Results for 'discrimination'

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  1. What is discrimination?Sophia Moreau - 2010 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 38 (2):143-179.
  2. Disability, Difference, Discrimination: Perspectives on Justice in Bioethics and Public Policy.Anita Silvers, David Wasserman, Mary B. Mahowald & Lawrence C. Becker - 1998 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    How should we respond to individuals with disabilities? What does it mean to be disabled? Over fifty million Americans, from neonates to the fragile elderly, are disabled. Some people say they have the right to full social participation, while others repudiate such claims as delusive or dangerous. In this compelling book, three experts in ethics, medicine, and the law address pressing disability questions in bioethics and public policy. Anita Silvers, David Wasserman, and Mary B. Mahowald test important theories of justice (...)
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  3.  22
    Faces of Inequality: A Theory of Wrongful Discrimination.Sophia Moreau - 2020 - Oup Usa.
    This book defends an original and pluralist theory of when and why discrimination wrongs people, in particular, through unfair subordination, through the violation of their right to a particular deliberative freedom, or through the denial to them of access to a basic good.
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  4.  68
    Open Categories in Sport: One Way to Decrease Discrimination.Irena Martínková - 2020 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 14 (4):461-477.
    Jane English, a pioneer in feminist sport philosophy, mentioned one simple idea that has received insufficient attention, but its consequences are of great importance for decreasing discrimination...
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  5.  36
    Disability, Difference, and Discrimination: Perspectives on Justice in Bioethics and Public Policy.Anita Silvers, David Wasserman & Mary B. Mahowald - 2002 - Hypatia 17 (1):209-213.
  6. “We are all Different”: Statistical Discrimination and the Right to be Treated as an Individual.Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen - 2011 - The Journal of Ethics 15 (1):47-59.
    There are many objections to statistical discrimination in general and racial profiling in particular. One objection appeals to the idea that people have a right to be treated as individuals. Statistical discrimination violates this right because, presumably, it involves treating people simply on the basis of statistical facts about groups to which they belong while ignoring non-statistical evidence about them. While there is something to this objection—there are objectionable ways of treating others that seem aptly described as failing (...)
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  7. Justifying reverse discrimination in employment.George Sher - 1975 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 4 (2):159-170.
  8. Psychiatric Progress and The Assumption of Diagnostic Discrimination.Kathryn Tabb - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82:1047-1058.
    The failure of psychiatry to validate its diagnostic constructs is often attributed to the prioritizing of reliability over validity in the structure and content of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Here I argue that in fact what has retarded biomedical approaches to psychopathology is unwarranted optimism about diagnostic discrimination: the assumption that our diagnostic tests group patients together in ways that allow for relevant facts about mental disorder to be discovered. I consider the Research Domain Criteria (...)
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  9.  58
    Spatial attention speeds discrimination without awareness in blindsight.Robert W. Kentridge, Charles A. Heywood & Lawrence Weiskrantz - 2004 - Neuropsychologia 42 (6):831-835.
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  10. Smell's puzzling discrepancy: Gifted discrimination, yet pitiful identification.Benjamin D. Young - 2019 - Mind and Language 35 (1):90-114.
  11. Challenging algorithmic profiling: The limits of data protection and anti-discrimination in responding to emergent discrimination.Tobias Matzner & Monique Mann - 2019 - Big Data and Society 6 (2).
    The potential for biases being built into algorithms has been known for some time, yet literature has only recently demonstrated the ways algorithmic profiling can result in social sorting and harm marginalised groups. We contend that with increased algorithmic complexity, biases will become more sophisticated and difficult to identify, control for, or contest. Our argument has four steps: first, we show how harnessing algorithms means that data gathered at a particular place and time relating to specific persons, can be used (...)
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  12. Against Sexual Discrimination in Sports.Torbjorn Tannsjo - 2007 - In William J. Morgan (ed.), Ethics in Sport. Human Kinetics. pp. 347.
