Results for 'cost‐of‐illness'

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  1.  25
    Operating Room Cost for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Procedures: Does Experience or Severity of Illness Matter?Wei-Ching Chung, Pao-Luo Fan, Herng-Chia Chiu, Chun-Yuh Yang, Kun-Lun Huang & Dong-Sheng Tzeng - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (6):1063-1070.
  2. The Cost of Competence: Why Inequality Causes Depression, Eating Disorders, and Illness in Women.Brett Silverstein & Deborah Perlick - 1985 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Since the advent of the women's movement, women have made unprecedented gains in almost every field, from politics to the professions. Paradoxically, doctors and mental health professionals have also seen a staggering increase in the numbers of young women suffering from an epidemic of depression, eating disorders, and other physical and psychological problems. In The Cost of Competence, authors Brett Silverstein and Deborah Perlick argue that rather than simply labeling individual women as, say, anorexic or depressed, it is time to (...)
     
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  3.  8
    Direct Medical Cost of Hospitalization for Acute Stroke in Lebanon: A Prospective Incidence-Based Multicenter Cost-of-Illness Study.Rachel R. Abdo, Halim M. Abboud, Pascale G. Salameh, Najo A. Jomaa, Rana G. Rizk & Hassan H. Hosseini - 2018 - Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 55:004695801879297.
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  4.  1
    The Cost of "Informal" CareAlways on Call: When Illness Turns Families Into Caregivers.Hilde Lindemann Nelson & Carol Levine - 2001 - Hastings Center Report 31 (4):47.
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  5.  20
    Cost of Falls Amongst Aged Care Facility Residents in Australia.Terry P. Haines, Jenny Nitz, Julia Grieve, Anna Barker, Keith Hill, Betty Haralambous & Andrew Robinson - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (1):1-9.
  6.  30
    Assessment of Transparency of Cost Estimates in Economic Evaluations of Patient Safety Programmes.Haruhisa Fukuda & Yuichi Imanaka - 2009 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (3):451-459.
  7. The Cost of Birth Defects: Estimates of the Value of Protection.Norman J. Waitzman, Richard M. Scheffler & Patrick S. Romano - 1996 - Upa.
    This book uses an incidence approach to look at the economic repercussions of birth defects. The authors investigate eighteen of the most clinically significant birth defects affecting 35,000 newborns each year in our country. Their assessments suggest that the annual cost of these eighteen birth defects, together, is more than eight billion dollars . The authors describe in detail their methodology and data sources while providing thorough accounts of each of the eighteen birth defects. Waitzman, Scheffler, and Romano break new (...)
     
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  8.  16
    Psychiatry’s Inchoate Wish for a Paradigm Shift and Bio-Psych-Social Model of Mental Illness.Tim Thornton - forthcoming - In Rethinking the Biopsychosocial Model. Oxford University Press.
    In recent years, there have been repeated calls for a ‘paradigm shift’ in psychiatry. In this chapter, I take this idea seriously and explore its consequences. Having illustrated calls for a paradigm shift, I sketch the Kuhnian account of science from which the idea is taken and highlight the connection to incommensurability. I then outline a distinction drawn from Winch between putative sciences where the self-understanding of subjects plays no role and those where it is fundamental. I argue that psychiatry (...)
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  9.  13
    Surviving Wartime Emancipation: African Americans and the Cost of Civil War.Leslie A. Schwalm - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (1):21-27.
    The U.S. Civil War chained slave emancipation to war's violence, destruction and deprivation. The resulting health crisis, including illness, injury, and trauma, had immediate and lasting consequences. This essay explores the impact of ideas about race on the U.S. military's health care provisions and treatment of former slaves, both civilians and soldiers.
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  10.  65
    Direct Medical Costs of Care for Chinese Patients with Colorectal Neoplasia: A Health Care Service Provider Perspective.Carlos K. H. Wong, Cindy L. K. Lam, Jensen T. C. Poon, Sarah M. McGhee, Wai‐Lun Law, Dora L. W. Kwong, Janice Tsang & Pierre Chan - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (6):1203-1210.
  11.  39
    Impact of Initial Pattern of Care on Hospital Costs in a Cohort of Incident Lung Cancer Cases.Eva Pagano, Dario Gregori, Claudia Filippini, Daniela Di Cuonzo, Enrico Ruffini, Roberto Zanetti, Stefano Rosso, Oscar Bertetto, Franco Merletti & Giovannino Ciccone - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (2):269-275.
