Results for 'credibility'

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  1. Credible Worlds: The Status of Theoretical Models in Economics.Robert Sugden - 2000 - Journal of Economic Methodology 7 (1):1-31.
    Using as examples Akerlof's 'market for ''lemons''' and Schelling's 'checkerboard' model of racial segregation, this paper asks how economists' abstract theoretical models can explain features of the real world. It argues that such models are not abstractions from, or simplifications of, the real world. They describe counterfactual worlds which the modeller has constructed. The gap between model world and real world can be filled only by inductive inference, and we can have more confidence in such inferences, the more credible the (...)
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  2. Credible Worlds, Capacities and Mechanisms.Robert Sugden - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (1):3-27.
    This paper asks how, in science in general and in economics in particular, theoretical models aid the understanding of real-world phenomena. Using specific models in economics and biology as test cases, it considers three alternative answers: that models are tools for isolating the ‘capacities’ of causal factors in the real world; that modelling is ‘conceptual exploration’ which ultimately contributes to the development of genuinely explanatory theories; and that models are credible counterfactual worlds from which inductive inferences can be made. The (...)
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  3. Against Credibility.Joseph Shieber - 2012 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 90 (1):1 - 18.
    How does the monitoring of a testifier's credibility by recipients of testimony bear upon the epistemic licence accruing to a recipient's belief in the testifier's communications? According to an intuitive and philosophically influential conception, licensed acceptance of testimony requires that recipients of testimony monitor testifiers with respect to their credibility. I argue that this conception, however, proves to be untenable when confronted with the wealth of empirical evidence bearing on the ways in which testifiers and their interlocutors actually (...)
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  4.  88
    Credibility, Idealisation, and Model Building: An Inferential Approach.Xavier Donato Rodríguez & Jesús Zamora Bonilla - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (1):101-118.
    In this article we defend the inferential view of scientific models and idealisation. Models are seen as "inferential prostheses" construed by means of an idealisation-concretisation process, which we essentially understand as a kind of counterfactual deformation procedure . The value of scientific representation is understood in terms not only of the success of the inferential outcomes arrived at with its help, but also of the heuristic power of representation and their capacity to correct and improve our models. This provides us (...)
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  5. Credibility Excess and the Social Imaginary in Cases of Sexual Assault.Audrey S. Yap - 2017 - Feminist Philosophy Quarterly 3 (4):1-24.
    Open Access: This paper will connect literature on epistemic injustice with literature on victims and perpetrators, to argue that in addition to considering the credibility deficit suffered by many victims, we should also consider the credibility excess accorded to many perpetrators. Epistemic injustice, as discussed by Miranda Fricker, considers ways in which someone might be wronged in their capacity as a knower. Testimonial injustice occurs when there is a credibility deficit as a result of identity-prejudicial stereotypes. However, (...)
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  6. Is Credibility a Guide to Possibility? A Challenge for Toy Models in Science.Ylwa Sjölin Wirling - 2021 - Analysis 81 (3):470-478.
    Several philosophers of science claim that scientific toy models afford knowledge of possibility, but answers to the question of why toy models can be expected to competently play this role are scarce. The main line of reply is that toy models support possibility claims insofar as they are credible. I raise a challenge for this credibility-thesis, drawing on a familiar problem for imagination-based modal epistemologies, and argue that it remains unanswered in the current literature. The credibility-thesis has a (...)
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  7.  78
    Testimony, Credibility, and Explanatory Coherence.Paul Thagard - 2005 - Erkenntnis 63 (3):295-316.
    This paper develops a descriptive and normative account of how people respond to testimony. It postulates a default pathway in which people more or less automatically respond to a claim by accepting it, as long as the claim made is consistent with their beliefs and the source is credible. Otherwise, people enter a reflective pathway in which they evaluate the claim based on its explanatory coherence with everything else they believe. Computer simulations show how explanatory coherence can be maximized in (...)
