Results for 'critical contextual empiricism'

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  1.  82
    Amending and Defending Critical Contextual Empiricism.Kirstin Borgerson - 2011 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (3):435-449.
    In Science as Social Knowledge in 1990 and The Fate of Knowledge in 2002, Helen Longino develops an epistemological theory known as Critical Contextual Empiricism (CCE). Knowledge production, she argues, is an active, value-laden practice, evidence is context dependent and relies on background assumptions, and science is a social inquiry that, under certain conditions, produces social knowledge with contextual objectivity. While Longino’s work has been generally well-received, there have been a number of criticisms of CCE raised (...)
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  2.  23
    Philosophy of Science for Globalized Privatization: Uncovering Some Limitations of Critical Contextual Empiricism.Manuela Fernández Pinto - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 47:10-17.
    The purpose of this paper is to uncover some of the limitations that critical contextual empiricism, and in particular Longino's contextualism, faces when trying to provide a normative account of scientific knowledge that is relevant to current scientific research. After presenting the four norms of effective criticism, I show how the norms have limited scope when dealing with cases of current scientific practices. I then present some historical evidence for the claim that the organization of science has (...)
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  3.  19
    Amending and Defending Critical Contextual Empiricism: Lessons From Medical Research.Kirstin Borgerson - unknown
    Amending and Defending Critical Contextual Empiricism: Lessons from Medical Research In Science as Social Knowledge (1990) and The Fate of Knowledge (2002), Helen Longino develops a social epistemological theory known as Critical Contextual Empiricism (CCE). While Longino’s work has been generally well-received, there have been a number of criticisms of CCE raised in the philosophical literature in recent years. In this paper I outline the key elements of Longino’s theory and propose several modifications to (...)
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  4.  47
    A Critical Context For Longino’s Critical Contextual Empiricism.Miriam Solomon & Alan Richardson - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 36 (1):211-222.
  5. “Trust Me—I’M a Public Intellectual”: Margaret Atwood’s and David Suzuki’s Social Epistemologies of Climate Science.Boaz Miller - 2015 - In Michael Keren & Richard Hawkins‎ (eds.), Speaking Power to Truth: Digital Discourse and the Public Intellectual. Athabasca University Press‎. pp. 113-128.
    Margaret Atwood and David Suzuki are two of the most prominent Canadian public ‎intellectuals ‎involved in the global warming debate. They both argue that anthropogenic global ‎warming is ‎occurring, warn against its grave consequences, and urge governments and the ‎public to take ‎immediate, decisive, extensive, and profound measures to prevent it. They differ, ‎however, in the ‎reasons and evidence they provide in support of their position. While Suzuki ‎stresses the scientific ‎evidence in favour of the global warming theory and the (...)
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  6.  88
    "Empiricism All the Way Down": A Defense of the Value-Neutrality of Science in Response to Helen Longino's Contextual Empiricism.Stéphanie Ruphy - 2006 - Perspectives on Science 14 (2):189-214.
    : A central claim of Longino's contextual empiricism is that scientific inquiry, even when "properly conducted", lacks the capacity to screen out the influence of contextual values on its results. I'll show first that Longino's attack against the epistemic integrity of science suffers from fatal empirical weaknesses. Second I'll explain why Longino's practical proposition for suppressing biases in science, drawn from her contextual empiricism, is too demanding and, therefore, unable to serve its purpose. Finally, drawing (...)
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  7.  40
    Advocates or Unencumbered Selves? On the Role of Mill’s Political Liberalism in Longino’s Contextual Empiricism.Justin B. Biddle - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (5):612-623.
    Helen Longino’s “contextual empiricism” is one of the most sophisticated recent attempts to defend a social theory of science. On this view, objectivity and epistemic acceptability require that research be produced within communities that approximate a Millian marketplace of ideas. I argue, however, that Longino’s embedding of her epistemology within the framework of Mill’s political liberalism implies a conception of individual epistemic agents that is incompatible with her view that scientific knowledge is necessarily social, and I begin to (...)
