Results for 'design method'

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  1.  1
    Teaching Philosophy by the Guided Design Method.Gene D'Amour - 1977 - Metaphilosophy 8 (1):78–86.
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  2. From Analysis/Synthesis to Conjecture/Analysis: A Review of Karl Popper’s Influence on Design Methodology in Architecture.Greg Bamford - 2002 - Design Studies 23 (3):245-61.
    The two principal models of design in methodological circles in architecture—analysis/synthesis and conjecture/analysis—have their roots in philosophy of science, in different conceptions of scientific method. This paper explores the philosophical origins of these models and the reasons for rejecting analysis/synthesis in favour of conjecture/analysis, the latter being derived from Karl Popper’s view of scientific method. I discuss a fundamental problem with Popper’s view, however, and indicate a framework for conjecture/analysis to avoid this problem.
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  3.  1
    Phenomenological Research Method, Design and Procedure: A Phenomenological Investigation of the Phenomenon of Being-in-Community as Experienced by Two Individuals Who Have Participated in a Community Building Workshop.Carl Holroyd - 2001 - Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology 1 (1):1-10.
    This project was conceived to determine the feasibility of using a phenomenological method of enquiry, based on Giorgi’s existential psychological method, for explicating the experience of being-in-community as experienced within a Community Building Workshop. This project served to inform a larger Master of Social Science research project concerned with building community within business. In approaching this project it was decided to interview two people who had participated in separate CBWs, but not within a business context. The reason for (...)
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  4.  20
    Hipótesis, Método & Diseño de Investigación (Hypothesis, Method & Research Design).Jose Luis Abreu - 2012 - Daena 7 (2):187-197.
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  5. An Activity-Theoretical Method for Studying Dynamics of User-Participation in IS Design.S. Hyysalo & J. Lehenkari - 2001 - Iris 24:11-14.
  6.  2
    The Design Thinking as a Method of Applied Ethics.Toshihiro Ohishi - 2013 - Kagaku Tetsugaku 46 (2):31-47.
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  7.  2
    Effects of Stimulus Meaningfulness, Method of Presentation, and List Design on the Learning of Paired Associates.John H. Wright - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 73 (1):72.
  8. Automatic Generation of the Behavior Definition of Distributed Design Tools From Task Method Diagrams and Method Flux Diagrams by Diagram Composition.J. Fernando Bienvenido & Isabel M. Flores-Parra - 2004 - In A. Blackwell, K. Marriott & A. Shimojima (eds.), Diagrammatic Representation and Inference. Springer. pp. 435--437.
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  9. Life Sciences Charles Lebrun, A Method to Learn to Design the Passions . Trans, by J. Williams. Facsimile Edn. With Intro. By A. T. McKenzie, Los Angeles: University of California, William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, 1980. Pp. Xiiii + 98. [REVIEW]Janet Browne - 1983 - British Journal for the History of Science 16 (2):219.
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  10. Scott Norman R.. Introduction to Switching Algebra. A Survey of Switching Circuit Theory, Edited by McCluskey E. J. Jr., and Bartee T. C., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York 1962, Pp. 1–13.Cadden W. J.. Binary Numbers, Codes, and Translators. A Survey of Switching Circuit Theory, Edited by McCluskey E. J. Jr., and Bartee T. C., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York 1962, Pp. 15–30.Runyon J. P.. Formulation of Switching Problems. A Survey of Switching Circuit Theory, Edited by McCluskey E. J. Jr., and Bartee T. C., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York 1962, Pp. 31–45.Tanana E. J.. The Map Method. A Survey of Switching Circuit Theory, Edited by McCluskey E. J. Jr., and Bartee T. C., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York 1962, Pp. 47–65.Mccluskey E. J. Jr., Minimization Theory. A Survey of Switching Circuit Theory, Edited by McCluskey E. J. Jr., and Bartee T. C., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York 1962, Pp. 67–88.Bartee T. C.. Design Using Computers. A Survey of Switching Circuit Theory, Edited B. [REVIEW]Albert Mullin - 1962 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 27 (2):251-252.