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  8.  55
    Do Credible Firms Perform Better in Emerging Markets? Evidence From China.Ran Zhang & Zabihollah Rezaee - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 90 (2):221-237.
    Prior research suggests that corporate credibility is associated with firm financial performance in developed countries. This article examines whether corporate credibility is related to firm performance using Economic Observer's rating of corporate credibility in China, the largest emerging market in the world. Based on a four-stage valuation model, we find that more reputable and credible firms outperform those with low ratings by almost 20% in 3-year stock returns and have better 3-year net profit margins, return on equity, (...)
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  9. Credibility and the Distribution of Epistemic Goods.Jennifer Lackey - 2018 - In McCain Kevin (ed.), Believing in Accordance with the Evidence. Springer Verlag.
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  10. Assertion, Knowledge, and Rational Credibility.Igor Douven - 2006 - Philosophical Review 115 (4):449-485.
  11.  19
    Reasonableness, Credibility, and Clinical Disagreement.Mary Jean Walker & Wendy A. Rogers - 2017 - AMA Journal of Ethics 19 (2):176-182.
    Evidence in medicine can come from more or less trustworthy sources and be produced by more or less reliable methods, and its interpretation can be disputed. As such, it can be unclear when disagreements in medicine result from different, but reasonable, interpretations of the available evidence and when they result from unreasonable refusals to consider legitimate evidence. In this article, we seek to show how assessments of the relevance and implications of evidence are typically affected by factors beyond that evidence (...)
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  12. The Relevance of Credibility Excess in a Proportional View of Epistemic Injustice: Differential Epistemic Authority and the Social Imaginary.José Medina - 2011 - Social Epistemology 25 (1):15-35.
    This paper defends a contextualist approach to epistemic injustice according to which instances of such injustice should be looked at as temporally extended phenomena (having developmental and historical trajectories) and socially extended phenomena (being rooted in patterns of social relations). Within this contextualist framework, credibility excesses appear as a form of undeserved epistemic privilege that is crucially relevant for matters of testimonial justice. While drawing on Miranda Fricker's proportional view of epistemic justice, I take issue with its lack of (...)
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  13. Testimonial Injustice Without Credibility Deficit.Federico Luzzi - 2016 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 5 (3):203-211.
    Miranda Fricker has influentially discussed testimonial injustice: the injustice done to a speaker S by a hearer H when H gives S less-than-merited credibility. Here, I explore the prospects for a novel form of testimonial injustice, where H affords S due credibility, that is, the amount of credibility S deserves. I present two kinds of cases intended to illustrate this category, and argue that there is presumptive reason to think that testimonial injustice with due credibility exists. (...)
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  14.  96
    Are Climate Models Credible Worlds? Prospects and Limitations of Possibilistic Climate Prediction.Gregor Betz - 2015 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 5 (2):191-215.
    Climate models don’t give us probabilistic forecasts. To interpret their results, alternatively, as serious possibilities seems problematic inasmuch as climate models rely on contrary-to-fact assumptions: why should we consider their implications as possible if their assumptions are known to be false? The paper explores a way to address this possibilistic challenge. It introduces the concepts of a perfect and of an imperfect credible world, and discusses whether climate models can be interpreted as imperfect credible worlds. That would allow one to (...)
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  15. Toward a Credible Agent–Causal Account of Free Will.Randolph Clarke - 1993 - Noûs 27 (2):191-203.
    Agent-causal accounts of free will face two problems. First, such a view needs an account of rational free action, that is, of acting for reasons when one acts freely. And second, an intelligible explication of causation by an agent is required. This paper addresses both of these problems. Free actions are seen as caused both by prior events and by agents. Reasons (or their mental representations) can then be seen as figuring causally when one freely acts for reasons. It is (...)
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  16.  87
    Isolating Representations Versus Credible Constructions? Economic Modelling in Theory and Practice.Tarja Knuuttila - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (1):59-80.