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  8.  65
    The Epistemology of African Philosophy: Sagacious Knowledge and the Case for a Critical Contextual Epistemology.Omedi Ochieng - 2008 - International Philosophical Quarterly 48 (3):337-359.
    This essay critiques the ontology and epistemology of African philosophy, with particular attention to Odera Oruka’s sage philosophy project, one of the most influential schools of thought in African philosophy. Oruka posits an absolutist ontology that holds to a conception of epistemology as presuppositionless and transcendental. Against this, I argue for a critical contextual epistemology that proffers a view of epistemology as embodied, linguistically performed, social, ideological, rhetorical, and contextual. I argue, ultimately, that a critical (...) epistemology is not only useful for charting new directions in African philosophy but also may illuminate productive intersections between African philosophy and Western philosophy. (shrink)
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  9.  31
    Contextual Debiasing and Critical Thinking: Reasons for Optimism.Vasco Correia - forthcoming - Topoi 35 (1):1-9.
    In this article I argue that most biases in argumentation and decision-making can and should be counteracted. Although biases can prove beneficial in certain contexts, I contend that they are generally maladaptive and need correction. Yet critical thinking alone seems insufficient to mitigate biases in everyday contexts. I develop a contextualist approach, according to which cognitive debiasing strategies need to be supplemented by extra-psychic devices that rely on social and environmental constraints in order to promote rational reasoning. Finally, I (...)
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  10.  27
    Logical Empiricism as Critical Theory? The Debate Continues.John O'Neill & Thomas Uebel - 2008 - Analyse & Kritik 30 (2):379-398.
    Is logical empiricism incompatible with a critical social science? The longstanding assumption that it is incompatible has been prominent in recent debates about welfare economics. Sen’s development of a critical and descriptively rich welfare eco nomics is taken by writers such as Putnam, Walsh and Sen to involve the excising of the influence of logical empiricism on neo-classical economics. However, this view stands in contrast to the descriptively rich contributions to political economy of members of the (...)
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  11.  10
    Contextual Debiasing and Critical Thinking: Reasons for Optimism.Vasco Correia - 2018 - Topoi 37 (1):103-111.
    In this article I argue that most biases in argumentation and decision-making can and should be counteracted. Although biases can prove beneficial in certain contexts, I contend that they are generally maladaptive and need correction. Yet critical thinking alone seems insufficient to mitigate biases in everyday contexts. I develop a contextualist approach, according to which cognitive debiasing strategies need to be supplemented by extra-psychic devices that rely on social and environmental constraints in order to promote rational reasoning. Finally, I (...)
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  12. Radical Empiricism, Critical Realism, and American Functionalism: James and Sellars.Gary Hatfield - 2015 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 5 (1):129-53.
    As British and American idealism waned, new realisms displaced them. The common background of these new realisms emphasized the problem of the external world and the mind-body problem, as bequeathed by Reid, Hamilton, and Mill. During this same period, academics on both sides of the Atlantic recognized that the natural sciences were making great strides. Responses varied. In the United States, philosophical response focused particularly on functional psychology and Darwinian adaptedness. This article examines differing versions of that response in William (...)
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  13. The Characterization of Epistemology in Philip Kitcher: A Critical Reflection From New Empiricism.Inmaculada Perdomo - 2012 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 101 (1):113-138.
    While the earlier work of Philip Kitcher, in particular The Advancement of Science (1993), continues to inform his more recent studies, such as Science, Truth, and Democracy (2001), there are significant "changes of opinion" from those articulated in the 1990s. One may even speak of two different stages in the configuration of epistemological proposals. An analysis, from an empiricist standpoint, of the shifts between one and the other indicates further evolution towards realist positions but much more modest ones than those (...)
     
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  14.  6
    Naive Empiricism and Dogmatism in Confidence Research: A Critical Examination of the Hard–Easy Effect.Peter Juslin, Anders Winman & Henrik Olsson - 2000 - Psychological Review 107 (2):384-396.
