Entailment relations, introduced by Scott in the early 1970s, provide an abstract generalisation of Gentzen’s multi-conclusion logical inference. Originally applied to the study of multi-valued logics, this notion has then found plenty of applications, ranging from computer science to abstract algebra. In particular, an entailment relation can be regarded as a constructive presentation of a distributive lattice and in this guise it has proven to be a useful tool for the constructive reformulation of several classical theorems in commutative algebra. In (...) this paper, motivated by these concrete applications, we state and prove a cut-elimination result for inductively generated entailment relations. We analyse some of its consequences and describe the existing connections with analogous results in the literature. (shrink)
A semantic embedding of quantified conditional logic in classical higher-order logic is utilized for reducing cut-elimination in the former logic to existing results for the latter logic. The presented embedding approach is adaptable to a wide range of other logics, for many of which cut-elimination is still open. However, special attention has to be payed to cut-simulation, which may render cut-elimination as a pointless criterion.
In previous work by Baaz and Iemhoff, a Gentzen calculus for intuitionistic logic with existence predicate is presented that satisfies partial cut elimination and Craig's interpolation property; it is also conjectured that interpolation fails for the implication-free fragment. In this paper an equivalent calculus is introduced that satisfies full cut elimination and allows a direct proof of interpolation via Maehara's lemma. In this way, it is possible to obtain much simpler interpolants and to better understand and overcome the (...) failure of interpolation for the implication-free fragment. (shrink)
A way is found to add axioms to sequent calculi that maintains the eliminability of cut, through the representation of axioms as rules of inference of a suitable form. By this method, the structural analysis of proofs is extended from pure logic to free-variable theories, covering all classical theories, and a wide class of constructive theories. All results are proved for systems in which also the rules of weakening and contraction can be eliminated. Applications include a system of predicate logic (...) with equality in which also cuts on the equality axioms are eliminated. (shrink)
The system GLS, which is a modal sequent calculus system for the provability logic GL, was introduced by G. Sambin and S. Valentini in Journal of Philosophical Logic, 11, 311–342,, and in 12, 471–476,, the second author presented a syntactic cut-elimination proof for GLS. In this paper, we will use regress trees in order to present a simpler and more intuitive syntactic cut derivability proof for GLS1, which is a variant of GLS without the cut rule.
We develop a general algebraic and proof-theoretic study of substructural logics that may lack associativity, along with other structural rules. Our study extends existing work on substructural logics over the full Lambek Calculus , Galatos and Ono , Galatos et al. ). We present a Gentzen-style sequent system that lacks the structural rules of contraction, weakening, exchange and associativity, and can be considered a non-associative formulation of . Moreover, we introduce an equivalent Hilbert-style system and show that the logic associated (...) with and is algebraizable, with the variety of residuated lattice-ordered groupoids with unit serving as its equivalent algebraic semantics. Overcoming technical complications arising from the lack of associativity, we introduce a generalized version of a logical matrix and apply the method of quasicompletions to obtain an algebra and a quasiembedding from the matrix to the algebra. By applying the general result to specific cases, we obtain important logical and algebraic properties, including the cut elimination of and various extensions, the strong separation of , and the finite generation of the variety of residuated lattice-ordered groupoids with unit. (shrink)
We analyse the structure of propositional proofs in the sequent calculus focusing on the well-known procedures of Interpolation and Cut Elimination. We are motivated in part by the desire to understand why a tautology might be ‘hard to prove’. Given a proof we associate to it a logical graph tracing the flow of formulas in it . We show some general facts about logical graphs such as acyclicity of cut-free proofs and acyclicity of contraction-free proofs , and we give (...) a proof of a strengthened version of the Craig Interpolation Theorem based on flows of formulas. We show that tautologies having minimal interpolants of non-linear size must have proofs with certain precise structural properties. We then show that given a proof Π and a cut-free form Π′ associated to it , certain subgraphs of Π′ which are logical graphs correspond to subgraphs of Π which are logical graphs for the same sequent. This locality property of cut elimination leads to new results on the complexity of interpolants, which cannot follow from the known constructions proving the Craig Interpolation Theorem. (shrink)