    This paper examines two recent approaches to the nature and functioning of economic models: models as isolating representations and models as credible constructions. The isolationist view conceives of economic models as surrogate systems that isolate some of the causal mechanisms or tendencies of their respective target systems, while the constructionist approach treats them rather like pure constructions or fictional entities that nevertheless license different kinds of inferences. I will argue that whereas the isolationist view is still tied to the representationalist (...)
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  17.  99
    Credibility Excess and Social Support Criterion.John Beverley & Hollen N. Reischer - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (11):32-34.
    Volume 19, Issue 11, November 2019, Page 32-34.
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  18.  30
    The Roles of Credibility and Social Consciousness in the Corporate Philanthropy-Consumer Behavior Relationship.Matthew Walker & Aubrey Kent - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 116 (2):341-353.
    The attention paid to the influence of organizational philanthropy on consumer responses has precipitated a shift in the role this practice plays in organizational dynamics—with philanthropy becoming an increasingly strategic marketing tool. The authors develop and test a model predicting that: (1) perceived organizational credibility will mediate the relationship between awareness of philanthropy and the outcomes of advocacy and financial sacrifice; (2) consumer social consciousness will moderate the relationship between awareness of philanthropy and firm credibility, and between (...) and the outcome variables; and (3) these moderated relationships will be mediated by perceived credibility. Data obtained from a sample of professional golf patrons support our assertions. Notably, the findings implicate perceived credibility as a key intervening variable in the hypothesized relationships for the PGA Tour. (shrink)
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  19.  16
    Credibility as a Strategic Ritual: The Times , the Interrogator, and the Duty of Naming.Fred Vultee - 2010 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 25 (1):3 – 18.
    This study examines the use of names in the construction of “credibility” as a journalistic duty. Using the framework set forth by Tuchman (1972) of objectivity as a “strategic ritual,” the study discusses the ethical justifications put forth by the New York Times for the process through which it decided to identify a CIA interrogator who had been involved in questioning 9/11 captives. The examination concludes that the facticity of naming should ultimately be uncoupled from the concept of (...). (shrink)
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  20.  62
    The Credibility of Miracles.Ruth Weintraub - 1996 - Philosophical Studies 82 (3):359 - 375.
    Hume’s famous argument against the credibility of testimony about miracles invokes two premises: 1) The reliability of the witness (the extent to which he is informed and truthful) must be compared with the intrinsic probability of the miracle. 2) The initial probability of a miracle is always small enough to outweigh the improbability that the testimony is false (even when the witness is assumed to be reliable). I defend the first premise of the argument, showing that Hume’s argument can (...)
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  21.  38
    Credibility Limited Revision.Sven Ove Hansson, Eduardo Leopoldo Fermé, John Cantwell & Marcelo Alejandro Falappa - 2001 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 66 (4):1581-1596.
    Five types of constructions are introduced for non-prioritized belief revision, i.e., belief revision in which the input sentence is not always accepted. These constructions include generalizations of entrenchment-based and sphere-based revision. Axiomatic characterizations are provided, and close interconnections are shown to hold between the different constructions.
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  22.  25
    Credibility Engineering in the Food Industry: Linking Science, Regulation, and Marketing in a Corporate Context.Bart Penders & Annemiek P. Nelis - 2011 - Science in Context 24 (4):487-515.
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  23.  33
    Source Credibility: A Philosophical Analysis.Bonachristus Umeogu - 2012 - Open Journal of Philosophy 2 (2):112-115.
    It is one thing to catch someone’s attention and another thing to hold it for as long as the speaker desires. There must be something about those leaders and speakers who have been able to achieve this feat. The secret is source credibility which arises from how the public view or perceive a speaker. This research paper explained the role of this important virtue in relation to advertisements, politics and religion. This paper is timely and significant because the most (...)
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  24.  4
    Credibility Limited Revision.Sven Hansson, Eduardo Ferme, John Cantwell & Marcelo Falappa - 2001 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 66 (4):1581-1596.
