Results for 'distinct'

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  1.  52
    'Descartes's One Rule of Logic': Gassendi's Critique of the Doctrine of Clear and Distinct Perception.Antonia LoLordo - 2005 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 13 (1):51 – 72.
    This is about Gassendi's 5th Objections to the Meditations and Descartes' Reply. The main issue is what clear and distinct perception consists in and whether we need a criterion in order to know if we perceive something clearly and distinctly.
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  2. Clear and Distinct Perception in Descartes's Philosophy.Shoshana Smith - 2005 - Dissertation, University of California Berkeley
    (Shoshana Smith now goes by her married name, Shoshana Brassfield: http://philpapers.org/profile/37640) Descartes famously claims that everything we perceive clearly and distinctly is true. Although this rule is fundamental to Descartes’s theory of knowledge, readers from Gassendi and Leibniz onward have complained that unless Descartes can say explicitly what clear and distinct perception is, how we know when we have it, and why it cannot be wrong, then the rule is empty. I offer a detailed analysis of clear and (...) perception, showing how Descartes answers these questions. Many doubts about the usefulness of the clarity and distinctness rule arise from the mistaken assumption that in clear and distinct perception, like sense perception, we must be able to establish a correspondence between perception and reality before we can have knowledge. I show that Descartes has a different metaphysical picture of clear and distinct perception. Clear and distinct perception is direct perception, typically of essences. On this view, by relying on the intellect instead of the senses, we can have direct perception not only of our own ideas, but also of a mind-independent reality. Because clear and distinct perception is direct perception, problems of correspondence do not arise. My account of clear and distinct perception also yields unique insight into other issues in Descartes, such as the Cartesian Circle and the doctrine of the free creation of the eternal truths. Completed at the University of California, 2005. Dissertation advisers: Janet Broughton, Hannah Ginsborg, Anthony A. Long. ProQuest UMI: 3187156. (shrink)
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  3.  5
    A Case for Qualitatively Distinct Emotion.John D. Richardson - 2007 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 27 (1):19-34.
    This article explores a phenomenological foundation for the study of emotion and contrasts that approach with behavioral and cognitive paradigms. The paper attempts to reveal the inadequacy of those more mainstream contemporary paradigms and to establish the superiority of a phenomenological approach. In the history of psychology there have been many ways of explaining emotion, and this article will offer critiques of some of these significant paradigms. In presenting a phenomenological starting point as more adequate, the approaches of Magda Arnold (...)
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  4.  41
    Emotions as Moral Amplifiers: An Appraisal Tendency Approach to the Influences of Distinct Emotions Upon Moral Judgment.Elizabeth J. Horberg, Christopher Oveis & Dacher Keltner - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (3):237-244.
    In this article, we advance the perspective that distinct emotions amplify different moral judgments, based on the emotion’s core appraisals. This theorizing yields four insights into the way emotions shape moral judgment. We submit that there are two kinds of specificity in the impact of emotion upon moral judgment: domain specificity and emotion specificity. We further contend that the unique embodied aspects of an emotion, such as nonverbal expressions and physiological responses, contribute to an emotion’s impact on moral judgment. (...)
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  5. Is Morality Unified? Evidence That Distinct Neural Systems Underlie Moral Judgments of Harm, Dishonesty, and Disgust.Carolyn Parkinson, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Philipp E. Koralus, Angela Mendelovici, Victoria McGeer & Thalia Wheatley - 2011 - Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 23 (10):3162-3180.
    Much recent research has sought to uncover the neural basis of moral judgment. However, it has remained unclear whether "moral judgments" are sufficiently homogenous to be studied scientifically as a unified category. We tested this assumption by using fMRI to examine the neural correlates of moral judgments within three moral areas: (physical) harm, dishonesty, and (sexual) disgust. We found that the judgment ofmoral wrongness was subserved by distinct neural systems for each of the different moral areas and that these (...)
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  6. Is Evil Action Qualitatively Distinct From Ordinary Wrongdoing?Luke Russell - 2007 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 85 (4):659 – 677.
    Adam Morton, Stephen de Wijze, Hillel Steiner, and Eve Garrard have defended the view that evil action is qualitatively distinct from ordinary wrongdoing. By this, they do not that mean that evil actions feel different to ordinary wrongs, but that they have motives or effects that are not possessed to any degree by ordinary wrongs. Despite their professed intentions, Morton and de Wijze both offer accounts of evil action that fail to identify a clear qualitative difference between evil and (...)
