Results for 'cosmology'

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  1. Gravitation and Cosmology: Principles and Applications of the General Theory of Relativity.Steven Weinberg - 1972 - New York: Wiley.
  2. Philosophy of Cosmology.Chris Smeenk - 2013 - In Robert Batterman (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Physics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 607-652.
  3.  33
    Cosmology and Convention.David Merritt - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 57:41-52.
    I argue that some important elements of the current cosmological model are 'conventionalist’ in the sense defined by Karl Popper. These elements include dark matter and dark energy; both are auxiliary hypotheses that were invoked in response to observations that falsified the standard model as it existed at the time. The use of conventionalist stratagems in response to unexpected observations implies that the field of cosmology is in a state of 'degenerating problemshift’ in the language of Imre Lakatos. I (...)
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  4. Quantum Cosmology and the Laws of Nature: Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action.R. J. Russell, N. Murphy & C. J. Isham (eds.) - 1993 - Vatican Observatory.
  5.  4
    Cosmology in the Philosophical Education of Ukraine: History and Modern Condition.Sergii Rudenko, Yaroslav Sobolievskyi & Vadym Tytarenko - 2018 - Filosofiâ I Kosmologiâ 20:128-138.
    The article is devoted to the philosophy of cosmology, its history and contemporary conditions, the tradition of studying and modern trends in teaching this discipline in higher education in Ukraine. There is problem of defining the subject of philosophy of cosmology, there are similar and different motifs with modern astrophysics, cosmology on the one hand, and, with the history of philosophy and modern philosophy on the other hand. The change in the subject of the philosophy of (...) in the history of philosophy and science has been studied in this article. A modern state of the philosophy of cosmology in modern philosophical education is demonstrated. (shrink)
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  6. Medieval Cosmology: Theories of Infinity, Place, Time, Void, and the Plurality of Worlds.Pierre Maurice Marie Duhem - 1985 - University of Chicago Press.
  7.  64
    Cosmology in Antiquity.M. R. Wright - 1995 - Routledge.
    Two and a half thousand years ago Greek philosophers "looked up at the sky and formed a theory of everything." Though their solutions are little credited today, the questions remain fresh. Early Greek thinkers struggled to come to terms with and explain the totality of their surroundings, to identitify an original substance from which the universe was compounded, and to reconcile the presence of balance and proportion with the apparent disorder of the cosmos. M. R. Wright examines cosmological theories of (...)
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  8.  59
    Cosmology From Alpha to Omega: Response to Reviews.Robert John Russell - 2010 - Zygon 45 (1):237-250.
    I gratefully acknowledge and respond here to four reviews of my recent book, Cosmology from Alpha to Omega. Nancey Murphy stresses the importance of showing consistency between Christian theology and natural science through a detailed examination of my recent model of their creative interaction. She suggests how this model can be enhanced by adopting Alasdair MacIntyre's understanding of tradition in order to adjudicate between competing ways of incorporating science into a wider worldview. She urges the inclusion of ethics in (...)
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  9.  3
    Cosmology in the Philosophical Education of Ukraine: History and Modern Condition.Sergii Rudenko, Yaroslav Sobolievskyi & Vadym Tytarenko - 2018 - Philosophy and Cosmology 20 (1).
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  10. Time in Cosmology.Chris Smeenk - 2013 - In A. Bardon & H. Dyke (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to the Philosophy of Time. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 201-219.
    This essay aims to provide a self-contained introduction to time in relativistic cosmology that clarifies both how questions about the nature of time should be posed in this setting and the extent to which they have been or can be answered empirically. The first section below recounts the loss of Newtonian absolute time with the advent of special and general relativity, and the partial recovery of absolute time in the form of cosmic time in some cosmological models. Section II (...)
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  11.  7
    Cosmology, Particles, and the Unity of Science.Henrik Zinkernagel - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 33 (3):493-516.