The logic CD is an intermediate logic which exactly corresponds to the Kripke models with constant domains. It is known that the logic CD has a Gentzen-type formulation called LD and rules are replaced by the corresponding intuitionistic rules) and that the cut-elimination theorem does not hold for LD. In this paper we present a modification of LD and prove the cut-elimination theorem for it. Moreover we prove a “weak” version of cut-elimination theorem for LD, saying that (...) all “cuts” except some special forms can be eliminated from a proof in LD. From these cut-elimination theorems we obtain some corollaries on syntactical properties of CD: fragments collapsing into intuitionistic logic. Harrop disjunction and existence properties, and a fact on the number of logical symbols in the axiom of CD. (shrink)
In this paper we first give a survey of reductive cut-elimination methods in classical logic. In particular we describe the methods of Gentzen and Schütte-Tait from the abstract point of view of proof reduction. We also present the method CERES which we classify as a semi-semantic method. In a further section we describe the so-called semantic methods. In the second part of the paper we carry the proof analysis further by generalizing the CERES method to CERESD . In the (...) generalized version CERESD we admit general elimination rules which are based on the mere semantical truth of sentences. We construct complete cut-free LK-derivations originating from derivations potentially containing unproven lemmas. Finally we give a comparison of reductive methods and CERESD by presenting a general simulation result. (shrink)
This is a reply to the considerations advanced by Schroeder-Heister and Tranchini as prima facie problematic for the proof-theoretic criterion of paradoxicality, as originally presented in Tennant and subsequently amended in Tennant. Countering these considerations lends new importance to the parallelized forms of elimination rules in natural deduction.
Proof theory and category theory were first drawn together by Lambek some 30 years ago but, until now, the most fundamental notions of category theory have not been explained systematically in terms of proof theory. Here it is shown that these notions, in particular the notion of adjunction, can be formulated in such as way as to be characterised by composition elimination. Among the benefits of these composition-free formulations are syntactical and simple model-theoretical, geometrical decision procedures for the commuting (...) of diagrams of arrows. Composition elimination, in the form of Gentzen's cut elimination, takes in categories, and techniques inspired by Gentzen are shown to work even better in a purely categorical context than in logic. An acquaintance with the basic ideas of general proof theory is relied on only for the sake of motivation, however, and the treatment of matters related to categories is also in general self contained. Besides familiar topics, presented in a novel, simple way, the monograph also contains new results. It can be used as an introductory text in categorical proof theory. (shrink)
Hypersequent calculi can formalize various non-classical logics. In  we presented a non-commutative variant of HC for the weakest temporal logic of linear frames Kt4.3 and some its extensions for dense and serial flow of time. The system was proved to be cut-free HC formalization of respective temporal logics by means of Schütte/Hintikka-style semantical argument using models built from saturated hypersequents. In this paper we present a variant of this calculus for Kt4.3 with a constructive syntactical proof of cut (...) class='Hi'>elimination. (shrink)
We develop a Gentzen-style proof theory for super-Belnap logics, expanding on an approach initiated by Pynko. We show that just like substructural logics may be understood proof-theoretically as logics which relax the structural rules of classical logic but keep its logical rules as well as the rules of Identity and Cut, super-Belnap logics may be seen as logics which relax Identity and Cut but keep the logical rules as well as the structural rules of classical logic. A generalization of the (...) cut elimination theorem for classical propositional logic is then proved and used to establish interpolation for various super-Belnap logics. In particular, we obtain an alternative syntactic proof of a refinement of the Craig interpolation theorem for classical propositional logic discovered recently by Milne. (shrink)
A simple cut elimination proof for arithmetic with the epsilon symbol is used to establish the termination of a modified epsilon substitution process. This opens a possibility of extension to much stronger systems.
We first look at an existing infinitary sequent system for common knowledge for which there is no known syntactic cut-elimination procedure and also no known non-trivial bound on the proof-depth. We then present another infinitary sequent system based on nested sequents that are essentially trees and with inference rules that apply deeply inside these trees. Thus we call this system “deep” while we call the former system “shallow”. In contrast to the shallow system, the deep system allows one to (...) give a straightforward syntactic cut-elimination procedure. Since both systems can be embedded into each other, this also yields a syntactic cut-elimination procedure for the shallow system. For both systems we thus obtain an upper bound of φ20 on the depth of proofs, where φ is the Veblen function. (shrink)
We describe a sequent calculus, based on work of Herbelin, of which the cut-free derivations are in 1-1 correspondence with the normal natural deduction proofs of intuitionistic logic. We present a simple proof of Herbelin's strong cut-elimination theorem for the calculus, using the recursive path ordering theorem of Dershowitz.
