Results for 'cosmology'

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  1.  2
    Cosmological Fine-Tuning Arguments: What (If Anything) Should We Infer From the Fine-Tuning of Our Universe for Life?Jason Waller - 2019 - Routledge.
    If the physical constants, initial conditions, or laws of nature in our universe had been even slightly different, then the evolution of life would have been impossible. This observation has led many philosophers and scientists to ask the natural next question: why is our universe so "fine-tuned" for life? The debates around this question are wide-ranging, multi-disciplinary, complicated, technical, and heated. This study is a comprehensive investigation of these debates and the many metaphysical and epistemological questions raised by cosmological fine-tuning. (...)
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  2.  2
    Medieval Cosmology: Theories of Infinity, Place, Time, Void, and the Plurality of Worlds.Pierre Duhem - 1985 - University of Chicago Press.
    These selections from Le système du monde, the classic ten-volume history of the physical sciences written by the great French physicist Pierre Duhem (1861-1916), focus on cosmology, Duhem's greatest interest. By reconsidering the work of such Arab and Christian scholars as Averroes, Avicenna, Gregory of Rimini, Albert of Saxony, Nicole Oresme, Duns Scotus, and William of Occam, Duhem demonstrated the sophistication of medieval science and cosmology.
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  3. The Anthropic Cosmological Principle.John D. Barrow - 1986 - Oxford University Press.
    Ever since Copernicus, scientists have continually adjusted their view of human nature, moving it further and further from its ancient position at the center of Creation. But in recent years, a startling new concept has evolved that places it more firmly than ever in a special position. Known as the Anthropic Cosmological Principle, this collection of ideas holds that the existence of intelligent observers determines the fundamental structure of the Universe. In its most radical version, the Anthropic Principle asserts that (...)
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  4. Cosmology and the Polis: The Social Construction of Space and Time in the Tragedies of Aeschylus.Richard Seaford - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book further develops Professor Seaford's innovative work on the study of ritual and money in the developing Greek polis. It employs the concept of the chronotope, which refers to the phenomenon whereby the spatial and temporal frameworks explicit or implicit in a text have the same structure, and uncovers various such chronotopes in Homer, the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, Presocratic philosophy and in particular the tragedies of Aeschylus. Mikhail Bakhtin's pioneering use of the chronotope was in literary analysis. This (...)
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  5.  52
    Gravitation and Cosmology: Principles and Applications of the General Theory of Relativity.Steven Weinberg - 1972 - New York: Wiley.
    Weinberg's 1972 work, in his description, had two purposes. The first was practical to bring together and assess the wealth of data provided over the previous decade while realizing that newer data would come in even as the book was being printed. He hoped the comprehensive picture would prepare the reader and himself to that new data as it emerged. The second was to produce a textbook about general relativity in which geometric ideas were not given a starring role for (...)
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  6.  9
    The Kalām Cosmological Argument: A Reassessment.Jacobus Erasmus - 2018 - Cham: Springer.
    This book offers a discussion of the kalām cosmological argument, and presents a defence of a version of that argument after critically evaluating three of the most important versions of the argument. It argues that, since the versions of the kalām cosmological argument defended by Philoponus (c. 490–c. 570), al-Ghazālī (1058– 1111), and the contemporary philosopher, William Lane Craig, all deny the possibility of the existence of an actual infinite, these arguments are incompatible with Platonism and the view that God (...)
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  7.  2
    The Cosmological Argument & the Place of Contestation in Philosophical Discourse: From Plato & Aristotle to Contemporary Debates.Scott D. G. Ventureyra - 2016 - Maritain Studies/Etudes Maritainiennes 32 (1):51-70.
    In this paper, I examine three significant periods of the cosmological argument which exemplify the importance of contestation: first, Plato’s and Aristotle’s formulation of it, second, Philoponus’ own reactions and influence, third, the contemporary state of such discourses. Contestation has an inestimable role in philosophical development and reflection, as will be demonstrated through the examination of such periods.
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  8. Cosmology and Politics in Plato's Later Works.Dominic J. O'Meara - 2017 - Cambridge University Press.