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  7. Meaning as a Distinct and Fundamental Value: Reply to Kershnar.Thaddeus Metz - 2014 - Science, Religion and Culture 1 (2):101-106.
    In this article, I reply to a critical notice of my book, Meaning in Life: An Analytic Study, that Stephen Kershnar has published elsewhere in this issue of Science, Religion & Culture. Beyond expounding the central conclusions of the book, Kershnar advances two major criticisms of it, namely, first, that I did not provide enough evidence that meaning in life is a genuine value-theoretic category as something distinct from and competing with, say, objective well-being, and, second, that, even if (...)
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  8.  17
    Corporate Social Performance, Firm Size, and Organizational Visibility: Distinct and Joint Effects on Voluntary Sustainability Reporting.Sascha Raithel & Philipp Schreck - 2018 - Business and Society 57 (4):742-778.
    This study investigates the distinct and joint effects of corporate social performance, firm size, and visibility on a company’s decision to disclose sustainability-related information through sustainability reports. It seeks to provide more nuanced explanations for why certain companies tend to extensively report on their sustainability performance. First, while prior studies have predominantly focused on environmental reporting, the current analysis considers comprehensive sustainability reports that include both environmental and social issues. Second, the article argues that the effects of two important (...)
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  9.  4
    Universal Common Ancestry, LUCA, and the Tree of Life: Three Distinct Hypotheses About the Evolution of Life.Joel Velasco - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (5-6):31.
    Common ancestry is a central feature of the theory of evolution, yet it is not clear what “common ancestry” actually means; nor is it clear how it is related to other terms such as “the Tree of Life” and “the last universal common ancestor”. I argue these terms describe three distinct hypotheses ordered in a logical way: that there is a Tree of Life is a claim about the pattern of evolutionary history, that there is a last universal common (...)
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  10.  67
    'Early Terminal Sedation' is a Distinct Entity.Victor Cellarius - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (1):46-54.
    There has been much discussion regarding the acceptable use of sedation for palliation. A particularly contentious practice concerns deep, continuous sedation given to patients who are not imminently dying and given without provision of hydration or nutrition, with the end result that death is hastened. This has been called ‘early terminal sedation’. Early terminal sedation is a practice composed of two legally and ethically accepted treatment options. Under certain conditions, patients have the right to reject hydration and nutrition, even if (...)
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  11.  95
    Why Dispositions Are (Still) Distinct From Their Bases and Causally Impotent.Bradley Rives - 2005 - American Philosophical Quarterly 42 (1):19 - 31.
    It has now been over twenty years since Elizabeth Prior, Robert Pargetter, and Frank Jackson (1982) published their classic paper on dispositions, in which they defend the following theses: (1) The Distinctness Thesis: Each disposition is distinct from its base. (2) The Impotence Thesis: Dispositions are causally impotent.1..
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  12.  30
    Causality, Criticality, and Reading Words: Distinct Sources of Fractal Scaling in Behavioral Sequences.Fermín Moscoso Del Prado Martín - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (5):785-837.
    The finding of fractal scaling (FS) in behavioral sequences has raised a debate on whether FS is a pervasive property of the cognitive system or is the result of specific processes. Inferences about the origins of properties in time sequences are causal. That is, as opposed to correlational inferences reflecting instantaneous symmetrical relations, causal inferences concern asymmetric relations lagged in time. Here, I integrate Granger-causality with inferences about FS. Four simulations illustrate that causal analyses can isolate distinct FS sources, (...)
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  13.  3
    Is the Antipathetic Fallacy Responsible for the Intuition That Consciousness is Distinct From the Physical?François Kammerer - 2018 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 18 (1):59-73.
    Numerous philosophers have recently tried to defend physicalism regarding phenomenal consciousness against dualist intuitions, by explaining the existence of dualist intuitions within a purely physicalist framework. David Papineau, for example, suggested that certain peculiar features of some of our concepts of phenomenal experiences led us to commit what he called the “Antipathetic Fallacy”: they gave us the erroneous impression that phenomenal experiences must be distinct from purely physical states, even though they are not. Papineau’s hypothesis has been accepted, though (...)