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  15.  16
    IAB Presidential Address: Contextual, Social, Critical: How We Ought to Think About the Future of Bioethics.Angus Dawson - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (6):291-296.
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  16.  3
    Critical Study Experimental Realism: A Critique of Bas Van Fraassen's "Constructive Empiricism".Richard H. Schlagel - 1988 - Review of Metaphysics 41 (4):789-814.
    THE CONVICTION that nature as ordinarily experienced is the manifestation of a deeper, more extensive physical reality is now commonplace. While Aristotle could believe that the visible qualities and substantial forms of the perceptual world correspond to the real natures of things, the advent of modern classical mechanics, incorporating the atomic theory, dispelled this notion. As in the ancient atomic theories of Leucippus and Democritus, the composition, motion, and qualitative changes of phenomena were attributed to the interaction of "insensible particles," (...)
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  17.  39
    Schlick's Empiricist Critical Realism.Adam Daum - 1982 - Synthese 52 (3):449 - 493.
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  18.  59
    The Rainbow of Experiences, Critical Trust and God: A Defense of Holistic Empiricism. By Kai-Man Kwan. [REVIEW]Tyron Goldschmidt - 2012 - Faith and Philosophy 29 (4):472-478.
  19.  28
    The Local, the Contextual and/or Critical.Seyla Benhabib - 1996 - Constellations 3 (1):83-95.
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  20.  26
    A Critical Analysis of Empiricism.F. M. Anayet Hossain - 2014 - Open Journal of Philosophy 4 (3):225-230.
  21.  13
    Critical Notice of Alan Richardson,'Carnap's Construction of the World: The Aufbau and the Emergence of Logical Empiricism'.G. Kemp - 1999 - Philosophical Books 40 (2):89-98.
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  22.  15
    A Wittgensteinian Approach to Discerning the Meaning of Works of Art in the Practice of Critical and Contextual Studies in Secondary Art Education.Leslie Cunliffe - 2006 - Journal of Aesthetic Education 40 (1):65-78.
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  23.  15
    Critical Empiricism Criticized: The Case of Freud.B. R. Cosin & C. F. Freeman Andn H. Freeman - 1971 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 1 (2):121–151.
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  24.  1
    Four Middle English Mystery Cycles: Textual, Contextual, and Critical Interpretations.Martin Stevens.Stanley Kahrl - 1990 - Speculum 65 (2):499-502.
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  25. 57." An Empiricist Model of Stratification," Peter M. Blau & Otis Dudley Duncan Peter M. Blau & Otis Dudley Duncan, The American Occupational Structure (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1967) 58." Critical Sociology," Jiirgen Habermas. [REVIEW]Peter Blau & Peter Winch - 2000 - In Raymond Boudon & Mohamed Cherkaoui (eds.), Central Currents in Social Theory. Sage Publications. pp. 3--99.
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  26. Critical Empiricism'in Ameri-Can Legal Studies: Paradox, Program or Pandora's Box?, 14 LAW & Soc.M. Trubek David & John Esser - 1989 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 3 (9):34.
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  27. A Critical Examination of the Radical Empiricism of William James.Robert M. Kunz - 1953 - Dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo
     
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  28. Critical Empiricism, in 14 LAW & SOC.William Whitford - 1989 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 61:65.
     
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  29. Navigating the Social Turn in Philosophy of Science.Helen E. Longino - 2009 - Filozofia 64 (4):312-323.
    Over the last three decades the role of social values in science has been the topic issue in the disputes of the philosophers of science against the representatives of science studies. Due to the key status of sciences in developed countries and societies it is necessary, so the author, not only to acknowledge, that cognitive and epistemic practices have their social dimensions, but also to make the practices of the research communities themselves open for critical examination from different perspectives. (...)