    During the last three decades, there has been a growing realization among physicists and cosmologists that the relation between particle physics and cosmology may constitute yet another successful example of the unity of science. However, there are important conceptual problems in the unification of the two disciplines, e.g. in connection with the cosmological constant and the conjecture of inflation. The present article will outline some of these problems, and argue that the victory for the unity of science in the (...)
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  12.  74
    Relativity, Thermodynamics and Cosmology.Richard Chace Tolman - 1934 - Clarendon Press.
    A distinguished American physicist and teacher delivers a landmark study thatdevelops three essential scientific themes on each subject.
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  13.  74
    Plato's Cosmology and its Ethical Dimensions.Gabriela Roxana Carone - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    Although a great deal has been written on Plato's ethics, his cosmology has not received so much attention in recent times and its importance for his ethical thought has remained underexplored. By offering accounts of Timaeus, Philebus, Politicus and Laws X, the book reveals a strongly symbiotic relation between the cosmic and human sphere. It is argued that in his late period Plato presents a picture of an organic universe, endowed with structure and intrinsic value, which both urges our (...)
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  14.  45
    Cosmology From Alpha to Omega.Robert John Russell - 1994 - Zygon 29 (4):557-577.
  15.  7
    Critical Cosmology: On Nations and Globalization: A Philosophical Essay.Gérard Raulet - 2005 - Lexington Books.
    Critical Cosmology takes up the task of establishing the much needed philosophical tools to think globalization by reading Kant's refoundation of ...
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  16.  51
    More Problems for Newtonian Cosmology.David Wallace - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 57:35-40.
    I point out a radical indeterminism in potential-based formulations of Newtonian gravity once we drop the condition that the potential vanishes at infinity. This indeterminism, which is well known in theoretical cosmology but has received little attention in foundational discussions, can be removed only by specifying boundary conditions at all instants of time, which undermines the theory's claim to be fully cosmological, i.e., to apply to the Universe as a whole. A recent alternative formulation of Newtonian gravity due to (...)
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  17. Cosmology as a Science.Peter G. Bergmann - 1970 - Foundations of Physics 1 (1):17-22.
    In recent years, observational techniques at cosmological distances have been sufficiently improved that cosmology has become an empirical science, rather than a field for unchecked speculation. There remains the fact that its object, the whole universe, exists only once; hence, we are unable to separate “general” features from particular aspects of “our” universe. This might not be a serious drawback if we were justified in the belief that presently accepted laws of nature remain valid on the cosmological scale. In (...)
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  18.  23
    Plotinus' Cosmology: A Study of Ennead Ii.1 (40): Text, Translation, and Commentary.James Wilberding - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    In Ennead II.1 (40) Plotinus is primarily concerned to argue for the everlastingness of the universe, the heavens, and the heavenly bodies as individual substances. Here he must grapple both with the philosophical issue of personal identity through time and with the rich tradition of cosmology which pitted the Platonists against the Aristotelians and Stoics. What results is a historically informed cosmological sketch explaining the constitution of the heavens as well as sublunar and celestial motion. This book contains an (...)
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  19. Process and Reality: An Essay in Cosmology.Alfred North Whitehead - 1929 - Free Press.
    Process and Reality, Whitehead’s magnum opus, is one of the major philosophical works of the modern world, and an extensive body of secondary literature has developed around it. Yet surely no significant philosophical book has appeared in the last two centuries in nearly so deplorable a condition as has this one, with its many hundreds of errors and with over three hundred discrepancies between the American and the English editions, which appeared in different formats with divergent paginations. The work itself (...)
     
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  20.  40
    Parmenides, Cosmology and Sufficient Reason.Andrew Gregory - 2013 - Apeiron (1):1-32.
    Journal Name: Apeiron Issue: Ahead of print.
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  21.  24
    Cosmology and Political Culture in Early China.Aihe Wang - 2000 - Cambridge University Press.