  12.  13
    Ethical Issues Concerning Disclosures of HIV Diagnoses to Perinatally Infected Children and Adolescents.R. Klitzman, S. Marhefka, C. Mellins & L. Wiener - 2007 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 19 (1):31-42.
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  13.  23
    Board Effectiveness and Cost of Debt.Carmen Lorca, Juan Pedro Sánchez-Ballesta & Emma García-Meca - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 100 (4):613 - 631.
    Does the board of directors influence cost of debt financing? This study of a sample of Spanish listed companies during the period 2004-2007 provides some evidence about the question. The results suggest that two board attributes - director ownership and board activity - appear to influence in the risk assessment of debtholders because of their ability to reduce agency cost and information asymmetry. We also find a non-linear relationship between board size and cost of debt, suggesting that from certain levels (...)
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  14.  47
    The Social Cost of Carbon: Valuing Inequality, Risk, and Population for Climate Policy.Marc Fleurbaey, Maddalena Ferranna, Mark Budolfson, Francis Dennig, Kian Mintz-Woo, Robert Socolow, Dean Spears & Stéphane Zuber - 2019 - The Monist 102 (1):84-109.
    We analyze the role of ethical values in the determination of the social cost of carbon, arguing that the familiar debate about discounting is too narrow. Other ethical issues are equally important to computing the social cost of carbon, and we highlight inequality, risk, and population ethics. Although the usual approach, in the economics of cost-benefit analysis for climate policy, is confined to a utilitarian axiology, the methodology of the social cost of carbon is rather flexible and can be expanded (...)
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  15.  32
    Biomechanical and Phenomenological Models of the Body, the Meaning of Illness and Quality of Care.James A. Marcum - 2004 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (3):311-320.
    The predominant model of the body in modern western medicine is the machine. Practitioners of the biomechanical model reduce the patient to separate, individual body parts in order to diagnose and treat disease. Utilization of this model has led, in part, to a quality of care crisis in medicine, in which patients perceive physicians as not sufficiently compassionate or empathic towards their suffering. Alternative models of the body, such as the phenomenological model, have been proposed to address this crisis. According (...)
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  16.  12
    Causes of Illness in Clinical Practice: A Conceptual Exploration. [REVIEW]Stephen Tyreman - 2006 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 9 (3):285-291.
    This paper explores causation in the context of health care practice, in particular, primary care. Causation in health care is necessarily premised on the concepts of disease and illness and the ways they are deviations from health. The paper reviews and broadly categorises concepts of illness most commonly found in the literature in terms of the biomedical, biopsychosocial, and agency models. It is argued that although each model has its place in the gamut of health care practice, primary care implicitly (...)
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  17.  19
    Two Moral Arguments for a Global Social Cost of Carbon.Kian Mintz-Woo - 2018 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 21 (1):60-63.
    [Comment] Donald Trump’s executive order on energy limits the costs and benefits of carbon to domestic sources. The argument for this executive order is that carbon policies should not be singled out from other policies as globally inclusive. Two independent arguments are offered for adopting a global social cost of carbon. The first is based on reinforcing norms in the face of commons tragedies. The second is based on the limitations of consequentialist analyses. We can distinguish consequences for which probabilistic (...)
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  18.  76
    The Body Uncanny — Further Steps Towards a Phenomenology of Illness.Fredrik Svenaeus - 2000 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 3 (2):125-137.
    This article is an attempt to analyse the experience of embodiment in illness. Drawing upon Heidegger' sphenomenology and the suggestion that illness can be understood as unhomelike being-in-the-world, I try to show how the way we live our own bodies in illness is experienced precisely as unhomelike. The body is alien, yet, at the same time, myself. It involves biological processes beyond my control, but these processes still belong to me as lived by me. This a priori otherness of the (...)
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  19.  56
    Das Unheimliche €“ Towards a Phenomenology of Illness.Fredrik Svenaeus - 2000 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 3 (1):3-16.