    Knowledge of the structure of the cosmos, Plato suggests, is important in organizing a human community which aims at happiness. This book investigates this theme in Plato's later works, the Timaeus, Statesman, and Laws. Dominic J. O'Meara proposes fresh readings of these texts, starting from the religious festivals and technical and artistic skills in the context of which Plato elaborates his cosmological and political theories, for example the Greek architect's use of models as applied by Plato in describing the making (...)
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  9.  36
    Cosmology and Convention.David Merritt - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 57:41-52.
    I argue that some important elements of the current cosmological model are 'conventionalist’ in the sense defined by Karl Popper. These elements include dark matter and dark energy; both are auxiliary hypotheses that were invoked in response to observations that falsified the standard model as it existed at the time. The use of conventionalist stratagems in response to unexpected observations implies that the field of cosmology is in a state of 'degenerating problemshift’ in the language of Imre Lakatos. I (...)
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  10. Cosmological Arguments.Michael Almeida - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    The book discusses the structure, content, and evaluation of cosmological arguments. The introductory chapter investigates features essential to cosmological arguments. Traditionally, cosmological arguments are distinguished by their appeal to change, causation, contingency or objective becoming in the world. But none of these is in fact essential to the formulation of cosmological arguments. Chapters 1-3 present a critical discussion of traditional Thomistic, Kalam, and Leibnizian cosmological arguments, noting various advantages and disadvantages of these approaches. Chapter 4 offers an entirely new approach (...)
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  11. Inflationary Cosmology and the String Multiverse.Bruce L. Gordon - 2010 - In Robert J. Spitzer (ed.), New Proofs for the Existence of God: Contributions of Contemporary Physics and Philosophy. Grand Rapids: pp. 75-103.
    We begin with a discussion of the Borde-Guth-Vilenkin past-incompleteness theorem for inflationary universes and discuss its significance for various pre-big-bang inflationary scenarios in string cosmology, including landscape and cyclic ekpyrotic models. We then undertake a general critique of inflationary cosmology in respect of its stated goals and conclude with a critcal discussion of the string-theoretic multiverse as a "solution" to the problem of cosmological fine-tuning.
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  12.  83
    Plato's Cosmology and its Ethical Dimensions.Gabriela Roxana Carone - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    Although a great deal has been written on Plato's ethics, his cosmology has not received so much attention in recent times and its importance for his ethical thought has remained underexplored. By offering accounts of Timaeus, Philebus, Politicus and Laws X, the book reveals a strongly symbiotic relation between the cosmic and human sphere. It is argued that in his late period Plato presents a picture of an organic universe, endowed with structure and intrinsic value, which both urges our (...)
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  13.  48
    The Cosmological Argument From Plato to Leibniz.William Lane Craig - 1980 - Barnes & Noble.
  14. The Cosmological Argument.William L. Rowe - 1971 - Noûs 5 (1):49-61.
  15.  2
    The Cosmological Argument.William L. Rowe - 1998 - Fordham University Press.
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  16.  30
    Ancient Cosmologies David Furley: Cosmic Problems: Essays on Greek and Roman Philosophy of Nature. Pp. Xiv + 258. Cambridge University Press, 1989. £27.50. [REVIEW]Daniel W. Graham - 1990 - The Classical Review 40 (02):314-315.
  17. Kantian Cosmology: The Very Idea.Gary Banham - 2011 - Kant Studies Online:1--26.
    The general conception of Kantian cosmology in Universal Natural History is one that folds into the “pre-Critical” period in the basic sense that the status of the types of principles invoked within the work is not subjected by Kant to critical assessment. This is far from meaning that the enquiry of Universal Natural History is simply abandoned by Kant. Rather, the stakes of the inquiry into cosmology become transformed and this transformation has much to do with the results (...)
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  18. Cosmological Arguments.Graham Oppy - 2009 - Noûs 43 (1):31-48.
    This paper provides a taxonomy of cosmological arguments and givesgeneral reasons for thinking that arguments that belong to a given category do not succeed.
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  19.  16
    Modern Cosmology & Philosophy.John Leslie (ed.) - 1998 - Prometheus Books.
    Did the universe originate from a "big bang" as argued by leading astrophysicists and others? Or does some other theory more accurately describe its beginnings? Are there other forms of life in the universe? What about other universes? This volume discusses these and other topics in this hotly debated area where philosophy and science meet.