    Five types of constructions are introduced for non-prioritized belief revision, i.e., belief revision in which the input sentence is not always accepted. These constructions include generalizations of entrenchment-based and sphere-based revision. Axiomatic characterizations are provided, and close interconnections are shown to hold between the different constructions.
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  25.  42
    The Credibility of the Miraculous.John C. Polkinghorne - 2002 - Zygon 37 (3):751-758.
    Miracle in a strict sense is to be discriminated from acts of special providence by its being radically unnatural in terms of prior expectation. The key issue in relation to credibility is theological in character, inasmuch as divine consistency must imply that miracles are capable of being understood as “signs,” affording deeper insight into the divine care for creation. These issues are explored by reference to scriptural miracles, particularly the virginal conception and the resurrection of Christ.
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  26.  50
    Beyond Credibility of Doing Business in China: Strategies for Improving Corporate Citizenship of Foreign Multinational Enterprises in China. [REVIEW]Maria Lai-Ling Lam - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (1):137 - 146.
    This study examines the perceptions of Chinese executives concerning corporate social responsibilities in their Chinese subsidiaries of foreign multinational corporations in China. These Chinese subsidiaries are found in the elementary stage of corporate citizen development even though their headquarters are in the advanced stage. The key challenges of moving Chinese subsidiaries to be better corporate citizens in China are specific Chinese business culture, intellectual property rights, internal due process, insufficient Chinese government support, and lack of knowledge of Chinese subsidiaries. Through (...)
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  27.  8
    Assertion, Knowledge, and Rational Credibility.Igor Douven - 2006 - Philosophical Review 115 (4):449-485.
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  28. MISSing the World: Models as Isolations, Representations, and Credible Worlds.Uskali Mäki - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (1):29-43.
    This article shows how the MISS account of models—as isolations and surrogate systems—accommodates and elaborates Sugden’s account of models as credible worlds and Hausman’s account of models as explorations. Theoretical models typically isolate by means of idealization, and they are representatives of some target system, which prompts issues of resemblance between the two to arise. Models as representations are constrained both ontologically (by their targets) and pragmatically (by the purposes and audiences of the modeller), and these relations are coordinated by (...)
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  29.  66
    The Credibility of Extraordinary Events.George N. Schlesinger - 1991 - Analysis 51 (3):120 - 126.
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  30. Testimonial Injustice and Prescriptive Credibility Deficits.Wade Munroe - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (6):924-947.
    In light of recent social psychological literature, I expand Miranda Fricker’s important notion of testimonial injustice. A fair portion of Fricker’s account rests on an older paradigm of stereotype and prejudice. Given recent empirical work, I argue for what I dub prescriptive credibility deficits in which a backlash effect leads to the assignment of a diminished level of credibility to persons who act in counter-stereotypic manners, thereby flouting prescriptive stereotypes. The notion of a prescriptive credibility deficit is (...)
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  31. The Politics of Credibility.Karen Jones - 2002 - In Louise Antony & Charlotte Witt (eds.), A Mind of One's Own: Feminist Essays on Reason and Objectivity. Westview Press.
  32. Incredible Worlds, Credible Results.Jaakko Kuorikoski & Aki Lehtinen - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (1):119-131.
    Robert Sugden argues that robustness analysis cannot play an epistemic role in grounding model-world relationships because the procedure is only a matter of comparing models with each other. We posit that this argument is based on a view of models as being surrogate systems in too literal a sense. In contrast, the epistemic importance of robustness analysis is easy to explicate if modelling is viewed as extended cognition, as inference from assumptions to conclusions. Robustness analysis is about assessing the reliability (...)
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  33.  38
    Derivational Robustness, Credible Substitute Systems and Mathematical Economic Models: The Case of Stability Analysis in Walrasian General Equilibrium Theory.D. Hands - 2016 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 6 (1):31-53.
    This paper supports the literature which argues that derivational robustness can have epistemic import in highly idealized economic models. The defense is based on a particular example from mathematical economic theory, the dynamic Walrasian general equilibrium model. It is argued that derivational robustness first increased and later decreased the credibility of the Walrasian model. The example demonstrates that derivational robustness correctly describes the practices of a particular group of influential economic theorists and provides support for the arguments of philosophers (...)