    In this article I aim at developing a phenomenology ofillness through a critical interpretation of the worksof Sigmund Freud and Martin Heidegger. The phenomenonof ``Unheimlichkeit'' – uncanniness and unhomelikeness– is demonstrated not only to play a key role in thetheories of Freud and Heidegger, but also toconstitute the essence of the experience of illness.Two different modes of unhomelikeness – ``The minduncanny'' and ``The world uncanny'' – are in thisconnection explored as constitutive parts of thephenomenon of illness. The consequence I draw (...)
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  20.  17
    The (Ir)Rational Consideration of the Cost of Science in Transition Economies.Quan-Hoang Vuong - 2018 - Nature Human Behaviour 2 (1):5.
    Science makes a substantial contribution to the economy of developing countries such as Vietnam and its costs must be put into perspective, argues Quan-Hoang Vuong.
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  21.  20
    The Loss of the Sense of Illness: Euthanasia and the Right to Die.Rosangela Barcaro - 2001 - In Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka & Evandro Agazzi (eds.), Life Interpretation and the Sense of Illness Within the Human Condition. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 147-152.
    The interpretation and sense of illness are strictly related to our cultural development, historical situation and beliefs. Scientific discoveries and medical progress over the centuries have led to changes in the concept of illness, changes that affected the interpretation people gave (and give) to illness.
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  22.  69
    Illness as Unhomelike Being-in-the-World: Heidegger and the Phenomenology of Medicine. [REVIEW]Fredrik Svenaeus - 2011 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (3):333-343.
    In this paper, an attempt is made to develop an understanding of the essence of illness based on a reading of Martin Heidegger’s pivotal work Being and Time. The hypothesis put forward is that a phenomenology of illness can be carried out through highlighting the concept of otherness in relation to meaningfulness. Otherness is to be understood here as a foreignness that permeates the ill life when the lived body takes on alien qualities. A further specification of this kind of (...)
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  23.  67
    The Concepts of Health and Illness Revisited.Lennart Nordenfelt - 2006 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10 (1):5-10.
    Contemporary philosophy of health has been quite focused on the problem of determining the nature of the concepts of health, illness and disease from a scientific point of view. Some theorists claim and argue that these concepts are value-free and descriptive in the same sense as the concepts of atom, metal and rain are value-free and descriptive. To say that a person has a certain disease or that he or she is unhealthy is thus to objectively describe this person. On (...)
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  24. The Disordered Mind: An Introduction to Philosophy of Mind and Mental Illness.George Graham - 2010 - Routledge.
    _The Disordered Mind: An Introduction to Philosophy of Mind and Mental Illness, second edition_ examines and explains, from a philosophical standpoint, what mental disorder is: its reality, causes, consequences, and more. It is also an outstanding introduction to philosophy of mind from the perspective of mental disorder. Revised and updated throughout, this _second edition_ includes new discussions of grief and psychopathy, the problems of the psychophysical basis of disorder, the nature of selfhood, and clarification of the relation between rationality and (...)
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  25.  17
    Accuracy and Reliability of Assessment of Severity of Illness Before and After an Educational Intervention.Christopher Shlels, Allen Hutchlnson, Martin Eccles, Eric Gardiner & Lada Smoljanovlc - 1996 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2 (4):265-271.
  26.  8
    Making Civilian Casualties Count: Approaches to Documenting the Human Cost of War. [REVIEW]Izabela Steflja & Jessica Trisko Darden - 2013 - Human Rights Review 14 (4):347-366.
    Our understanding of civilian casualties is not based solely on what is reported but also who reports these human rights abuses. Competing interests at the data collection stage have impeded the development of a more thorough understanding of civilian victimization during conflict. We find that current definitions of “casualty” neglect nonphysical forms of victimization and that group-based definitions of “civilian” can obscure the role of different individuals in conflict. We contend that the dominant definition of “civilian casualty” should be expanded (...)
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  27.  76
    The Ethics of "Commercial Bribery": Integrative Social Contract Theory Meets Transaction Cost Economics. [REVIEW]D. Bruce Johnsen - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S4):791 - 803.
    This article provides an ISCT analysis of commercial bribery focused on transaction cost economics. In the language of Antitrust, commercial bribery is a form of vertical arrangement subject to the same efficiency analysis that has found other vertical arrangements potentially beneficial to consumers. My analysis shows that actions condemned as commerical bribery in the Honda case (1996) may well have benefited Honda's dealer network once promotional free riding and other forms of rent seeking by dealers are considered. I propose that (...)