    This radical reinterpretation of the formative stages of Chinese culture and history traces the central role played by cosmology in the formation of China's early empires. It crosses the disciplines of history, social anthropology, archaeology, and philosophy to illustrate how cosmological systems, particularly the Five Elements, shaped political culture. By focusing on dynamic change in early cosmology, the book undermines the notion that Chinese cosmology was homogenous and unchanging. By arguing that cosmology was intrinsic to power (...)
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  22.  2
    Cosmology.H. Bondi - 1954 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 4 (16):350-352.
  23.  19
    The Cosmology of 'Hippocrates', De Hebdomadibus.M. L. West - 1971 - Classical Quarterly 21 (02):365-.
    Several of the treatises and lectures that make up the Hippocratic corpus begin with more or less extended statements about the physical composition and operation of the world at large, and approach the study of human physiology from this angle. We see this, for example, in De Natwra Hominis, De Flatibus, De Carnibus, De Victu; it was the approach of Alcmaeon of Croton, Diogenes of Apollonia, and according to Plato of Hippocrates himself. The work known as De Hebdomadibus would appear (...)
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  24. Quantum Cosmology's Implication of Atheism.Q. Smith - 1997 - Analysis 57 (4):295-304.
  25.  25
    Plato's Cosmology: The Timaeus of Plato.Francis MacDonald Cornford - 1937 - Hackett Publishing Company.
    A reprint of the Routledge edition of 1935.
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  26.  73
    Topology, Cosmology and Convention.Clark Glymour - 1972 - Synthese 24 (1-2):195 - 218.
  27. Consciousness and Cosmology: Hyperdualism Ventilated.Colin McGinn - 1993 - In Martin Davies & Glyn W. Humphreys (eds.), Consciousness: Psychological and Philosophical Essays. Blackwell.
     
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  28. Contemporary History of Cosmology and the Controversy Over the Multiverse.Helge Kragh - 2009 - Annals of Science 66 (4):529-551.
    Cosmology has always been different from other areas of the natural sciences. Although an observationally supported standard model of the universe emerged in the 1960s, more speculative models and conceptions continued to attract attention. During the last decade, ideas of multiple universes based on anthropic reasoning have become very popular among cosmologists and theoretical physicists. This had led to a major debate within the scientific community of the epistemic standards of modern cosmology. Is the multiverse a scientific hypothesis, (...)
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  29.  56
    Cosmology and Theology.John Leslie - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  30. On Under-Determination in Cosmology.Jeremy Butterfield - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 46 (1):57-69.
    I discuss how modern cosmology illustrates under-determination of theoretical hypotheses by data, in ways that are different from most philosophical discussions. I emphasise cosmology's concern with what data could in principle be collected by a single observer ; and I give a broadly sceptical discussion of cosmology's appeal to the cosmological principle as a way of breaking the under-determination.I confine most of the discussion to the history of the observable universe from about one second after the Big (...)
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  31. Underdetermination in Cosmology: An Invitation.Jeremy Butterfield - 2012 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 86 (1):1-18.
    I discuss how modern cosmology illustrates underdetermination of theoretical hypotheses by data, in ways that are different from most philosophical discussions. I confine the discussion to the history of the observable universe from about one second after the Big Bang, as described by the mainstream cosmological model: in effect, what cosmologists in the early 1970s dubbed the ‘standard model’, as elaborated since then. Or rather, the discussion is confined to a few aspects of that history. I emphasize that despite (...)
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  32.  6
    Historicizing Tianrenheyi as Correlative Cosmology for Rethinking Education in Modern China and Beyond.Weili Zhao - 2019 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 51 (11):1106-1116.
    The Chinese tianrenheyi thesis bespeaks a correlative cosmology irreducible to the Western metaphysics. This article historicizes tianrenheyi for new implications to help rethink the given concepts of ‘person/thing,’ ‘environment/nature,’ and ‘relationality’ in contemporary ethical and environmental education in three steps. First, it turns to Yu Ying-Shih’s writing for a historical and ethical picture of tianrenheyi as an ‘Axial breakthrough’ in Confucius' time and with direct relevance to Confucian person-making education. Second, it moves on to Roger Ames’ unpacking of tianrenheyi (...)