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  13.  33
    Expectations and Attitudes Toward Gender-Based Price Discrimination.O. C. Ferrell, Dimitri Kapelianis, Linda Ferrell & Lynzie Rowland - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 152 (4):1015-1032.
    This study explores consumer expectations and attitudes related to gender-based price discrimination. Although much research has focused on pay inequalities and gender diversity, considerably less attention has been focused on situations in which men and women are charged different prices based on gender. In two studies, expectations and attitudes toward gender-based price discrimination are examined. In Study 1, two scenarios related to prices at hair salon and dry cleaning services were manipulated to measure expectations and attitudes toward gender-based (...)
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  14.  40
    What can the concept of discrimination contribute to medical ethics?—An analysis.Maximiliane Hädicke & Claudia Wiesemann - 2021 - Ethik in der Medizin 33 (3):369-386.
    Definition of the problem Few concepts in recent ethical debates have enjoyed as much popularity as the concept of discrimination. However, a comparative discussion of the concept, including its conceptual nuances and its ethical significance for health care, has so far been lacking. The aim of this paper is to develop a nuanced understanding of discrimination based on the philosophical and sociological literature against the background of ethically relevant medical and nursing scenarios. Methods Using practical examples from health (...)
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  15. Racial profiling as pejorative discrimination.Natalie Stoljar - 2021 - In Meyerson Denise, Catriona Mackenzie & Therese MacDermott (eds.), Procedural Justice and Relational Theory: Empirical, Philosophical, and Legal Perspectives. Routledge.
  16.  10
    The Gaze Cueing Effect and Its Enhancement by Facial Expressions Are Impacted by Task Demands: Direct Comparison of Target Localization and Discrimination Tasks.Zelin Chen, Sarah D. McCrackin, Alicia Morgan & Roxane J. Itier - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    The gaze cueing effect is characterized by faster attentional orienting to a gazed-at than a non-gazed-at target. This effect is often enhanced when the gazing face bears an emotional expression, though this finding is modulated by a number of factors. Here, we tested whether the type of task performed might be one such modulating factor. Target localization and target discrimination tasks are the two most commonly used gaze cueing tasks, and they arguably differ in cognitive resources, which could impact (...)
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  17.  26
    Language-experience facilitates discrimination of /d-/ in monolingual and bilingual acquisition of English.Megha Sundara, Linda Polka & Fred Genesee - 2006 - Cognition 100 (2):369-388.
  18.  41
    Regulating assisted reproduction: Discrimination and the right to privacy.Joshua Shaw - 2019 - Clinical Ethics 14 (2):87-93.
    Advances in fertility medicine have led some ethicists to call for stricter regulations on assisted reproduction. One counterargument is that such restrictions are unfair, for they impose far more...
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  19.  14
    Hypothesis behavior by humans during discrimination learning.Marvin Levine - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (3):331.
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  20. The Complex Relationship Between Disability Discrimination and Frailty Scoring.Joel Michael Reynolds, Charles E. Binkley & Andrew Shuman - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (11):74-76.
    In "Frailty Triage: Is Rationing Intensive Medical Treatment on the Grounds of Frailty Ethical?," Wilkinson (2021) argues that the use of frailty scores in ICU triage does not necessarily involve discrimination on the basis of disability. In support of this argument, he claims, “it is not the disability per se that the score is measuring – rather it is the underlying physiological and physical vulnerability." While we appreciate the attention Wilkinson explicitly pays to disability in this piece, we find (...)
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  21.  56
    Subjective Performance Evaluation and Gender Discrimination.Victor S. Maas & Raquel Torres-González - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 101 (4):667-681.
    Gender discrimination continues to be a problem in organizations. It is therefore important that organizations use performance evaluation methods that ensure equal opportunities for men and women. This article reports the results of an experiment to investigate whether and, if so, how the gender of the rater and that of the ratee moderate the relationship between the level of subjectivity in performance appraisals and organizational attractiveness. Participants in the experiment were 313 undergraduate students. We predicted, and indeed established, that (...)