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  14.  80
    Higher-Order Vagueness and Numbers of Distinct Modalities.Susanne Bobzien - 2014 - Disputatio (39):131-137.
    This paper shows that the following common assumption is false: that in modal-logical representations of higher-order vagueness, for there to be borderline cases to borderline cases ad infinitum, the number of possible distinct modalities in a modal system must be infinite. (Open access journal).
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  15.  5
    Psychophysical Evidence for Distinct Contributions in Processing Low and High Spatial Frequencies of Fearful Facial Expressions in Backward Masking Task.Agata Sobków & Remigiusz Szczepanowski - 2012 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 43 (3):167-172.
    The present report examined the hypothesis that two distinct visual routes contribute in processing low and high spatial frequencies of fearful facial expressions. Having the participants presented with a backwardly masked task, we analyzed conscious processing of spatial frequency contents of emotional faces according to both objective and subjective taskrelevant criteria. It was shown that fear perception in the presence of the low-frequency faces can be supported by stronger automaticity leading to less false positives. In contrary, the detection of (...)
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  16.  7
    ‘Early Terminal Sedation’ is a Distinct Entity.Victor Cellarius - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (1):46-54.
    ABSTRACTThere has been much discussion regarding the acceptable use of sedation for palliation. A particularly contentious practice concerns deep, continuous sedation given to patients who are not imminently dying and given without provision of hydration or nutrition, with the end result that death is hastened. This has been called ‘early terminal sedation’. Early terminal sedation is a practice composed of two legally and ethically accepted treatment options. Under certain conditions, patients have the right to reject hydration and nutrition, even if (...)
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  17.  32
    Differential Effects of Age-of-Acquisition for Concrete Nouns and Action Verbs: Evidence for Partly Distinct Representations?Véronique Boulenger, Nathalie Décoppet, Alice C. Roy, Yves Paulignan & Tatjana A. Nazir - 2007 - Cognition 103 (1):131-46.
    There is growing evidence that words that are acquired early in life are processed faster and more accurately than words acquired later, even by adults. As neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have implicated different brain networks in the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns, the present study was aimed at contrasting reaction times to early and later-acquired action verbs and concrete nouns, in order to determine whether effects of word learning age express differently for the two types of words. Our (...)
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  18.  28
    Why Selection and Drift Might Be Distinct.Jessica Pfeifer - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1135-1145.
    In this paper, it is argued that selection and drift might be distinct. This contradicts recent arguments by Brandon (forthcoming) and Matthen and Ariew (2002) that such a distinction “violates sound probabilistic thinking” (Matthen and Ariew 2002, 62). While their arguments might be valid under certain assumptions, they overlook a possible way to make sense of the distinction. Whether this distinction makes sense, I argue, depends on the source of probabilities in natural selection. In particular, if the probabilities used (...)
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  19.  19
    A LORETA Study of Mental Time Travel: Similar and Distinct Electrophysiological Correlates of Re-Experiencing Past Events and Pre-Experiencing Future Events.Christina F. Lavallee & Michael A. Persinger - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):1037-1044.
    Previous studies exploring mental time travel paradigms with functional neuroimaging techniques have uncovered both common and distinct neural correlates of re-experiencing past events or pre-experiencing future events. A gap in the mental time travel literature exists, as paradigms have not explored the affective component of re-experiencing past episodic events; this study explored this sparsely researched area. The present study employed standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography to identify electrophysiological correlates of re-experience affect-laden and non-affective past events, as well as pre-experiencing (...)
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  20.  5
    Multitasking Ska in Chromosome Segregation: Its Distinct Pools Might Specify Various Functions.Qian Zhang, Yujue Chen, Lu Yang & Hong Liu - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (3):1700176.
    The human spindle and kinetochore associated complex is required for proper mitotic progression. Extensive studies have demonstrated its important functions in both stable kinetochore-microtubule interactions and spindle checkpoint silencing. We suggest a model to explain how various Ska functions might be fulfilled by distinct pools of Ska at kinetochores. The Ndc80-loop pool of Ska is recruited by the Ndc80 loop, or together with some of its flanking sequences, and the recruitment is also dependent on Cdk1-mediated Ska3 phosphorylation. This pool (...)
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  21.  6
    Toward an Implicit Measure of Emotions: Ratings of Abstract Images Reveal Distinct Emotional States.Bartoszek Gregory & Cervone Daniel - 2017 - Cognition and Emotion 31 (7):1377-1391.