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  33.  9
    Philosophical Implications of Inflationary Cosmology.Joshua Knobe, Ken D. Olum & Alexander Vilenkin - 2006 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (1):47-67.
    Recent developments in cosmology indicate that every history having a nonzero probability is realized in infinitely many distinct regions of spacetime. Thus, it appears that the universe contains infinitely many civilizations exactly like our own, as well as infinitely many civilizations that differ from our own in any way permitted by physical laws. We explore the implications of this conclusion for ethical theory and for the doomsday argument. In the infinite universe, we find that the doomsday argument applies only (...)
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  34.  8
    Cosmology as Contact Between Science and Theology.Willem B. Drees - 2007 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 63 (1/3):533 - 553.
    Scientific cosmology raises various issues of philosophical interest. Among these is the understanding of the beginning', as it arises in normal cosmology, which seems not intelligible as an ordinary beginning (' in time'), but rather as a beginning ' of time'. Recent cosmological research that seeks to unite theories of gravity and of quantum physics is speculative; various proposals with different philosophical perspectives on time and reality co-exist. This plurality of speculative cosmological proposals reflects also a diversity of (...)
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  35.  17
    The Cosmology of Freedom.Robert Cummings Neville - 1974 - State University of New York Press.
    The book shows the connections between the personal and the social dimensions of freedom, and how all the meanings of freedom are functions of the natural cosmos.
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  36. Gravity, Entropy, and Cosmology: In Search of Clarity.David Wallace - 2010 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (3):513-540.
    I discuss the statistical mechanics of gravitating systems and in particular its cosmological implications, and argue that many conventional views on this subject in the foundations of statistical mechanics embody significant confusion; I attempt to provide a clearer and more accurate account. In particular, I observe that (i) the role of gravity in entropy calculations must be distinguished from the entropy of gravity, that (ii) although gravitational collapse is entropy-increasing, this is not usually because the collapsing matter itself increases in (...)
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  37. Cosmology and Theology.Hans Halvorson & Helge Kragh - 2011 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  38. Predictability Crisis in Early Universe Cosmology.Chris Smeenk - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 46 (1):122-133.
    Inflationary cosmology has been widely accepted due to its successful predictions: for a “generic” initial state, inflation produces a homogeneous, flat, bubble with an appropriate spectrum of density perturbations. However, the discovery that inflation is “generically eternal,” leading to a vast multiverse of inflationary bubbles with different low-energy physics, threatens to undermine this account. There is a “predictability crisis” in eternal inflation, because extracting predictions apparently requires a well-defined measure over the multiverse. This has led to discussions of anthropic (...)
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  39. Quantum Cosmology and the Beginning of the Universe.Gerrit Smith & Robert Weingard - 1990 - Philosophy of Science 57 (4):663-667.
    In this note a recently developed quantum oscillating finite space cosmological model is described. The principle novelty of the model is that there is a quantum blurring of the classical singularity between cycles, instead of a singularity free bounce. Recently, Quentin Smith (1988) has argued that present theoretical and observational evidence justifies the belief that the past history of the universe is finite. The relevance of this cosmological model to Smith's arguments is discussed.
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  40.  83
    Cosmology, Particles, and the Unity of Science.Henrik Zinkernagel - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 33 (3):493-516.
    During the last three decades, there has been a growing realization among physicists and cosmologists that the relation between particle physics and cosmology may constitute yet another successful example of the unity of science. However, there are important conceptual problems in the unification of the two disciplines, e.g. in connection with the cosmological constant and the conjecture of inflation. The present article will outline some of these problems, and argue that the victory for the unity of science in the (...)
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  41. Was Newtonian Cosmology Really Inconsistent?Peter Vickers - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 40 (3):197-208.