Any set of truth-functional connectives has sequent calculus rules that can be generated systematically from the truth tables of the connectives. Such a sequent calculus gives rise to a multi-conclusion natural deduction system and to a version of Parigot’s free deduction. The elimination rules are “general,” but can be systematically simplified. Cut-elimination and normalization hold. Restriction to a single formula in the succedent yields intuitionistic versions of these systems. The rules also yield generalized lambda calculi providing proof terms (...) for natural deduction proofs as in the Curry-Howard isomorphism. Addition of an indirect proof rule yields classical single-conclusion versions of these systems. Gentzen’s standard systems arise as special cases. (shrink)
This is a sequel article to  where a hypersequent calculus for some temporal logics of linear frames includingKt4.3and its extensions for dense and serial flow of time was investigated in detail. A distinctive feature of this approach is that hypersequents are noncommutative, i.e., they are finite lists of sequents in contrast to other hypersequent approaches using sets or multisets. Such a system in  was proved to be cut-free HC formalization of respective logics by means of semantical argument. In (...) this article we present an equivalent variant of this calculus for which a constructive syntactical proof of cut elimination is provided. (shrink)
We present a syntactic proof of cut-elimination for weak Grzegorczyk logic Go. The logic has a syntactically similar axiomatisation to Gödel–Löb logic GL (provability logic) and Grzegorczyk’s logic Grz. Semantically, GL can be viewed as the irreflexive counterpart of Go, and Grz can be viewed as the reflexive counterpart of Go. Although proofs of syntactic cut-elimination for GL and Grz have appeared in the literature, this is the first proof of syntactic cut-elimination for Go. The proof is (...) technically interesting, requiring a deeper analysis of the derivation structures than the proofs for GL and Grz. New transformations generalising the transformations for GL and Grz are developed here. (shrink)
The notions of common knowledge or common belief play an important role in several areas of computer science , in philosophy, game theory, artificial intelligence, psychology and many other fields which deal with the interaction within a group of “agents”, agreement or coordinated actions. In the following we will present several deductive systems for common knowledge above epistemic logics –such as K, T, S4 and S5 –with a fixed number of agents. We focus on structural and proof-theoretic properties of these (...) calculi. (shrink)
A non-effective cut-elimination proof for modal mu-calculus has been given by G. Jäger, M. Kretz and T. Studer. Later an effective proof has been given for a subsystem M 1 with non-iterated fixpoints and positive endsequents. Using a new device we give an effective cut-elimination proof for M 1 without restriction to positive sequents.
For some modal fixed point logics, there are deductive systems that enjoy syntactic cut-elimination. An early example is the system in Pliuskevicius  for LTL. More recent examples are the systems by the authors of this paper for the logic of common knowledge  and by Hill and Poggiolesi for PDL, which are based on a form of deep inference. These logics can be seen as fragments of the modal mu-calculus. Here we are interested in how far this approach (...) can be pushed in general. To this end, we introduce a nested sequent system with syntactic cut-elimination which is incomplete for the modal mu-calculus, but complete with respect to a restricted language that allows only fixed points of a certain form. This restricted language includes the logic of common knowledge and PDL. There is also a traditional sequent system for the modal mu-calculus by Jäger et al. , without a syntactic cut-elimination procedure. We embed that system into ours and vice versa, thus establishing cut-elimination also for the shallow system, when only the restricted language is considered. (shrink)
In this paper we show that the intuitionistic theory for finitely many iterations of strictly positive operators is a conservative extension of Heyting arithmetic. The proof is inspired by the quick cut-elimination due to G. Mints. This technique is also applied to fragments of Heyting arithmetic.
Canonical Propositional Gentzen-type systems are systems which in addition to the standard axioms and structural rules have only pure logical rules with the sub-formula property, in which exactly one occurrence of a connective is introduced in the conclusion, and no other occurrence of any connective is mentioned anywhere else. In this paper we considerably generalize the notion of a “canonical system” to first-order languages and beyond. We extend the Propositional coherence criterion for the non-triviality of such systems to rules with (...) unary quantifiers and show that it remains constructive. Then we provide semantics for such canonical systems using 2-valued non-deterministic matrices extended to languages with quantifiers, and prove that the following properties are equivalent for a canonical system G: (1) G admits Cut-Elimination, (2) G is coherent, and (3) G has a characteristic 2-valued non-deterministic matrix. (shrink)
As is mentioned in Leigh :845-865, 2015), it is an open problem whether for several axiomatic theories of truth, including Friedman–Sheard theory \ and Kripke–Feferman theory \ :690-716, 1976), there exist cut-elimination arguments that give the upper bounds of their proof-theoretic strengths. In this paper, we give complete cut-elimination results for several well-known axiomatic theories of truth. In particular, we treat the systems \, and \ \\) of Friedman and Sheard’s theories and \.