     
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  30.  8
    Images of Objective Knowledge Construction in Sexual Selection Chapters of Evolution Textbooks.Linda Fuselier, Perri K. Eason, J. Kasi Jackson & Sarah Spaulding - 2018 - Science & Education 27 (5-6):479-499.
    Textbooks provide a rich site within which to investigate how members of a scientific discipline choose to represent their research to general audiences. We used critical contextual empiricism as a framework for interrogating how a scientific community is depicted via images in evolution textbook chapters on sexual selection. Textbooks that exhibit science within the tenets of critical contextual empiricism will depict uptake of disciplinary change and acknowledge the inseparability of the social and rational aspects (...)
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  31.  15
    Toward an Engaged Account of Objectivity: Contributions From Early Phenomenology.Amanda Gibeault - unknown
    In this dissertation, I develop an engaged understanding of objectivity, or good knowledge practices. I argue that for knowledge practices to be good, they must both be truth-conducive and engaged, that is, explicitly implicated in the critical appraisal of background values and assumptions. I pursue this argument in six stages. First, I consider work in epistemology that countenances a place for values in objectivity. I conclude from this that truth-conduciveness is not sufficient for objectivity, and that a social approach (...)
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  32.  29
    Resituating Evidence in Feminist Science Studies.Maya J. Goldenberg - unknown
    This paper examines the conclusions that one must draw from the finding that there are values in science. The value-ladenness of scientific claims puts the nature and role of empirical evidence into question, as seen in recent discussions in the philosophy of medicine regarding evidence-based medicine and feminist science studies, which maintains the normativity of its feminist claims. Within the critical literature and debates surrounding evidence-based medicine (EBM), one finds a championing of the lessons learned from post-positivist science studies: (...)
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  33.  68
    The Logic of Scientific Discovery in Critical Realist Social Scientific Research.Jan Wuisman - 2005 - Journal of Critical Realism 4 (2):366-394.
    Critical realism claims to bring a significant improvement to social science, especially in comparison with empiricist and interpretive approaches. So far, however, it has fallen short of the high expectations it raises. Critical realist arguments are convincing on the philosophical or meta-theoretical level but the contributions of critical realism to social science in terms of research activities at the field level are less clear. Nonetheless, there is no way back. Moving forward requires that the practice of doing (...)
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  34.  80
    Difference and Givenness: Deleuze's Transcendental Empiricism and the Ontology of Immanence.Levi R. Bryant - 2008 - Northwestern University Press.
    From one end of his philosophical work to the other, Gilles Deleuze consistently described his position as a transcendental empiricism. But just what is transcendental about Deleuze’s transcendental empiricism? And how does his position fit with the traditional empiricism articulated by Hume? In Difference and Givenness , Levi Bryant addresses these long-neglected questions so critical to an understanding of Deleuze’s thinking. Through a close examination of Deleuze’s independent work--focusing especially on Difference and Repetition-- as well as (...)
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  35.  49
    Philosophical Foundations of Workplace Spirituality: A Critical Approach.George Gotsis & Zoi Kortezi - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 78 (4):575-600.
    It is an undeniable reality that workplace spirituality has received growing attention during the last decade. This fact is attributable to many factors, socioeconomic, cultural and others [Hicks, D.A. 2003: Religion and the Workplace. Pluralism, Sprtituality, Leadership (Cambridge University press, Cambridge)]. However the field is full of obscurity and imprecision for the researcher, the practitioner, the organisational analyst and whoever attempts to systematically approach this relatively new inquiry field. This article attempts to provide a critical review of the literature (...)
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  36.  46
    Newton’s Substance Monism, Distant Action, and the Nature of Newton’s Empiricism: Discussion of H. Kochiras “Gravity and Newton’s Substance Counting Problem”.Eric Schliesser - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):160-166.
    This paper is a critical response to Hylarie Kochiras’ “Gravity and Newton’s substance counting problem,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 40 267–280. First, the paper argues that Kochiras conflates substances and beings; it proceeds to show that Newton is a substance monist. The paper argues that on methodological grounds Newton has adequate resources to respond to the metaphysical problems diagnosed by Kochiras. Second, the paper argues against the claim that Newton is committed to two speculative doctrines attributed (...)