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  11. Using Machine Learning to Develop a High-Performance Virtual Screening Method for Drug Design.Masato Okada, Katsutoshi Kanamori, Shin Aoki & Hayato Ohwada - 2014 - Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 29 (1):194-200.
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  12. AQM Scheme Design for TCP Network Via Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Method.Sheng Xu, Minrui Fei, Xinhao Yang & Liqin Wu - 2016 - Complexity 21 (S2):606-612.
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  13. Design, Science and Conceptual Analysis.Greg Bamford - 1991 - In Jim Plume (ed.), Architectural Science and Design in Harmony: Proceedings of the joint ANZAScA / ADTRA conference, Sydney, 10-12 July, 1990. School of Architecture, University of NSW.
    Philosophers expend considerable effort on the analysis of concepts, but the value of such work is not widely appreciated. This paper principally analyses some arguments, beliefs, and presuppositions about the nature of design and the relations between design and science common in the literature to illustrate this point, and to contribute to the foundations of design theory.
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  14.  4
    Statistical Reporting with Philip's Sextuple and Extended Sextuple: A Simple Method for Easy Communication of Findings.Philip Tromovitch - 2012 - Journal of Research Practice 8 (1):Article - P2.
    The advance of science and human knowledge is impeded by misunderstandings of various statistics, insufficient reporting of findings, and the use of numerous standardized and non-standardized presentations of essentially identical information. Communication with journalists and the public is hindered by the failure to present statistics that are easy for non-scientists to interpret as well as by use of the word significant, which in scientific English does not carry the meaning of "important" or "large." This article promotes a new standard (...) for reporting two-group and two-variable statistics that can enhance the presentation of relevant information, increase understanding of findings, and replace the current presentations of two-group ANOVA, t-tests, correlations, chi-squares, and z-tests of proportions. A brief call to highly restrict the publication of risk ratios, odds ratios, and relative increase in risk percentages is also made, since these statistics appear to provide no useful scientific information regarding the magnitude of findings. (shrink)
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  15.  22
    The Structure of Causal Evidence Based on Eliminative Induction.Wolfgang Pietsch - 2014 - Topoi 33 (2):421-435.
    It is argued that in deterministic contexts evidence for causal relations states whether a boundary condition makes a difference or not to a phenomenon. In order to substantiate the analysis, I show that this difference/indifference making is the basic type of evidence required for eliminative induction in the tradition of Francis Bacon and John Stuart Mill. To this purpose, an account of eliminative induction is proposed with two distinguishing features: it includes a method to establish the causal irrelevance of (...)
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  16.  16
    Expanding Awareness by Inclusive Communication Design.T. Shiose, Y. Kagiyama, K. Toda, H. Kawakami & O. Katai - 2010 - AI and Society 25 (2):225-231.
    In this paper, we report the case of an Inclusive Design workshop. Inclusive Design is a design method that includes elderly and disabled people not only in interviews, but also in the upstream design process such as basic design and survey analysis. In the workshop, participants designed scientific educational materials that visually impaired and sighted people can use together. To work together regardless of visual disability, participants used the image-processing system and the stereo copying (...)
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  17.  38
    Phenomenology and Experimental Design: Toward a Phenomenologically Enlightened Experimental Science.Shaun Gallagher - 2003 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (9-10):85-99.
    I review three answers to the question: How can phenomenology contribute to the experimental cognitive neurosciences? The first approach, neurophenomenology, employs phenomenological method and training, and uses first-person reports not just as more data for analysis, but to generate descriptive categories that are intersubjectively and scientifically validated, and are then used to interpret results that correlate with objective measurements of behaviour and brain activity. A second approach, indirect phenomenology, is shown to be problematic in a number of ways. Indirect (...)