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  22.  30
    Human Rights and Genetic Discrimination: Protecting Genomics' Promise for Public Health.Anita Silvers & Michael Ashley Stein - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (3):377-389.
    The potential power of predictive genetic testing as a risk regulator is impressive. By identifying asymptomatic individuals who are at risk of becoming ill, predictive genetic testing may enable those individuals to take prophylactic measures. As new therapies become available, the usefulness of genetic testing undoubtedly will increase. Further, when a person's family medical history indicates a propensity towards a particular genetic disease, a negative test result may open up otherwise denied opportunities by showing that this person has not inherited (...)
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  23.  20
    Human Rights and Genetic Discrimination: Protecting Genomics' Promise for Public Health.Anita Silvers & Michael Ashley Stein - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (3):377-389.
    The potential power of predictive genetic testing as a risk regulator is impressive. By identifying asymptomatic individuals who are at risk of becoming ill, predictive genetic testing may enable those individuals to take prophylactic measures. As new therapies become available, the usefulness of genetic testing undoubtedly will increase. Further, when a person's family medical history indicates a propensity towards a particular genetic disease, a negative test result may open up otherwise denied opportunities by showing that this person has not inherited (...)
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  24.  51
    Directed organ donation: Discrimination or autonomy?Guido Pennings - 2007 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 24 (1):41–49.
    abstract Numerous measures have been proposed to change the collection procedure in order to increase the supply of organ donations. One such proposal is to give the candidate donors the right to direct their organs to groups of recipients characterised by specific features like sex, age, disease and geographic location. Four possible justifications for directed donation of organs are considered: the utilitarian benefit, the egalitarian principle of justice, the maximin principle of justice and the autonomy principle. It is concluded that (...)
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  25.  49
    Discrimination and Disrespect.Benjamin Eidelson - 2015 - Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press UK.
    Hardly anyone disputes that discrimination can be a grave moral wrong. Yet this consensus masks fundamental disagreements about what makes something discrimination, as well as precisely why acts of discrimination are wrong. Benjamin Eidelson develops systematic answers to those two questions. He claims that discrimination is a form of differential treatment distinguished by its special connection to the differential ascription of some property to different people, and goes on to argue that what makes some cases of (...)
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  26.  12
    Assimilation and contrast effects in visual discrimination by rhesus monkeys.Martha Wilson - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 93 (2):279.
  27.  45
    AI’s fairness problem: understanding wrongful discrimination in the context of automated decision-making.Hugo Cossette-Lefebvre & Jocelyn Maclure - 2023 - AI and Ethics 3:1255–1269.
    The use of predictive machine learning algorithms is increasingly common to guide or even take decisions in both public and private settings. Their use is touted by some as a potentially useful method to avoid discriminatory decisions since they are, allegedly, neutral, objective, and can be evaluated in ways no human decisions can. By (fully or partly) outsourcing a decision process to an algorithm, it should allow human organizations to clearly define the parameters of the decision and to, in principle, (...)
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  28. The Discourse of Perceived Discrimination: Perspectives from contemporary Australian Society.[author unknown] - 2020
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  29.  8
    On fair price discrimination in multi-unit markets.Michele Flammini, Manuel Mauro & Matteo Tonelli - 2021 - Artificial Intelligence 290 (C):103388.
  30. Discrimination & Disrespect.Erin Beeghly - 2017 - In Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of the Ethics of Discrimination. New York: Routledge. pp. 83 - 96.
    In this essay, I explore the view that wrongful discrimination is disrespectful. In section 1, I articulate three conceptions of disrespect, each of which provides a special way to understand the way in which wrongful discrimination is disrespectful. In section 2, I ask what it would take for any of these conceptions to serve as the basis for a plausible theory of wrongful discrimination. I argue that any adequate theory of wrongful discrimination must be able to (...)
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  31.  24
    Framing UN Human Rights Discourses on Climate Change: The Concept of Vulnerability and its Relation to the Concepts of Inequality and Discrimination.Monika Mayrhofer - forthcoming - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique:1-27.