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  37. Kant on Empiricism and Rationalism.Alberto Vanzo - 2013 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 30 (1):53-74.
    Several scholars have criticized the histories of early modern philosophy based on the dichotomy of empiricism and rationalism. They view them as overestimating the importance of epistemological issues for early modern philosophers (epistemological bias), portraying Kant's Critical philosophy as a superior alternative to empiricism and rationalism (Kantian bias), and forcing most or all early modern thinkers prior to Kant into the empiricist or rationalist camps (classificatory bias). Kant is often said to be the source of the three (...)
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  38.  85
    The “Positive Argument” for Constructive Empiricism and Inference to the Best Explanation.Moti Mizrahi - 2018 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie (3):1-6.
    In this paper, I argue that the “positive argument” for Constructive Empiricism (CE), according to which CE “makes better sense of science, and of scientific activity, than realism does” (van Fraassen 1980, 73), is an Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE). But constructive empiricists are critical of IBE, and thus they have to be critical of their own “positive argument” for CE. If my argument is sound, then constructive empiricists are in the awkward position of having to (...)
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  39. Empiricism, Time-Awareness, and Hume's Manners of Disposition.Adrian Bardon - 2007 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 5 (1):47-63.
    The issue of time-awareness presents a critical challenge for empiricism: if temporal properties are not directly perceived, how do we become aware of them? A unique empiricist account of time-awareness suggested by Hume's comments on time in the Treatise avoids the problems characteristic of other empiricist accounts. Hume's theory, however, has some counter-intuitive consequences. The failure of empiricists to come up with a defensible theory of time-awareness lends prima facie support to a non-empiricist theory of ideas.
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  40.  95
    Meaning Without Metaphysics: Another Look at Hume’s “Meaning Empiricism”.William Edward Morris - 2009 - Philosophia 37 (3):441-454.
    Although Hume has no developed semantic theory, in the heyday of analytic philosophy he was criticized for his “meaning empiricism,” which supposedly committed him to a private world of ideas, led him to champion a genetic account of meaning instead of an analytic one, and confused “impressions” with “perceptions of an objective realm.” But another look at Hume’s “meaning empiricism” reveals that his criterion for cognitive content, the cornerstone both of his resolutely anti-metaphysical stance and his naturalistic “science (...)
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  41.  29
    From Applied Ethics to Empirical Ethics to Contextual Ethics.Barry Hoffmaster - 2018 - Bioethics 32 (2):119-125.
    Bioethics became applied ethics when it was assimilated to moral philosophy. Because deduction is the rationality of moral philosophy, subsuming facts under moral principles to deduce conclusions about what ought to be done became the prescribed reasoning of bioethics, and bioethics became a theory comprised of moral principles. Bioethicists now realize that applied ethics is too abstract and spare to apprehend the specificity, particularity, complexity and contingency of real moral issues. Empirical ethics and contextual ethics are needed to incorporate (...)
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  42.  35
    Politics, Postmodernity, and Critical Legal Studies: The Legality of the Contingent.Costas Douzinas, Peter Goodrich & Yifat Hachamovitch (eds.) - 1994 - Routledge.
    Laws of Postmodernity is the first work of legal scholarship to apply postmodern jurisprudence to an analysis of a number of substantive areas of law. In analyzing the cultural significance of law, the contributors show how critical jurisprudential analysis undermines positivistic attempts to support a normative viewpoint of the legal order. In addition, they criticize contextual, sociological accounts of legal phenomena. The contributors explore blasphemy laws in the wake of the Salman Rushdie affair, and French critical legal (...)
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  43.  21
    Critical Thinking, Postmodernism, and Rational Evaluation.Donald L. Hatcher - 1994 - Informal Logic 16 (3).