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  18.  21
    Design for a Common World: On Ethical Agency and Cognitive Justice. [REVIEW]Maja van der Velden - 2009 - Ethics and Information Technology 11 (1):37-47.
    The paper discusses two answers to the question, How to address the harmful effects of technology? The first response proposes a complete separation of science from culture, religion, and ethics. The second response finds harm in the logic and method of science itself. The paper deploys a feminist technoscience approach to overcome these accounts of neutral or deterministic technological agency. In this technoscience perspective, agency is not an attribute of autonomous human users alone but enacted and performed in socio-material (...)
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  19. Intelligent Design in Theological Perspective.Niall Shanks & Keith Green - 2011 - Synthese 178 (2):307 - 330.
    While "scientism" is typically regarded as a position about the exclusive epistemic authority of science held by a certain class of "cultured despisers" of "religion", we show that only on the assumption of this sort of view do purportedly "scientific" claims made by proponents of "intelligent design" appear to lend epistemic or apologetic support to claims affirmed about God and God's action in "creation" by Christians in confessing their "faith". On the other hand, the hermeneutical strategy that better describes (...)
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  20.  3
    Design for a Common World: On Ethical Agency and Cognitive Justice. [REVIEW]Maja Velden - 2009 - Ethics and Information Technology 11 (1):37-47.
    The paper discusses two answers to the question, How to address the harmful effects of technology? The first response proposes a complete separation of science from culture, religion, and ethics. The second response finds harm in the logic and method of science itself. The paper deploys a feminist technoscience approach to overcome these accounts of neutral or deterministic technological agency. In this technoscience perspective, agency is not an attribute of autonomous human users alone but enacted and performed in socio-material (...)
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  21.  40
    A Method for Conceptualising Legal Domains. An Example From the Dutch Unemployment Benefits Act.Pepijn Visser, Trevor Bench-Capon & Jaap van den Herik - 1997 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 5 (3):207-242.
    There has been much talk of the need to build intermediate models of the expertise required preparatory to constructing a knowledge-based system in the legal domain. Such models offer advantages for verification, validation, maintenance and reuse. As yet, however, few such models have been reported at a useful level of detail. In this paper we describe a method for conceptualising legal domains as well as its application to a substantial fragment of the Dutch Unemployment Benefits Act (DUBA).We first discuss (...)
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  22.  14
    Connecting Radical Constructivism to Social Transformation and Design.L. D. Richards - 2007 - Constructivist Foundations 2 (2-3):129-135.
    Purpose: This paper intends to connect ideas from the radical constructivist approach to cognition and learning to ideas from the constraint-theoretic approach to social policy formulation. It then extends these ideas to a dialogic approach to social transformation and design. Method: After demonstrating a correspondence between von Glasersfeld's fit/match distinction and my constraint-oriented/goal-oriented distinction with respect to policy formulation, the paper evaluates the basic assumptions of radical constructivism and builds from them a framework for thinking and talking about (...)
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  23.  40
    Metaphilosophical Criteria for Worldview Comparison.Clément Vidal - 2012 - Metaphilosophy 43 (3):306-347.
    Philosophy lacks criteria to evaluate its philosophical theories. To fill this gap, this essay introduces nine criteria to compare worldviews, classified in three broad categories: objective criteria (objective consistency, scientificity, scope), subjective criteria (subjective consistency, personal utility, emotionality), and intersubjective criteria (intersubjective consistency, collective utility, narrativity). The essay first defines what a worldview is and exposes the heuristic used in the quest for criteria. After describing each criterion individually, it shows what happens when each of them is violated. From the (...)
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  24. Ad Hominem Arguments and Intelligent Design: Reply to Koperski.Christopher A. Pynes - 2012 - Zygon 47 (2):289-297.
    Abstract Jeffrey Koperski claims in Zygon (2008) that critics of Intelligent Design engage in fallacious ad hominem attacks on ID proponents and that this is a “bad way” to engage them. I show that Koperski has made several errors in his evaluation of the ID critics. He does not distinguish legitimate, relevant ad hominem arguments from fallacious ad hominem attacks. He conflates (or equates) the logical use of valid with the colloquial use of valid. Moreover, Koperski doesn't take seriously (...)