    The concept of vulnerability is widely used in human rights policy documents, reports, and case law focusing on the impacts of climate change on human rights. In academic discussions, the concept, however, has also sparked a discussion on its benefits and challenges for the advancement of human rights, especially concerning the principles of equality and non-discrimination. This article aims at contributing to this debate from a frame-analytical perspective. In social sciences, frame-analysis is a form of discourse analysis which focuses (...)
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  32.  19
    Education and the ethics of discrimination.T. W. Moore - 1981 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 15 (2):235–240.
    T W Moore; Education and the Ethics of Discrimination, Journal of Philosophy of Education, Volume 15, Issue 2, 30 May 2006, Pages 235–240, https://doi.org/10.11.
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  33.  11
    Education and the Ethics of Discrimination.T. W. Moore - 1981 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 15 (2):235-240.
    T W Moore; Education and the Ethics of Discrimination, Journal of Philosophy of Education, Volume 15, Issue 2, 30 May 2006, Pages 235–240, https://doi.org/10.11.
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  34.  80
    The indirect gender discrimination of skill-selective immigration policies.Desiree Lim - 2019 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 22 (7):906-928.
  35.  66
    Is Mandatory Retirement Unfair Age Discrimination?Gary A. Wedeking - 1990 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 20 (3):321 - 334.
    In this paper I will deal with two questions. One is the relatively specific issue of whether mandatory retirement is unjust discrimination against the aged. The position taken is that it is not. But in the development of this argument a principle is advanced which appears to have the consequence that nothing, or at least very few of the practices that we are intuitively inclined to regard as unfair discrimination, are discriminatory with respect to age.
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  36.  22
    Young infants’ discrimination of subtle phonetic contrasts.Megha Sundara, Céline Ngon, Katrin Skoruppa, Naomi H. Feldman, Glenda Molina Onario, James L. Morgan & Sharon Peperkamp - 2018 - Cognition 178 (C):57-66.
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  37.  5
    Shankara's Crest-jewel of discrimination =.Савелий Романович Глинтерник - 1978 - Hollywood, Calif.: Vedanta Press. Edited by Prabhavananda & Christopher Isherwood.
    A classic text on the path to God through knowledge. The basic teaching is that God alone is the all-pervading reality; the individual soul is none other than the universal soul. Shankara was under no illusions about this world. For this reason, he is able to describe so powerfully the complete transformation of the universe that takes place before the eyes of the illumined seer, when the world indeed becomes a paradise.
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  38.  35
    T. W. Moore on the ethics of discrimination.Ian Gregory - 1983 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 17 (1):127–130.
    Ian Gregory; T. W. Moore on the Ethics of Discrimination, Journal of Philosophy of Education, Volume 17, Issue 1, 30 May 2006, Pages 127–130, https://doi.org/10.
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  39.  15
    T. W. Moore on the Ethics of Discrimination.Ian Gregory - 1983 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 17 (1):127-130.
    Ian Gregory; T. W. Moore on the Ethics of Discrimination, Journal of Philosophy of Education, Volume 17, Issue 1, 30 May 2006, Pages 127–130, https://doi.org/10.
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  40.  57
    Unconscious perception or not? An evaluation of detection and discrimination as indicators of awareness.Gary D. Fisk & Steven J. Haase - 2005 - American Journal of Psychology 118 (2):183-212.
  41.  32
    Paternalism May Excuse Disability Discrimination: When May an Employer Refuse to Employ a Disabled Individual Due to Concerns for the Individual's Safety?Lisa J. Reed - 2003 - Business and Society Review 108 (3):417-424.
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  42.  12
    A theory of discrimination learning.Frank Restle - 1955 - Psychological Review 62 (1):11-19.
  43.  60
    Four Floors for the Theory of Theory Change: The Case of Imperfect Discrimination.Hans Rott - 2014 - In Eduardo Fermé João Leite (ed.), Logics in Artificial Intelligence: 13th European Conference (JELIA 2014). Springer. pp. 368–382.