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  20. Philosophy and Cosmology.Claus Beisbart - 2016 - In Paul Humphreys (ed.), Oxford Handbook in the Philosophy of Science. Oxford, Vereinigtes Königreich: pp. 817-835.
    Cosmological questions (e.g., how far the world extends and how it all began) have occupied humans for ages and given rise to numerous conjectures, both within and outside philosophy. To put to rest fruitless speculation, Kant argued that these questions move beyond the limits of human knowledge. This article begins with Kant’s doubts about cosmology and shows that his arguments presuppose unreasonably high standards on knowledge and unwarranted assumptions about space-time. As an analysis of the foundations of twentieth-century (...) reveals, other worries about the discipline can be avoided too if the universe is modeled using Einstein’s general theory of relativity. There is now strong observational support for one particular model. However, due to underdetermination problems, the big cosmological questions cannot be fully answered using this model either. This opens the space for more speculative proposals again (e.g., that the universe is only part of a huge multiverse). (shrink)
     
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  21.  36
    Cosmology and Political Culture in Early China.Aihe Wang - 2000 - Cambridge University Press.
    This radical reinterpretation of the formative stages of Chinese culture and history traces the central role played by cosmology in the formation of China's early empires. It crosses the disciplines of history, social anthropology, archaeology, and philosophy to illustrate how cosmological systems, particularly the Five Elements, shaped political culture. By focusing on dynamic change in early cosmology, the book undermines the notion that Chinese cosmology was homogenous and unchanging. By arguing that cosmology was intrinsic to power (...)
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  22.  9
    The Philosophy of Cosmology.Khalil Chamcham, John Barrow, Simon Saunders & Joe Silk (eds.) - 2017 - Cambridge University Press.
    Following a long-term international collaboration between leaders in cosmology and the philosophy of science, this volume addresses foundational questions at the limit of science across these disciplines, questions raised by observational and theoretical progress in modern cosmology. Space missions have mapped the Universe up to its early instants, opening up questions on what came before the Big Bang, the nature of space and time, and the quantum origin of the Universe. As the foundational volume of an emerging academic (...)
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  23.  50
    Plato's Cosmology: The Timaeus of Plato.Francis MacDonald Cornford - 1937 - Hackett Publishing Company.
    ". . . one of the masterpieces of classical scholarship. . . . Contemporary work on the Timaeus will inevitably take Plato's Cosmology as its starting point." -- Charles H Kahn, University of Pennsylvania.
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  24. The Cosmological Constant, the Fate of the Universe, Unimodular Gravity, and All That.John Earman - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 34 (4):559-577.
    The cosmological constant is back. Several lines of evidence point to the conclusion that either there is a positive cosmological constant or else the universe is filled with a strange form of matter (“quintessence”) that mimics some of the effects of a positive lambda. This paper investigates the implications of the former possibility. Two senses in which the cosmological constant can be a constant are distinguished: the capital Λ sense in which lambda is a universal constant on a par with (...)
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  25.  16
    Bouncing Cosmologies: Progress and Problems.Robert Brandenberger & Patrick Peter - 2017 - Foundations of Physics 47 (6):797-850.
    We review the status of bouncing cosmologies as alternatives to cosmological inflation for providing a description of the very early universe, and a source for the cosmological perturbations which are observed today. We focus on the motivation for considering bouncing cosmologies, the origin of fluctuations in these models, and the challenges which various implementations face.
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  26.  17
    Cosmological Aesthetics Through the Kantian Sublime and Nietzschean Dionysian by Erman Kaplama.Melanie Shepherd - 2016 - Journal of Nietzsche Studies 47 (2):316-318.
    This two-chapter work brings together Heraclitus, Kant, and Nietzsche in an effort to explore transition and motion, two concepts derived from Kant’s Opus Postumum that the author argues are indications of Kant’s cosmological-aesthetic approach in his late work. At times, the book seems to want to be a work of Kant scholarship, addressing the question of the role of the Opus Postumum in the Kantian corpus. Indeed, the most sustained engagements with secondary literature occur in the sections on Kant. At (...)
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  27. The Cosmological Argument: A Reassessment.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1972 - Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas.