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  25.  39
    Intelligent Design and Mathematical Statistics: A Troubled Alliance.Peter Olofsson - 2008 - Biology and Philosophy 23 (4):545-553.
    The explanatory filter is a proposed method to detect design in nature with the aim of refuting Darwinian evolution. The explanatory filter borrows its logical structure from the theory of statistical hypothesis testing but we argue that, when viewed within this context, the filter runs into serious trouble in any interesting biological application. Although the explanatory filter has been extensively criticized from many angles, we present the first rigorous criticism based on the theory of mathematical statistics.
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  26.  8
    The Logic of Design as a Conceptual Logic of Information.Luciano Floridi - 2017 - Minds and Machines 27 (3):495-519.
    In this article, I outline a logic of design of a system as a specific kind of conceptual logic of the design of the model of a system, that is, the blueprint that provides information about the system to be created. In section two, I introduce the method of levels of abstraction as a modelling tool borrowed from computer science. In section three, I use this method to clarify two main conceptual logics of information inherited from (...)
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  27.  25
    On Floridi's Method of Levels of Abstraction.Jan van Leeuwen - 2014 - Minds and Machines 24 (1):5-17.
    ion is arguably one of the most important methods in modern science in analysing and understanding complex phenomena. In his book The Philosophy of Information, Floridi (The philosophy of information. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011) presents the method of levels of abstraction as the main method of the Philosophy of Information. His discussion of abstraction as a method seems inspired by the formal methods and frameworks of computer science, in which abstraction is operationalised extensively in programming languages (...)
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  28.  20
    Instrumentalization Theory and Reflexive Design in Animal Husbandry.A. P. Bos - 2008 - Social Epistemology 22 (1):29 – 50.
    In animal husbandry in The Netherlands, as in a wide variety of other societal areas, we see an increased awareness of the fact that progress cannot be attained anymore by simply repeating the way we modernized this sector in the decades before, due to the multiplicity of the problems to be dealt with. The theory of reflexive modernization articulates this macro-social phenomenon, and at the same time serves as a prescriptive master-narrative. In this paper, I analyse the relationship between Feenberg's (...)
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  29. Uncovering the Constitution's Moral Design.Paul R. DeHart - 2007 - University of Missouri.
    The U.S. Constitution provides a framework for our laws, but what does it have to say about morality? Paul DeHart ferrets out that document’s implicit moral assumptions as he revisits the notion that constitutions are more than merely practical institutional arrangements. In _Uncovering the Constitution’s Moral Design_, he seeks to reveal, elaborate, and then evaluate the Constitution’s normative framework to determine whether it is philosophically sound—and whether it makes moral assumptions that correspond to reality. Rejecting the standard approach of the (...)
     
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  30. Comments on "Randomization and the Design of Experiments" by P. Urbach.O. Mayo - 1987 - Philosophy of Science 54 (4):592-596.
    Urbach (1985) has concluded that the use of randomization in the design of clinical and agricultural trials is both inappropriate and ineffective. It is argued here that it is appropriate, as it eliminates the dependence of inference on the unknown precise physical model that underlies a set of observations, and effective, in that it is relatively simple to apply in practice compared with any competing method. Furthermore, it has been proven in practice.
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  31.  21
    Problem-Solving Strategies and Expertise in Engineering Design.J. Ball Linden, St B. T. Evans Jonathan, Dennis Ian & C. Ormerod Thomas - 1997 - Thinking and Reasoning 3 (4):247-270.
    A study is reported which focused on the problem-solving strategies employed by expert electronics engineers pursuing a real-world task: integrated-circuit design. Verbal protocol data were analysed so as to reveal aspects of the organisation and sequencing of ongoing design activity. These analyses indicated that the designers were implementing a highly systematic solution-development strategy which deviated only a small degree from a normatively optimal top-down and breadth-first method. Although some of the observed deviation could be described as opportunistic (...)