    In this paper, after showing how the postmodern critiques of Enlightenment rationality apply to critical thinking, I argue that a critical discussion on any subject must assume specific principles of rationality. I then show how these principles can be used to critique and reject postmodern claims about the contextual nature of rationality.
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  44.  29
    Critical Realism, Dialectics, and Qualitative Research Methods.John Michael Roberts - 2014 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 44 (1):1-23.
    Critical realism has been an important advance in social science methodology because it develops a qualitative theory of causality which avoids some of the pitfalls of empiricist theories of causality. But while there has been ample work exploring the relationship between critical realism and qualitative research methods there has been noticeably less work exploring the relationship between dialectical critical realism and qualitative research methods. This seems strange especially since the founder of the philosophy of critical realism, (...)
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  45.  23
    A Classic Statement of Logical Empiricism[REVIEW]Adam Tamas Tuboly - 2015 - The Berlin Review of Books 2015.
    Eino Kaila’s recently translated Human Knowledge: A Classic Statement of Logical Empiricism from 1939 is an important document both in the history of analytic philosophy and the history of logical empiricism in particular. Kaila discusses all the relevant topics that featured in the discussions of the Vienna Circle in the early 1930s and provides a neat summary with his own historical narrative and critical remarks.
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  46. Studies on Paul Feyerabend's Philosophy: From Logical Empiricism to the Historical Turn in Philosophy of Science.Daniel Kuby - 2016 - Dissertation,
    The present article-based dissertation is a contribution to a historical and systematic recon- struction of Paul Feyerabend’s philosophy. Building on previous work on the same subject, this thesis continues a research effort exploring Feyerabend’s early ties to scientific philoso- phy, in particular Logical Empiricism and the Vienna Circle, as well as its continued effects on Feyerabend’s later philosophy. The main claim is that Feyerabend’s formative years in Vienna (1946-1955) happened in the context of scientific philosophy and that his early (...)
     
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  47.  12
    Generative Hermeneutics: Proposal for an Alliance with Critical Realism.Martin Durdovic - 2018 - Journal of Critical Realism 17 (3):244-261.
    ABSTRACTThis article deals with the recent interest shown by critical realists in the study of generative mechanisms in sociology and proposes stronger integration of hermeneutics into this theoretical approach. There are important differences between realism and hermeneutics. While realism strives to overcome the extremes of empiricism and interpretivism with a new version of naturalism, hermeneutics bases its explanations of society on research into meanings. The question is whether underlining these differences is useful for social theory. On the one (...)
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  48. Years of Feminist Empiricism and Standpoint Theory: Where Are We Now?Kristen Intemann - 2010 - Hypatia 25 (4):778-796.
    Over the past twenty-five years, numerous articles in Hypatia have clarified, revised, and defended increasingly more nuanced views of both feminist empiricism and standpoint feminism. Feminist empiricists have argued that scientific knowledge is contextual and socially situated (Longino 1990; Nelson 1990; Anderson 1995), and standpoint feminists have begun to endorse virtues of theory choice that have been traditionally empiricist (Wylie 2003). In fact, it is unclear whether substantive differences remain. I demonstrate that current versions of feminist empiricism (...)
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  49.  31
    Transcendence: Critical Realism and God.Margaret Scotford Archer - 2004 - Routledge.
    Atheism as a belief does not have to present intellectual credentials within academia. Yet to hold beliefs means giving reasons for doing so, ones which may be found wanting. Instead, atheism is the automatic default setting within the academic world. Conversely, religious belief confronts a double standard. Religious believers are not permitted to make truth claims but are instead forced to present their beliefs as part of one language game amongst many. Religious truth claims are expected to satisfy empiricist criteria (...)
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  50.  17
    Origins of Logical Empiricism.Ronald N. Giere & Alan W. Richardson (eds.) - 1996 - Univ of Minnesota Press.
    This latest volume in the eminent Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science series examines the main features of the intellectual milieu from which logical empiricism sprang, providing the first critical exploration of this context by ...
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