We propose a new sequent calculus for bi intuitionistic logic which sits somewhere between display calculi and traditional sequent calculi by using nested sequents. Our calculus enjoys a simple (purely syntactic) cut elimination proof as do display calculi. But it has an easily derivable variant calculus which is amenable to automated proof search as are (some) traditional sequent calculi. We first present the initial calculus and its cut elimination proof. We then present the derived calculus, and then present (...) a proof search strategy which allows it to be used for automated proof search. We prove that this search strategy is terminating and complete by showing how it can be used to mimic derivations obtained from an existing calculus GBiInt for bi intuitionistic logic. As far as we know, our new calculus is the first sequent calculus for bi intuitionistic logic which uses no semantic additions like labels, which has a purely syntactic cut elimination proof, and which can be used naturally for backwards proof search. Keywords: Bi-intuitionistic logic, display calculi, proof search. (shrink)
This paper defines reduction on derivations (cut-elimination) in the Strict Intersection Type Assignment System of an earlier paper and shows a strong normalization result for this reduction. Using this result, new proofs are given for the approximation theorem and the characterization of normalizability of terms using intersection types.
In this paper we give a new proof of cut elimination in Gentzen's sequent system for intuitionistic first-order predicate logic. The point of this proof is that the elimination procedure eliminates the cut rule itself, rather than the mix rule.
We present a cut-elimination proof for simple type theory with an axiom of choice formulated in the language with an epsilon-symbol. The proof is modeled after Takahashi's proof of cut-elimination for simple type theory with extensionality. The same proof works when types are restricted, for example for second-order classical logic with an axiom of choice.
The paper studies a cluster of systems for fully disquotational truth based on the restriction of initial sequents. Unlike well-known alternative approaches, such systems display both a simple and intuitive model theory and remarkable proof-theoretic properties. We start by showing that, due to a strong form of invertibility of the truth rules, cut is eliminable in the systems via a standard strategy supplemented by a suitable measure of the number of applications of truth rules to formulas in derivations. Next, we (...) notice that cut remains eliminable when suitable arithmetical axioms are added to the system. Finally, we establish a direct link between cut-free derivability in infinitary formulations of the systems considered and fixed-point semantics. Noticeably, unlike what happens with other background logics, such links are established without imposing any restriction to the premisses of the truth rules. (shrink)
We will give here a purely algebraic proof of the cut elimination theorem for various sequent systems. Our basic idea is to introduce mathematical structures, called Gentzen structures, for a given sequent system without cut, and then to show the completeness of the sequent system without cut with respect to the class of algebras for the sequent system with cut, by using the quasi-completion of these Gentzen structures. It is shown that the quasi-completion is a generalization of the MacNeille (...) completion. Moreover, the finite model property is obtained for many cases, by modifying our completeness proof. This is an algebraic presentation of the proof of the finite model property discussed by Lafont  and Okada-Terui . (shrink)
Two intuitionistic paradefinite logics N4C and N4C+ are introduced as Gentzen-type sequent calculi. These logics are regarded as a combination of Nelson’s paraconsistent four-valued logic N4 and Wansing’s basic constructive connexive logic C. The proposed logics are also regarded as intuitionistic variants of Arieli, Avron, and Zamansky’s ideal paraconistent four-valued logic 4CC. The logic N4C has no quasi-explosion axiom that represents a relationship between conflation and paraconsistent negation, but the logic N4C+ has this axiom. The Kripke-completeness and cut-elimination theorems (...) for N4C and N4C+ are proved. (shrink)
Vauzeilles, J., Cut elimination for the Unified Logic, Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 62 1-16. In the paper entitled “On the Unity of Logic” Girard introduced and motivated the system LU. In Girard's article, the cut-elimination result for LU is stated and used as a key lemma, but not supported by any rigourous proof. In the present paper, we prove that LU enjoys cut elimination under minimal hypotheses: a notion of degree for a formula is introduced, (...) which depends only on the number of exponentials of the formula; this refinement yields much better bounds for cut elimination and leaves open many possibilities as to non-well-foundedness of formulae. (shrink)
In this article, a cut-free system TLMω1 for infinitary propositional modal logic is proposed which is complete with respect to the class of all Kripke frames.The system TLMω1 is a kind of Gentzen style sequent calculus, but a sequent of TLMω1 is defined as a finite tree of sequents in a standard sense. We prove the cut-elimination theorem for TLMω1 via its Kripke completeness.