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  32.  75
    Radical Constructivist Structural Design Education for Large Cohorts of Chinese Learners.C. M. Herr - 2014 - Constructivist Foundations 9 (3):393-402.
    Context: Structural design education in architecture is typically conceived as a scientific subject taught in a lecture format and based on a transactional view of learning. This approach misses opportunities to contribute to and integrate with design-studio-based architectural education. Problem: How can radical constructivism inform a design-based pedagogy of structural design in the context of large cohorts of Chinese learners? Method: The paper outlines how radical constructivist and second order cybernetic perspectives are reflected in an (...)
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  33.  82
    Integrating Research and Development: The Emergence of Rational Drug Design in the Pharmaceutical Industry.Matthias Adam - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 36 (3):513-537.
    Rational drug design is a method for developing new pharmaceuticals that typically involves the elucidation of fundamental physiological mechanisms. It thus combines the quest for a scientific understanding of natural phenomena with the design of useful technology and hence integrates epistemic and practical aims of research and development. Case studies of the rational design of the cardiovascular drugs propranolol, captopril and losartan provide insights into characteristics and conditions of this integration. Rational drug design became possible (...)
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  34.  22
    The Complexity-Inspired Design Approach of Imagineering.Diane E. L. W. Nijs - 2015 - World Futures 71 (1-2):8-25.
    With growing complexity in society, designers are entering the fields of organizational studies and social change with high levels of responsibility and, sometimes, little background knowledge of theories and recent evolution. Specifically in the fields of strategy, change, and transformation, the turn toward complexity science is gaining acceptance in both academia and practice. This article presents Imagineering as a complexity-inspired design approach to effectuate transformational objectives. It illustrates the method with an application on the city of Antwerp. The (...)
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  35.  6
    Construction and Design.R. Glanville - 2006 - Constructivist Foundations 1 (3):103-110.
    Purpose: The purpose of the author in writing this paper is to establish the connection between design and constructivism. To that end, it is argued that design is a necessarily constructivist activity (both in terms of the design of concepts and the design of objects and processes); and that design preceded constructivism by many millennia. Method: This argument is made through reference to concepts and developments in second order cybernetics, and an analysis of central (...)
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  36.  30
    Clinical Trial Design for HIV Prevention Research: Determining Standards of Prevention.Liza Dawson & Sheryl Zwerski - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (5):316-323.
    This article seeks to advance ethical dialogue on choosing standards of prevention in clinical trials testing improved biomedical prevention methods for HIV. The stakes in this area of research are high, given the continued high rates of infection in many countries and the budget limitations that have constrained efforts to expand treatment for all who are currently HIV-infected. New prevention methods are still needed; at the same time, some existing prevention and treatment interventions have been proven effective but are not (...)
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  37.  3
    Modeling Subjects’ Experience While Modeling the Experimental Design: A Mild-Neurophenomenology-Inspired Approach in the Piloting Phase.C. Baquedano & C. Fabar - 2017 - Constructivist Foundations 12 (2):166-179.
    Context: The integration of data measured in first- and third-person frameworks is a challenge that becomes more prominent as we attempt to refine the ties between the dimensions we assume to be objective and our experience itself. As a result, cognitive science has been a target for criticism from the epistemological and methodological point of view, which has resulted in the emergence of new approaches. Neurophenomenology has been proposed as a means to address these limitations. The methodological application of this (...)
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  38.  2
    How Bioethics Principles Can Aid Design of Electronic Health Records to Accommodate Patient Granular Control.Eric M. Meslin & Peter H. Schwartz - 2014 - Journal of General Internal Medicine 30 (1):3-6.
    Ethics should guide the design of electronic health records (EHR), and recognized principles of bioethics can play an important role. This approach was adopted recently by a team of informaticists designing and testing a system where patients exert granular control over who views their personal health information. While this method of building ethics in from the start of the design process has significant benefits, questions remain about how useful the application of bioethics principles can be in this (...)