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  34. Credibility: A Double Standard.Lorraine Code - 1988 - In Christine Overall, Sheila Mullett & Lorraine Code (eds.), Feminist Perspectives: Philosophical Essays on Method and Morals. University of Toronto Press. pp. 64--88.
     
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  35. Trust Me: News, Credibility Deficits, and Balance.Carrie Figdor - 2018 - In Joe Saunders & Carl Fox (eds.), Media Ethics, Free Speech, and the Requirements of Democracy. New York, USA and Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 69-86.
    When a society is characterized by a climate of distrust, how does this impact the professional practices of news journalism? I focus on the practice of balance, or fair presentation of both sides in a story. I articulate a two-step model of how trust modulates the acceptance of tes-timony and draw out its implications for justifying the practice of balance.
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  36.  29
    Credibility of the Web: Why We Need Dialectical Reading.B. Bruce - 2000 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 34 (1):97–109.
  37. Typecasts, Tokens, and Spokespersons: A Case for Credibility Excess as Testimonial Injustice.Emmalon Davis - 2016 - Hypatia 31 (3):485-501.
    Miranda Fricker maintains that testimonial injustice is a matter of credibility deficit, not excess. In this article, I argue that this restricted characterization of testimonial injustice is too narrow. I introduce a type of identity-prejudicial credibility excess that harms its targets qua knowers and transmitters of knowledge. I show how positive stereotyping and prejudicially inflated credibility assessments contribute to the continued epistemic oppression of marginalized knowers. In particular, I examine harms such as typecasting, compulsory representation, and epistemic (...)
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  38.  64
    Transparency and Assurance Minding the Credibility Gap.Nicole Dando & Tracey Swift - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 44 (2/3):195 - 200.
    There is a growing realisation that the current upward trend in levels of disclosure of social, ethical and environmental performance by corporations and other organisations is not being accompanied by simultaneous greater levels of public trust. Low levels of confidence in the information communicated in public reporting is probably undermining the impetus for this disclosure. This article suggests that this credibility gap can be narrowed through the use of third party independent assurance. However, this is not an unqualified panacea. (...)
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  39. MISSing the World. Models as Isolations and Credible Surrogate Systems.Uskali Mäki - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (1):29-43.
    This article shows how the MISS account of models—as isolations and surrogate systems—accommodates and elaborates Sugden’s account of models as credible worlds and Hausman’s account of models as explorations. Theoretical models typically isolate by means of idealization, and they are representatives of some target system, which prompts issues of resemblance between the two to arise. Models as representations are constrained both ontologically (by their targets) and pragmatically (by the purposes and audiences of the modeller), and these relations are coordinated by (...)
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  40. On Judging Epistemic Credibility: Is Social Identity Relevant?Linda Martin Alcoff - 1999 - Philosophic Exchange 29 (1).
    On what basis should we make an epistemic assessment of another’s authority to impart knowledge? Is social identity a legitimate feature to take into account when assessing epistemic reliability? This paper argues that, in some cases, social identity is a relevant feature to take into account in assessing a person’s credibility.
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  41. How CSR Leads to Corporate Brand Equity: Mediating Mechanisms of Corporate Brand Credibility and Reputation. [REVIEW]Won-Moo Hur, Hanna Kim & Jeong Woo - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 125 (1):1-12.
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships among corporate social responsibility (CSR), corporate brand credibility, corporate brand equity, and corporate reputation. Structural equation modeling analysis provided support for the hypotheses from a sample of 867 consumers in South Korea. The results showed that CSR has a direct positive effect on corporate brand credibility and corporate reputation. In addition, the results indicate that corporate brand credibility mediates the relationship between CSR and corporate reputation. Moreover, corporate (...)