Deep inference is a natural generalisation of the one-sided sequent calculus where rules are allowed to apply deeply inside formulas, much like rewrite rules in term rewriting. This freedom in applying inference rules allows to express logical systems that are difficult or impossible to express in the cut-free sequent calculus and it also allows for a more fine-grained analysis of derivations than the sequent calculus. However, the same freedom also makes it harder to carry out this analysis, in particular it (...) is harder to design cut elimination procedures. In this paper we see a cut elimination procedure for a deep inference system for classical predicate logic. As a consequence we derive Herbrand's Theorem, which we express as a factorisation of derivations. (shrink)
Context-dependent rules are an obstacle to cut elimination. Turning to a generalised sequent style formulation using deep inferences is helpful, and for the calculus presented here it is essential. Cut elimination is shown for a substructural, multiplicative, pure propositional calculus. Moreover we consider the extra problems induced by non-logical axioms and extend the results to additive connectives and quantifiers.
Algebraic proofs of the cut-elimination theorems for classical and intuitionistic logic are presented, and are used to show how one can sometimes extract a constructive proof and an algorithm from a proof that is nonconstructive. A variation of the double-negation translation is also discussed: if ϕ is provable classically, then ¬(¬ϕ)nf is provable in minimal logic, where θnf denotes the negation-normal form of θ. The translation is used to show that cut-elimination theorems for classical logic can be viewed (...) as special cases of the cut-elimination theorems for intuitionistic logic. (shrink)
We gather the following miscellaneous results in proof theory from the attic.1. 1. A provably well-founded elementary ordering admits an elementary order preserving map.2. 2. A simple proof of an elementary bound for cut elimination in propositional calculus and its applications to separation problem in relativized bounded arithmetic below S21.3. 3. Equivalents for Bar Induction, e.g., reflection schema for ω logic.4. 4. Direct computations in an equational calculus PRE and a decidability problem for provable inequations in PRE.5. 5. Intuitionistic (...) fixed point theories which are conservative extensions of HA.6. 6. Proof theoretic strengths of classical fixed points theories.7. 7. An equivalence between transfinite induction rule and iterated reflection schema over IΣn.8. 8. Derivation lengths of finite rewrite rules reducing under lexicographic path orders and multiply recursive functions.Each section can be read separately in principle. (shrink)
In 1983, Valentini presented a syntactic proof of cut elimination for a sequent calculus GLSV for the provability logic GL where we have added the subscript V for “Valentini”. The sequents in GLSV were built from sets, as opposed to multisets, thus avoiding an explicit contraction rule. From a syntactic point of view, it is more satisfying and formal to explicitly identify the applications of the contraction rule that are ‘hidden’ in these set based proofs of cut elimination. (...) There is often an underly ing assumption that the move to a proof of cut elimination for sequents built from multisets is easy. Recently, however, it has been claimed that Valentini’s arguments to eliminate cut do not terminate when applied to a multiset formulation of GLSV with an explicit rule of contraction. The claim has led to much confusion and various authors have sought new proofs of cut elimination for GL in a multiset setting. Here we refute this claim by placing Valentini’s arguments in a formal setting and proving cut elimination for sequents built from multisets. The formal setting is particularly important for sequents built from multisets, in order to accurately account for the interplay between the weakening and contraction rules. Furthermore, Valentini’s original proof relies on a novel induction parameter called “width” which is computed ‘globally’. It is diffi cult to verify the correctness of his induction argument based on “width”. In our formulation however, verification of the induction argument is straight forward. Finally, the multiset setting also introduces a new complication in the the case of contractions above cut when the cut formula is boxed. We deal with this using a new transformation based on Valentini’s original arguments. Finally, we show that the algorithm purporting to show the non termi nation of Valentini’s arguments is not a faithful representation of the original arguments, but is instead a transformation already known to be insufficient. (shrink)