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  39.  30
    Grounding Rights and a Method of Reflective Equilibrium.Kai Nielsen - 1982 - Inquiry : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 25 (3):277 – 306.
    A method of reflective equilibrium is adumbrated and then used to test the adequacy of moral conceptions appealing to fundamental human rights against Nietzschean conceptions of morality which would reject such an appeal. There is an attempt here both to articulate and critically probe a distinctive moral methodology (the method of reflective equilibrium) and to examine skeptical challenges to a foundationalism which would ground morality in fundamental rights claims. I attempt a partial testing of such a moral methodology (...)
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  40.  47
    Random Paired Scenarios--A Method for Investigating Attitudes to Prioritisation in Medicine.O. P. Ryynanen, M. Myllykangas, T. Vaskilampi & J. Takala - 1996 - Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (4):238-242.
    OBJECTIVE: This article describes a method for investigating attitudes towards prioritisation in medicine. SETTING: University of Kuopio, Finland. DESIGN: The method consisted of a set of 24 paired scenarios, which were imaginary patient cases, each containing three different ethical indicators randomly selected from a list of indicators (for example, child, rich patient, severe disease etc.). The scenarios were grouped into 12 random pairs and the procedure was repeated four times, resulting in 12 scenario pairs arranged randomly in (...)
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  41. Graphic Interface Design and Deductive Proof Construction.Marvin Croy - manuscript
    A graphic means of representing deductive proofs in a sentential system of symbolic logic is presented. Proof construction is characterized as a domain of the cognitive theory of problem solving, and three different interface designs for supporting the working backwards method of proof construction are demonstrated. Following a description of the rule set and the working backwards method, an analysis is given of student performance data that has guided interface development during the past two years. One interface (...) is shown to be superior to the others in respect to working backwards. Finally, some general conclusions are drawn concerning the relevance of instructional programs for empirically documenting student difficulties and for improving interface designs. (shrink)
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  42.  14
    Transformation of Avian Feeding Mechanisms: A Deductive Method.Gart Zweers - 1991 - Acta Biotheoretica 39 (1):15-36.
    A methodology is proposed as a tool for explanation of form in zoomorphology, in particular its design, diversity, and transformation. An alternate use of descriptive, inductive/comparative, and deductive methods is suggested. The basic concepts required are summarized. Following an extensive anatomical analysis a specific deductive methodology is developed, comprising three major parts: 1) Formal analysis of systems, using optimal design. 2) Transformation of an initial system's model by simulating modifications via maximizing the model for specific functional requirements. 3) (...)
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  43.  27
    Rethinking Fideism Through the Lens of Wittgenstein's Engineering Outlook.Brad J. Kallenberg - 2012 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 71 (1):55-73.
    Careful readers of Wittgenstein tend to overlook the significance his engineering education had for his philosophy; this despite Georg von Wright’s stern admonition that “the two most important facts to remember about Wittgenstein were, firstly, that he was Viennese, and, secondly, that he was an engineer.” Such oversight is particularly tempting for those of us who come to philosophy late, having first been schooled in math and science, because our education tricks us into thinking we understand engineering by extension. But (...)
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  44.  21
    Large Scale Organisational Intervention to Improve Patient Safety in Four UK Hospitals: Mixed Method Evaluation.A. Benning, M. Ghaleb, A. Suokas, M. Dixon-Woods, J. Dawson, N. Barber, B. D. Franklin, A. Girling, K. Hemming, M. Carmalt, G. Rudge, T. Naicker, U. Nwulu, S. Choudhury & R. Lilford - unknown
    Objectives To conduct an independent evaluation of the first phase of the Health Foundation’s Safer Patients Initiative (SPI), and to identify the net additional effect of SPI and any differences in changes in participating and non-participating NHS hospitals. Design Mixed method evaluation involving five substudies, before and after design. Setting NHS hospitals in the United Kingdom. Participants Four hospitals (one in each country in the UK) participating in the first phase of the SPI (SPI1); 18 control hospitals. (...)