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  28. Mental Illness, Philosophy Of.Erick Ramirez - 2014 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Philosophy of Mental Illness The Philosophy of Mental Illness is an interdisciplinary field of study that combines views and methods from the philosophy of mind, psychology, neuroscience, and moral philosophy in order to analyze the nature of mental illness. Philosophers of mental illness are concerned with examining the ontological, epistemological, and normative issues arising from […].
     
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  29. Vrijednosti u psihijatriji i pojam mentalne bolesti (Eng. Values in psychiatry and the concept of mental illness).Luca Malatesti & Marko Jurjako - 2016 - In Snježana Prijić-Samaržija, Luca Malatesti & Elvio Baccarini (eds.), Moralni, Politički I Društveni Odgovori Na Društvene Devijacije (Eng. Moral, Political, and Social Responses to Antisocial Deviation). Rijeka: University of Rijeka. pp. 153-181.
    The crucial problem in the philosophy of psychiatry is to determine under which conditions certain behaviors, mental states, and personality traits should be regarded as symptoms of mental illnesses. Participants in the debate can be placed on a continuum of positions. On the one side of the continuum, there are naturalists who maintain that the concept of mental illness can be explained by relying on the conceptual apparatus of the natural sciences, such as biology and neuroscience. On the other side (...)
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  30. Phenomenology of Illness, Philosophy, and Life.Kidd Ian James - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 62:56-62.
    An essay review of Havi Carel, 'Phenomenology of Illness' (OUP 2015).
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  31.  55
    An Anatomy of Illness.David Biro - 2012 - Journal of Medical Humanities 33 (1):41-54.
    Because it focuses primarily on the sick body (disease), medicine ignores many of the concerns and needs of sick people. By listening to the stories of patients in the clinic, on the Internet, and in published book form, health care providers could gain a better understanding of the impact of disease on the person (illness), what it means to patients over and above their physical symptoms and what they might require over and above surgery or chemotherapy. Only by familiarizing themselves (...)
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  32.  26
    Coming Out: Considering the Closet of Illness. [REVIEW]Kimberly R. Myers - 2004 - Journal of Medical Humanities 25 (4):255-270.
    This essay explores key concerns surrounding “coming out” as a person with illness and addresses important professional and social considerations for those who are closeted in various kinds of illness. Using central tenets of Queer Theory and Disability and Cultural Studies as a theoretical base, I examine the politics of coming out in the specific context of my lived experience during the 2002 NEH Summer Institute, “Medicine, Literature, and Culture” While such an environment might foster unusual candor about personal illness (...)
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  33.  26
    How Medical Technologies Shape the Experience of Illness.Bjørn Hofmann & Fredrik Svenaeus - 2018 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 14 (1):1-11.
    In this article we explore how diagnostic and therapeutic technologies shape the lived experiences of illness for patients. By analysing a wide range of examples, we identify six ways that technology can form the experience of illness. First, technology may create awareness of disease by revealing asymptomatic signs or markers. Second, the technology can reveal risk factors for developing diseases. Third, the technology can affect and change an already present illness experience. Fourth, therapeutic technologies may redefine our experiences of a (...)
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  34.  22
    Investigating the Types of Value and Cost of Green Brands: Proposition of a Conceptual Framework. [REVIEW]Erifili Papista & Athanasios Krystallis - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 115 (1):75-92.
    This conceptual article applies the customer value (CV) concept in the context of green marketing aiming to provide insights on the factors that motivate and/or hinder the development of consumer–green brand relationships. The article draws upon existing literature on the streams of CV, relationship marketing and environmental behaviour and synthesises relevant findings to propose an integrated conceptual framework entailing all identified types of value and cost, psychographic characteristics, as well as dimensions of relationship quality (RQ) and loyalty. Furthermore, it addresses (...)
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  35.  51
    The Philosophical Role of Illness.Havi Carel - 2014 - Metaphilosophy 45 (1):20-40.
    This article examines the philosophical role of illness. It briefly surveys the philosophical role accorded to illness in the history of philosophy and explains why illness merits such a role. It suggests that illness modifies, and thus sheds light on, normal experience, revealing its ordinary and therefore overlooked structure. Illness also provides an opportunity for reflection by performing a kind of suspension (epoché) of previously held beliefs, including tacit beliefs. The article argues that these characteristics warrant a philosophical role for (...)