    This paper follows up a debate as to the consistency of Newtonian cosmology. Whereas Malament (1995) has shown that Newtonian cosmology *is* not inconsistent, to date there has been no analysis of Norton’s claim (1995) that Newtonian cosmology *was* inconsistent prior to certain advances in the 1930s, and in particular prior to Seeliger’s seminal paper of 1895. In this paper I agree that there are assumptions, Newtonian and cosmological in character, and relevant to the real history of (...)
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  42.  12
    Plato's Cosmology.R. S. & Francis Macdonald Cornford - 1937 - Journal of Philosophy 34 (26):717.
  43.  89
    Did Peirce Have a Cosmology? Short - 2010 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 46 (4):521.
    W. B. Gallie's words about Peirce's cosmology—"the black sheep or white elephant of his philosophical progeny" (1952, p. 216)—have often been quoted, usually as a preface to giving a better account of the animal. That he attributed the view to 'contemporary philosophers' and did not assert it himself has usually been ignored. True, Gallie did argue that the "cosmology is a failure, and an inevitable failure" (p. 236), but he also said that Peirce himself "recognized … that his (...)
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  44.  6
    Cosmology and Meteorology.Liba Taub - 2009 - In James Warren (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Epicureanism. Cambridge University Press. pp. 105.
  45. A Critical Look at Inflationary Cosmology.John Earman & Jesus Mosterin - 1999 - Philosophy of Science 66 (1):1-49.
    Inflationary cosmology won a large following on the basis of the claim that it solves various problems that beset the standard big bang model. We argue that these problems concern not the empirical adequacy of the standard model but rather the nature of the explanations it offers. Furthermore, inflationary cosmology has not been able to deliver on its proposed solutions without offering models which are increasingly complicated and contrived, which depart more and more from the standard model it (...)
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  46.  88
    Probabilistic Reasoning in Cosmology.Yann Benétreau-Dupin - 2015 - Dissertation, The University of Western Ontario
    Cosmology raises novel philosophical questions regarding the use of probabilities in inference. This work aims at identifying and assessing lines of arguments and problematic principles in probabilistic reasoning in cosmology. -/- The first, second, and third papers deal with the intersection of two distinct problems: accounting for selection effects, and representing ignorance or indifference in probabilistic inferences. These two problems meet in the cosmology literature when anthropic considerations are used to predict cosmological parameters by conditionalizing the distribution (...)
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  47. Can We Justifiably Assume the Cosmological Principle in Order to Break Model Underdetermination in Cosmology?Claus Beisbart - 2009 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 40 (2):175-205.
    If cosmology is to obtain knowledge about the whole universe, it faces an underdetermination problem: Alternative space-time models are compatible with our evidence. The problem can be avoided though, if there are good reasons to adopt the Cosmological Principle (CP), because, assuming the principle, one can confine oneself to the small class of homogeneous and isotropic space-time models. The aim of this paper is to ask whether there are good reasons to adopt the Cosmological Principle in order to avoid (...)
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  48.  33
    Plato's Cosmology.D. T. & F. M. Cornford - 1937 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 57 (1):276.
  49. Sociology of Modern Cosmology.Martín López Corredoira - 2009 - In J. A. Rubiño-Martín, J. A. Belmonte, F. Prada & A. Alberdi (eds.), Cosmology across Cultures. Astronomical Society of Pacific. pp. 66-73.
    Certain results of observational cosmology cast critical doubt on the foundations of standard cosmology but leave most cosmologists untroubled. Alternative cosmological models that differ from the Big Bang have been published and defended by heterodox scientists; however, most cosmologists do not heed these. This may be because standard theory is correct and all other ideas and criticisms are incorrect, but it is also to a great extent due to sociological phenomena such as the "snowball effect" or "groupthink". We (...)
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  50.  28
    To Become a God: Cosmology, Sacrifice, and Self-Divinization in Early China.Michael J. Puett - 2002 - Harvard University Press.
    This wide-ranging book reconstructs this debate and places within their contemporary contexts the rival claims concerning the nature of the cosmos and the ...
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