    The classical qualitative theory of belief change due to Alchourrón, Gärdenfors and Makinson has been widely known as being characterised by two packages of postulates. While the basic package consists of six postulates and is very weak, the full package that adds two further postulates is very strong. I revisit two classic constructions of theory contraction, viz., relational possible worlds contraction and entrenchment-based contraction and argue that four intermediate levels can be distinguished that play - or ought to play - (...)
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  44.  18
    The Ethics of Discrimination.Frederik Kaufman - 2019 - Philosophy Now 135:9-11.
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  45.  27
    Purview and Permissibility: The Site of Justice and the Case of Private Racial Discrimination.D. C. Matthew - 2014 - Social Theory and Practice 40 (1):73-98.
    If there is a “basic structure objection” to G.A. Cohen’s incentive critique of Rawls, then there is also a BSO to claims that private racial discrimination thwarts social justice by reducing the opportunity of its targets. In this paper, I take up the debate about the site or purview of justice and discuss it with reference to the case of race. I argue that the dispute about the site of justice has been wrongly understood as a dispute about the (...)
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  46.  44
    Humiliation and Discrimination: The Role of Shame in the Politics of Difference among the Sneetches of Dr Seuss.Johann A. Klaassen & Mari-Gretta G. Klaassen - 2008 - Social Philosophy Today 24:121-129.
    In this essay, we examine one of our perennial favorites, the story of “The Sneetches” (the first of four stories in Seuss 1961) as an exposition and condemnation of the role of shame and humiliation in maintaining oppressive social systems. We argue that Seuss’s Sneetches vividly demonstrate how we contribute to the unjustified oppression of a disadvantaged group when we allow our shaming behaviors to be guided by stereotypical presumptions about aperson’s moral character based on non-voluntary personal characteristics, rather than (...)
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  47.  28
    Humiliation and Discrimination: The Role of Shame in the Politics of Difference among the Sneetches of Dr Seuss.Johann A. Klaassen & Mari-Gretta G. Klaassen - 2008 - Social Philosophy Today 24:121-129.
    In this essay, we examine one of our perennial favorites, the story of “The Sneetches” as an exposition and condemnation of the role of shame and humiliation in maintaining oppressive social systems. We argue that Seuss’s Sneetches vividly demonstrate how we contribute to the unjustified oppression of a disadvantaged group when we allow our shaming behaviors to be guided by stereotypical presumptions about aperson’s moral character based on non-voluntary personal characteristics, rather than by evaluations of character based on the evidence (...)
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  48. Orientation irregularities in size discrimination.J. Kocaniene, A. Bertulis & A. Bulatov - 1996 - In Enrique Villanueva (ed.), Perception. Ridgeview. pp. 86-86.
  49.  8
    Now that we are here:: Discrimination, disparagement, and harassment at work and the experience of women lawyers.William R. F. Phillips, Harry Perlstadt & Janet Rosenberg - 1993 - Gender and Society 7 (3):415-433.
    This article examines the sexist work experiences of a sample of women lawyers in a mediumsized midwestern city. Specifically, it focuses on reports of discrimination, gender disparagement, and sexual harassment as components of gendered systems that maintain and reinforce inequalities between men and women on the job. The relationships between these experiences, professional role orientation and structural work characteristics are explored. Respondents report lower levels of discrimination at the more visible and legally protected “front door” than on the (...)
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  50.  6
    Good and evil in the garden of art: discrimination as the guarantor of civilization.Anthony Daniels - 2016 - New York, New York: Criterion Books.
    Anthony Daniels tackles the complex relation between good and bad art on the one hand and good and bad ideas on the other. He contrasts authors or artists whom he considers good with those he considers bad, and tries to explain why his opinion is not merely a matter of individual taste but is based upon reason as well. He argues judgment and discrimination (between good and bad, beautiful and ugly) are intrinsic to any conceivable human existence, indeed to (...)
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