.
    Certain Buddhist texts contain statements that are prima facie contradictions. The scholarly consensus has been that such statements are meant to serve a rhetorical function that depends on the apparent contradictions being resolvable. But recently it has been claimed that such statements are meant to be taken literally: their authors assert as true statements that are of the form ‘p and not p’. This claim has ramifications for our understanding of the role played by the principle of non-contradiction in (...)
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  40.  58
    VI*—Contradiction, Belief and Rationality.Graham Priest - 1986 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 86 (1):99-116.
    Graham Priest; VI*—Contradiction, Belief and Rationality, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Volume 86, Issue 1, 1 June 1986, Pages 99–116, https://doi.or.
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  41.  26
    In Contradiction, A Study of the Transconsistent.Joel M. Smith - 1991 - Noûs 25 (3):380-383.
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  42. Acceptable Contradictions: Pragmatics or Semantics? A Reply to Cobreros et al. [REVIEW]Sam Alxatib, Peter Pagin & Uli Sauerland - 2013 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (4):619-634.
    Naive speakers find some logical contradictions acceptable, specifically borderline contradictions involving vague predicates such as Joe is and isn’t tall. In a recent paper, Cobreros et al. (J Philos Logic, 2012) suggest a pragmatic account of the acceptability of borderline contradictions. We show, however, that the pragmatic account predicts the wrong truth conditions for some examples with disjunction. As a remedy, we propose a semantic analysis instead. The analysis is close to a variant of fuzzy logic, but conjunction and disjunction (...)
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  43. Contradictions and falling bridges: what was Wittgenstein’s reply to Turing?Ásgeir Berg Matthíasson - 2020 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 29 (3).
    In this paper, I offer a close reading of Wittgenstein's remarks on inconsistency, mostly as they appear in the Lectures on the Foundations of Mathematics. I focus especially on an objection to Wittgenstein's view given by Alan Turing, who attended the lectures, the so-called ‘falling bridges’-objection. Wittgenstein's position is that if contradictions arise in some practice of language, they are not necessarily fatal to that practice nor necessitate a revision of that practice. If we then assume that we have adopted (...)
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  44. Dialectical Contradictions and Classical Formal Logic.Inoue Kazumi - 2014 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (2):113-132.
    A dialectical contradiction can be appropriately described within the framework of classical formal logic. It is in harmony with the law of noncontradiction. According to our definition, two theories make up a dialectical contradiction if each of them is consistent and their union is inconsistent. It can happen that each of these two theories has an intended model. Plenty of examples are to be found in the history of science.
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  45.  64
    The Contradictions of Modern Moral Philosophy: Ethics After Wittgenstein.Dr Paul Johnston & Paul Johnston - 1999 - New York: Routledge.
    _The Contradictions of Modern Moral Philosophy_ is a highly original and radical critique of contemporary moral theory. Paul Johnston demonstrates that much recent moral philosophy is confused about the fundamental issue of whether there are correct moral judgements. He shows that the standard modern approaches to ethics cannot justify - or even make much sense of - traditional moral beliefs. Applied rigorously, these approaches suggest that we should reject ethics as a set of outdated and misguided claims. Rather than facing (...)
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  46. The Law of Non-Contradiction as a Metaphysical Principle.Tuomas E. Tahko - 2009 - Australasian Journal of Logic 7:32-47.
    The goals of this paper are two-fold: I wish to clarify the Aristotelian conception of the law of non-contradiction as a metaphysical rather than a semantic or logical principle, and to defend the truth of the principle in this sense. First I will explain what it in fact means that the law of non-contradiction is a metaphysical principle. The core idea is that the law of non-contradiction is a general principle derived from how things are in the (...)
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  47.  57
    Belief, Contradiction and the Logic of Self-Deception.Newton C. A. da Costa & Steven French - 1990 - American Philosophical Quarterly 27 (3):179 - 197.
    The apparently paradoxical nature of self-deception has attracted a great deal of controversy in recent years. Focussing on those aspects of the phenomenon which involve the holding of "contradictory" beliefs, it is our intention to argue that this presents no "paradox" if a non-classical, "paraconsistent", doxastic logic is adopted. (On such logics, see, for example, N. C. A. da Costa, 'On the theory of inconsistent formal systems', Notre Dame J Formal Logic 11(1974), 497-510, and A. I. Arruda, 'A survey of (...)
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  48.  76
    Are Contradictions Believable?Yale Weiss - 2019 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 8 (1):42-49.
    A number of philosophers deny that contradictions can be believed. Are they correct? In this note, I show that even in quite weak logics, on pain of inconsistency, if there are false beliefs, either there are propositions which are true but unbelievable or contradictions are believable. Since the antecedent clearly holds, I offer some considerations in favor of the latter disjunct. Objections and variants of the main argument are considered.
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  49.  31
    In Contradiction: A Study of the Transconsistent.N. C. A. Da Costa - 1989 - Philosophical Quarterly 39 (157):498-502.
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  50.  83
    The Contradictions of Hannah Arendt's Political Thought.Margaret Canovan - 1978 - Political Theory 6 (1):5-26.
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