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  45.  7
    Design, Science and Wicked Problems.Robert Farrell & Cliff Hooker - unknown
    We examine the claim that design is demarcated from science by having wicked problems while science does not and argue that it is wrong. We examine each of the ten features Rittel and Weber hold to be characteristic of wicked problems and show that they derive from three general sources common to science and design: agent finitude, system complexity and problem normativity, and play analogous roles in each. This provides the basis for a common core cognitive process to (...)
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  46.  3
    Design Research as a Variety of Second-Order Cybernetic Practice.B. Sweeting - 2016 - Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):572-579.
    Context: The relationship between design and science has shifted over recent decades. One bridge between the two is cybernetics, which offers perspectives on both in terms of their practice. From around 1980 onwards, drawing on ideas from cybernetics, Glanville has suggested that rather than apply science to design, it makes more sense to understand science as a form of design activity, reversing the more usual hierarchy between the two. I return to review this argument here, in the (...)
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  47.  1
    Study on Effectiveness of Lecture and Smart Class Method of Teaching on Academic Achievements Among Upper Primary School Students.Poonam Bala, Tanivir Kaur & Maninder Kaur - 2017 - International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences 76:25-29.
    Publication date: 30 March 2017 Source: Author: Poonam Bala, Tanivir Kaur, Maninder Kaur This is an experimental study conducted on the upper primary school students in the district of S.B.S Nagar, Punjab. The study was conducted on the students of 6th and 7th class of an international School. Total of 100 students were enrolled for this experimental study who met the inclusion criteria and were randomly divided into 2 equal groups by simple randomization technique. They received either the lecture (...) teaching or the smart class method teaching. For conducting the experiment, the investigator used pre-test and post-test comparison group design. For collection of data, a structured questionnaire and a structured teaching programme was used. t-test was used for analysis and interpretation of the data. The results of the study revealed that the lecture method of teaching was more effective as compared to a smart class method of teaching. (shrink)
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  48.  8
    Ethical and Traditional Concerns in Contemporary Japanese Design.Parisa Yazdanpanah Abdolmaleki & Ehsan Daneshfar - 2011 - Asian Culture and History 3 (1):115-124.
    Similar to its old history, Japan has a rich traditional and ethical Architecture. Based on these tenets and ethics, different concepts and spaces are formed through the time, as now Japan's ethical and traditional design ideas has its standard principles. Linking the present and the past has always been a momentous criterion in the countries with an old rich Architecture. This fact is indeed important in Japan due to the blend of ethics and religions with peoples` life. Through this (...)
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  49.  9
    The Bystander Effect and the Passive Confederate: On the Interaction Between Theory and Method.Joseph Critelli & Kathy Keith - 2003 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 24 (3-4):255-264.
    This paper integrates theoretical and methodological evaluations of the effect of group size on helping. Bystander theory includes a reward–cost model for understanding the general helping context and a more specific designation of three psychological processes that produce the bystander effect. The three processes include: diffusion of responsibility, audience inhibition, and social influence. The present analysis identifies incompatibilities between the general model and the three processes and incompatibilities between the three processes and the definition of the bystander effect. Implications of (...)
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  50.  1
    Organizing a Collaborative Development of Technological Design Requirements Using a Constructive Dialogue on Value Profiles: A Case in Automated Vehicle Development.M. Flipse Steven & Puylaert Steven - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-24.
    Following societal and policy pressures for responsible innovation, innovators are more and more expected to consider the broader socio-ethical context of their work, and more importantly, to integrate such considerations into their daily practices. This may require the involvement of ‘outsiders’ in innovation trajectories, including e.g. societal and governmental actors. However, methods on how to functionally organize such integration in light of responsible innovation have only recently started to emerge. We present an approach to do just that, in which we (...)
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