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  42.  10
    Origins of Music in Credible Signaling.Samuel A. Mehr, Max M. Krasnow, Gregory A. Bryant & Edward H. Hagen - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44:1-41.
    Music comprises a diverse category of cognitive phenomena that likely represent both the effects of psychological adaptations that are specific to music and the effects of adaptations for non-musical functions. How did music evolve? Here, we show that prevailing views on the evolution of music – that music is a byproduct of other evolved faculties, evolved for social bonding, or evolved to signal mate quality – are incomplete or wrong. We argue instead that music evolved as a credible signal in (...)
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  43.  24
    Facing the Credibility Crisis of Science: On the Ambivalent Role of Pluralism in Establishing Relevance and Reliability.Martin Carrier - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (4):439-464.
    One of the pervasive distinctions in the history of political thought is the distinction between rule by consent and rule by competence or expertise. A classic locus of this debate is Plato's Politeia in which Plato argues against the rule by consent and advocates philosophers as political leaders. Philosophers are geared toward eternal ideas and for this reason place emphasis on the long-term consequences of political actions. The same idea is expressed today by the notion that devising policies adequately requires (...)
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  44.  91
    Credibility, Confirmation and Explanation.William Seager - 1987 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38 (3):301-317.
  45.  3
    Arguing About Informant Credibility in Open Multi-Agent Systems.Sebastian Gottifredi, Luciano H. Tamargo, Alejandro J. García & Guillermo R. Simari - 2018 - Artificial Intelligence 259:91-109.
  46.  17
    Credibility and Credulity: Monitoring Teachers for Trustworthiness.William Hare - 2007 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 41 (2):207–219.
  47.  23
    Pragmatic Inconsistency and Credibility.Jan Albert van Laar - 2007 - Argumentation 21 (3):317-334.
    A critic may attack an arguer personally by pointing out that the arguer’s position is pragmatically inconsistent: the arguer does not practice what he preaches. A number of authors hold that such attacks can be part of a good argumentative discussion. However, there is a difficulty in accepting this kind of contribution as potentially legitimate, for the reason that there is nothing wrong for a protagonist to have an inconsistent position, in the sense of committing himself to mutually inconsistent propositions. (...)
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  48.  2
    Embodied memories and credibility in women victims of violence possibilities of resignification and reparation.Flor Emilce Cely-ávila - 2019 - Ideas Y Valores 68:20-38.
    RESUMEN Se analiza la relación entre las memorias inscritas en el cuerpo, el trauma y los recursos corporizados subjetivos y colectivos con los que cuentan las mujeres víctimas de violencia para reconstruir y resignificarse como personas dignas de credibilidad y agentes de cambio. Se refieren casos específicos de violencia sexual en Colombia y se expone la importancia de la creación de comunidades de confianza que propicien espaclos para la narración y escucha de los testimonlos de víctimas, la tramitación de conflictos (...)
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  49.  2
    Ethics Expertise and Public Credibility: A Case Study of the Ethical Principle of Justice.Yoshio Nukaga - 2016 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 41 (4):709-731.
    In recent years, scholars in science and technology studies have examined the advice that experts make for the governance of biomedicine. This STS scholarship, however, has not yet explained how the credibility of ethics expertise in public bioethics is produced from particular conditions and extended to different settings. This article describes how a bioethics commission created the ethical principle of justice and examines how the ethics expertise established public credibility on the justice principle. The findings suggest that the (...)
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  50.  14
    A Question of Credibility – Effects of Source Cues and Recommendations on Information Selection on News Sites and Blogs.Nicole C. Krämer & Stephan Winter - 2014 - Communications 39 (4):435-456.
    Internet users have access to a multitude of science-related information – on journalistic news sites but also on blogs with user-generated content. In this context, we investigated in two studies the factors which influence laypersons’ selective exposure. In an experiment with a collection of online news, parents were asked to search for information about the controversy surrounding violence in the media. Texts from high-reputation sources were clicked on more frequently – regardless of content –, whereas ratings by others had limited (...)
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