    The book adapts St. Thomas's Third Way of demonstrating the existence of God in light of contemporary issues in philosophy. Major topics in this study are causation, the principles of causation and sufficient reason, logical and real necessity, causation of the cosmos, and non-dependency of the cosmological on the ontological argument.
     
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  28.  18
    Process and Reality: An Essay in Cosmology.Alfred North Whitehead - 1929 - Free Press.
    Process and Reality, Whitehead’s magnum opus, is one of the major philosophical works of the modern world, and an extensive body of secondary literature has developed around it. Yet surely no significant philosophical book has appeared in the last two centuries in nearly so deplorable a condition as has this one, with its many hundreds of errors and with over three hundred discrepancies between the American and the English editions, which appeared in different formats with divergent paginations. The work itself (...)
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  29.  23
    Plotinus' Cosmology: A Study of Ennead Ii.1 (40): Text, Translation, and Commentary.James Wilberding - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    In Ennead II.1 (40) Plotinus is primarily concerned to argue for the everlastingness of the universe, the heavens, and the heavenly bodies as individual substances. Here he must grapple both with the philosophical issue of personal identity through time and with the rich tradition of cosmology which pitted the Platonists against the Aristotelians and Stoics. What results is a historically informed cosmological sketch explaining the constitution of the heavens as well as sublunar and celestial motion. This book contains an (...)
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  30. Philosophy of Cosmology.Chris Smeenk - 2013 - In Robert Batterman (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Physics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 607-652.
  31. Cosmological Artificial Selection: Creation Out of Something? [REVIEW]Rüdiger Vaas - 2012 - Foundations of Science 17 (1):25-28.
    According to the scenario of cosmological artificial selection and artificial cosmogenesis, our universe was created and possibly even fine-tuned by cosmic engineers in another universe. This approach shall be compared to other explanations, and some far-reaching problems of it shall be discussed.
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  32.  48
    Ancient Cosmologies.Carmen Blacker, Michael Loewe & J. Martin Plumley (eds.) - 1975 - Allen & Unwin.
  33.  66
    Cosmology in Antiquity.M. R. Wright - 1995 - Routledge.
    Two and a half thousand years ago Greek philosophers "looked up at the sky and formed a theory of everything." Though their solutions are little credited today, the questions remain fresh. Early Greek thinkers struggled to come to terms with and explain the totality of their surroundings, to identitify an original substance from which the universe was compounded, and to reconcile the presence of balance and proportion with the apparent disorder of the cosmos. M. R. Wright examines cosmological theories of (...)
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  34.  73
    Infinite Minds: A Philosophical Cosmology.John Leslie - 2001 - Oxford University Press.
    The cosmos exists just because of the ethical need for it We, and all the intricate structures of our universe, exist as thoughts in a divine mind that knows everything worth knowing. There could also be infinitely many other universes in this mind....It may be hard to believe that the universe is as Leslie says it is--but it is also hard to resist his compelling ideas and arguments.
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  35. Plotinus' Cosmology: A Study of Ennead Ii.James Wilberding - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    In Ennead II.1 (40) Plotinus is primarily concerned to argue for the everlastingness of the universe, the heavens, and the heavenly bodies as individual substances. Here he must grapple both with the philosophical issue of personal identity through time and with the rich tradition of cosmology which pitted the Platonists against the Aristotelians and Stoics. What results is a historically informed cosmological sketch explaining the constitution of the heavens as well as sublunar and celestial motion. This book contains an (...)
     
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  36. Medieval Cosmology: Theories of Infinity, Place, Time, Void, and the Plurality of Worlds.Roger Ariew (ed.) - 1987 - University of Chicago Press.
    These selections from _Le système du monde_, the classic ten-volume history of the physical sciences written by the great French physicist Pierre Duhem, focus on cosmology, Duhem's greatest interest. By reconsidering the work of such Arab and Christian scholars as Averroes, Avicenna, Gregory of Rimini, Albert of Saxony, Nicole Oresme, Duns Scotus, and William of Occam, Duhem demonstrated the sophistication of medieval science and cosmology.
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  37. Practical Certainty and Cosmological Conjectures.Nicholas Maxwell - 2005 - In Michael Rahnfeld (ed.), Is there Certain Knowledge? Leipziger Universitätsverlag.