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  36.  23
    Taking Decisions on Expenditure for High‐Cost Drugs at the Regional Level: A Model for Evaluating the Overall Impact of Trastuzumab in the Veneto Region of Italy.Alessandra Buja, Egle Perissinotto, Antonio Compostella, Andrea Tramarin, Vincenzo Rebba, Davide Pastorelli, Francesco Grigoletto, Costantino Gallo, Giuseppe Rausa & Dario Gregori - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (2):298-303.
  37.  19
    The Debilitated Muse: Poetry in the Face of Illness. [REVIEW]Danielle Ofri - 2010 - Journal of Medical Humanities 31 (4):303-317.
    Poetry is a supremely sensory art, both in the imagining and in the writing. What happens when the poet faces illness? How is the poetry affected by alterations of the body and mind? This paper examines the poetry of several writers afflicted by physical illness—poets of great renown and poets who might be classified as “emerging voices,” in order to explore the interplay between creativity and corporeal vulnerability.
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  38.  80
    Depression as Unhomelike Being-in-the-World? Phenomenology’s Challenge to Our Understanding of Illness.Tamara Kayali & Furhan Iqbal - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (1):31-39.
    Fredrik Svenaeus has applied Heidegger’s concept of ‘being-in-the-world’ to health and illness. Health, Svenaeus contends, is a state of ‘homelike being-in-the-world’ characterised by being ‘balanced’ and ‘in-tune’ with the world. Illness, on the other hand, is a state of ‘unhomelike being-in-the-world’ characterised by being ‘off-balance’ and alienated from our own bodies. This paper applies the phenomenological concepts presented by Svenaeus to cases from a study of depression. In doing so, we show that while they can certainly enrich our understanding of (...)
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  39. Phenomenology of Illness.Havi Carel - 2016 - Oxford University Press.
    Havi Carel uses phenomenology to explore how illness modifies the ill person's body, values, and world. Carel argues that illness has received little philosophical attention. Phenomenology of Illness develops a phenomenological framework for illness and a systematic understanding of illness as a philosophical tool.
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  40. Race, Capital Punishment, and the Cost of Murder.M. Cholbi - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 127 (2):255-282.
    Numerous studies indicate that racial minorities are both more likely to be executed for murder and that those who murder them are less likely to be executed than if they murder whites. Death penalty opponents have long attempted to use these studies to argue for a moratorium on capital punishment. Whatever the merits of such arguments, they overlook the fact that such discrimination alters the costs of murder; racial discrimination imposes higher costs on minorities for murdering through tougher sentences, and (...)
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  41.  36
    On the Downplay of Suffering in Nordenfelt’s Theory of Illness.Bjørn Hofmann - 2013 - Health Care Analysis 21 (4):283-297.
    In his influential theory of health Nordenfelt bases the concepts of health and illness on the notions of ability and disability. A premise for this is that ability and disability provide a more promising, adequate, and useful basis than well-being and suffering. Nordenfelt uses coma and manic episodes as paradigm cases to show that this is so. Do these paradigm cases (and thus the premise) hold? What consequences does it have for the theory of health and illness if it they (...)
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  42.  81
    Understanding the Ethical Cost of Organizational Goal-Setting: A Review and Theory Development.Adam Barsky - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (1):63-81.
    Goal-setting has become a popular and effective motivational tool, utilized by practitioners and substantiated with decades of empirical research. However, the potential for goal-setting to enhance performance may come at the cost of ethical behavior. I propose a theoretical model linking attributes of goals and goal-setting practices to unethical behavior through two psychological mechanisms – ethical recognition and moral disengagement; and addressing the moderating role of individual differences (e.g., goal-commitment and conscientiousness), as well as the broader organizational ethical context.
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  43.  12
    Carbon Risk, Carbon Risk Awareness and the Cost of Debt Financing.Juhyun Jung, Kathleen Herbohn & Peter Clarkson - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 150 (4):1151-1171.
    We seek insights into potential benefits for firms adopting strategies to improve business sustainability in a carbon-constrained future. We investigate whether lenders incorporate a firm’s exposure to carbon-related risk into lending decisions through the cost of financing, and if so, importantly whether firms can mitigate the penalty by demonstrating an awareness of their carbon risks. We use a sample of 255 firm-year observations from eight industries over the period 2009–2013. We measure carbon-related risk exposure as the firm’s historical carbon emissions (...)