    We ordinarily assume that we have reliable knowledge of our immediate surroundings, so much so that almost all the time we entrust our lives to the truth of what we take ourselves to know, without a moment’s thought. But if, as Karl Popper and others have maintained, all our knowledge is conjectural, then this habitual assumption that our common sense knowledge of our environment is secure and trustworthy would seem to be an illusion. Popper’s philosophy of science, in particular, fails (...)
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  38. The Derveni Papyrus: Cosmology, Theology and Interpretation.Gábor Betegh - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is a comprehensive study of the Derveni Papyrus. The papyrus, found in 1962 near Thessaloniki, is not only one of the oldest surviving Greek papyri but is also considered by scholars as a document of primary importance for a better understanding of the religious and philosophical developments in the fifth and fourth centuries BC. Gábor Betegh aims to reconstruct and systematically analyse the different strata of the text and their interrelation by exploring the archaeological context; the interpretation of rituals (...)
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  39.  27
    Cosmological Cinema: Pedagogy, Propaganda, and Perturbation in Early Dome Theaters.David McConville - 2007 - Technoetic Arts 5 (2):69-85.
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  40. Quantum Cosmology and the Laws of Nature: Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action.R. J. Russell, N. Murphy & C. J. Isham (eds.) - 1993 - Vatican Observatory.
  41.  2
    A Cosmological Reformulation of Anselm’s Proof That God Exists.Richard Campbell - 2021 - Brill.
    In this book, Richard Campbell reformulates Anselm’s proof to show that factual evidence confirmed by modern cosmology validly implies that God exists. Anselm’s proof, which was never the “ontological argument” attributed to him, emerges as engaging with current philosophical issues concerning existence and scientific explanation.
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  42. Cosmology and Biology in Ancient Philosophy: From Thales to Avicenna.Ricardo Salles (ed.) - 2021 - Cambridge University Press.
    In antiquity living beings are inextricably linked to the cosmos as a whole. Ancient biology and cosmology depend upon one another and therefore a complete understanding of one requires a full account of the other. This volume addresses many philosophical issues that arise from this double relation. Does the cosmos have a soul of its own? Why? Is either of these two disciplines more basic than the other, or are they at the same explanatory level? What is the relationship (...)
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  43.  5
    Physical Cosmology and Philosophy.John Leslie & Paul Edwards - 1990 - Macmillan Publishing Company.
  44.  84
    The Cosmological Argument and the Causal Principle.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1975 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 6 (3):185 - 190.
    I reply to Houston Craighead, who presents two arguments against my version of the cosmological argument. First, he argues that my arguments in defense of the causal principle in terms of the existence being accidental to an essence is fallacious because it begs the question. I respond that the objection itself is circular, and that it invokes the questionable contention that what is conceivable is possible. Against my contention that the causal principle might be intuitively known, I reply to his (...)
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  45. Cosmology as a Science.Peter G. Bergmann - 1970 - Foundations of Physics 1 (1):17-22.
    In recent years, observational techniques at cosmological distances have been sufficiently improved that cosmology has become an empirical science, rather than a field for unchecked speculation. There remains the fact that its object, the whole universe, exists only once; hence, we are unable to separate “general” features from particular aspects of “our” universe. This might not be a serious drawback if we were justified in the belief that presently accepted laws of nature remain valid on the cosmological scale. In (...)
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  46.  1
    The Cosmology of Giordano Bruno.Paul Henri Michel - 1973 - Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  47.  3
    Mesas & Cosmologies in Mesoamerica.Douglas Sharon & James Edward Brady (eds.) - 2003 - San Diego Museum of Man.
  48. Modern Cosmology.Jagjit Singh - 1970 - Harmondsworth, Penguin.
  49.  14
    Isaac Newton's Scientific Method: Turning Data Into Evidence About Gravity and Cosmology.William L. Harper - 2011 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Isaac Newton's Scientific Method examines Newton's argument for universal gravity and his application of it to resolve the problem of deciding between geocentric and heliocentric world systems by measuring masses of the sun and planets. William L. Harper suggests that Newton's inferences from phenomena realize an ideal of empirical success that is richer than prediction. Any theory that can achieve this rich sort of empirical success must not only be able to predict the phenomena it purports to explain, but also (...)
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  50.  3
    Cosmology.H. Bondi - 1954 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 4 (16):350-352.
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