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  44.  37
    Legal Vs. Normative CSR: Differential Impact on Analyst Dispersion, Stock Return Volatility, Cost of Capital, and Firm Value.Maretno A. Harjoto & Hoje Jo - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 128 (1):1-20.
    This study examines how the sell-side analysts interpret firms’ corporate social responsibility activities. Specifically, we examine the differential impact of overall, legal, and normative CSR on the analysts’ earnings forecast dispersion, stock return volatility, cost of equity capital, and firm value. Employing a sample of U.S. public firms during 1993–2009, we find that overall CSR intensities reduce analyst dispersion of earnings forecast, volatility of stock return and cost of capital , and increase firm value. However, its impact is reduced for (...)
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  45.  23
    The Cost of Consequentialization.Hanno Sauer - 2019 - Metaphilosophy 50 (1-2):100-109.
    Consequentializers suggest that for all non‐consequentialist moral theories, one can come up with a consequentialist counterpart that generates exactly the same deontic output as the original theory. Thus, all moral theories can be “consequentialized.” This paper argues that this procedure, though technically feasible, deprives consequentialism of its potential for normative justification. By allowing purported counterexamples to any given consequentialist moral theory to be accommodated within that theory’s account of value, consequentializers achieve a hollow victory. The resulting deontically equivalent consequentalist counterpart (...)
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  46. The Meaning of Illness: A Phenomenological Approach to the Patient-Physician Relationship.S. Kay Toombs - 1987 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 12 (3):219-240.
    This essay argues that philosophical phenomenology can provide important insights into the patient-physician relationship. In particular, it is noted that the physician and patient encounter the experience of illness from within the context of different "worlds", each "world" providing a horizon of meaning. Such phenomenological notions as focusing, habits of mind, finite provinces of meaning, and relevance are shown to be central to the way these "worlds" are constituted. An eidetic interpretation of illness is proposed. Such an interpretation discloses certain (...)
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  47. Review of Matthew D. Adler: Well-Being and Fair Distribution. Beyond Cost-Benefit Analysis. [REVIEW]Alex Voorhoeve - 2014 - Social Choice and Welfare 42 (1):245-54.
    In this extended book review, I summarize Adler's views and critically analyze his key arguments on the measurement of well-being and the foundations of prioritarianism.
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  48.  8
    Character Cues and Contracting Costs: The Relationship Between Philanthropy and the Cost of Capital.Leon Zolotoy, Don O’Sullivan & Jill Klein - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 154 (2):497-515.
    Prior studies in business ethics highlight the role of philanthropy in shaping stakeholders’ perceptions of a firm’s underlying moral tendencies and values. Scholars argue that philanthropy-based character inferences influence whether and how stakeholders engage with firms. We extend this line of reasoning to examine the impact of philanthropy on firms’ contracting costs in the capital market. We posit that philanthropy-based character inferences reduce investors’ agency concerns, thereby reducing firms’ cost of capital. We also posit that the strength of the philanthropy–cost (...)
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  49.  44
    Counting the Cost of Modal Realism.Peter Forrest - 2001 - In Gerhard Preyer (ed.), Reality and Humean Supervenience: Essays on the Philosophy of David Lewis. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 93--103.
    Conceivability is, I say, prima facie evidence for possibility. Hence, we may count the cost of theories about possibility by listing the ways in which, according to the theory in question, something conceivable is said nonetheless to be impossible. More succinctly we may state a principle, Hume's razor to put alongside Ockham's. Hume's razor says that necessities are not to be multiplied more than necessary. In this paper I count the cost of David Lewis's modal realism, showing that many of (...)
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  50. Maxwell's Demon and the Entropy Cost of Information.Paul N. Fahn - 1996 - Foundations of Physics 26 (1):71-93.
    We present an analysis of Szilard's one-molecule Maxwell's demon, including a detailed entropy accounting, that suggests a general theory of the entropy cost of information. It is shown that the entropy of the demon increases during the expansion step, due to the decoupling of the molecule from the measurement information. It is also shown that there is an entropy symmetry between the measurement and erasure steps, whereby the two steps additivelv share a constant entropy change, but the proportion that occurs (...)
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