    Although implicit tests of positive and negative affect exist, implicit measures of distinct emotional states are scarce. Three experiments examined whether a novel implicit emotion-assessment task, the rating of emotion expressed in abstract images, would reveal distinct emotional states. In Experiment 1, participants exposed to a sadness-inducing story inferred more sadness, and less happiness, in abstract images. In Experiment 2, an anger-provoking interaction increased anger ratings. In Experiment 3, compared to neutral images, spider images increased fear ratings in (...)
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  22.  49
    God and Descartes' Principle of Clear and Distinct Knowledge.Sara F. García-Gómez - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:283-302.
    In the present study of Descartes’ epistemological investigations, I have tried to show that his renowned principle of clarity and distinctness is not, in fact, one but two axioms. Most interpreters and critics have taken the two formulations of such a principle here considered as successive moments of it. At best, this position is insufficient, for each “version” of the principle of clarity and distinctness guarantees different kinds of cognitive content. Moreover, while the validity of one “version” is not dependent (...)
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  23.  52
    Two Distinct Neuronal Networks Mediate the Awareness of Environment and of Self.Christophe Phillips, Athena Demertzi, Manuel Schabus & Quentin Noirhomme - unknown
    ■ Evidence from functional neuroimaging studies on resting state suggests that there are two distinct anticorrelated cortical systems that mediate conscious awareness: an “extrinsic” system that encompasses lateral fronto-parietal areas and has been linked with processes of external input (external awareness), and an “intrinsic” system which encompasses mainly medial brain areas and..
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  24. The Right, the Good and the Problem of Distinct Identities.Simon Wigley - unknown
    A standard criticism of utilitarianism is that it is only indirectly concerned with the distribution of welfare between individuals and, therefore, does not take adequate account of the separateness between individuals. This has led some to conclude that the utilitarian must either downplay the moral significance of distinct identities (e.g. Parfit) or concede that justice represents a prior and independent constraint on the pursuit of the good (e.g. Rawls). An intriguing alternative presents itself if we accept that intrinsic value (...)
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  25.  13
    Distinct Quantum States Cannot Be Compatible with a Single State of Reality.Shan Gao - unknown
    Recently Lewis et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 150404 ] demonstrated that additional assumptions such as preparation independence are always necessary to rule out a psi-epistemic model, in which the quantum state is not uniquely determined by the underlying physical state. Their conclusion is based on an analysis of conventional projective measurements. Here we demonstrate that protective measurements, which are distinct from projective measurements, already shows that distinct quantum states cannot be compatible with a single state of reality. (...)
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  26.  10
    The Distinct Basic Good of Aesthetic Experience and Its Political Import.Michael R. Spicher - 2013 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 87 (4):711 - 729.
    To protect art under the First Amendment, John Finnis claims that art is simply the expression of emotion. Later, to protect aesthetic experience from subjectivity, Finnis claims that aesthetic experience is just a form of knowledge. However, neither of these claims adequately accounts for the nature of their objects nor fully protects them. The expression of emotion—intrinsic to art in Finnis’s view—is not always clear or even present, yet people can still appreciate the work. Equally problematic, aesthetic experience is not (...)
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  27.  7
    Maximus the Confessor's ‘Aeon’ as a Distinct Mode of Temporality.Sotiris Mitralexis - 2016 - Heythrop Journal 57 (6).
    In this paper, I shall focus on the semantic content of αἰὼν in Maximus the Confessor's works, particularly in the instances in which he employs it as a distinct form of temporality, i.e. not as simply meaning ‘eternity’. I focus on αἰὼν as a Maximian terminus technicus in spite of the diverse meanings that he himself ascribes to the word in certain cases. I will also engage with the status of time as humanity's slavery, as humanity's enemy in Maximus’ (...)
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  28.  15
    Health and Morality: Two Conceptually Distinct Categories? [REVIEW]Per-Anders Tengland - 2012 - Health Care Analysis 20 (1):66-83.
    When seeing immoral actions, criminal or not, we sometimes deem the people who perform them unhealthy. This is especially so if the actions are of a serious nature, e.g. involving murder, assault, or rape. We turn our moral evaluation into an evaluation about health and illness. This tendency is partly supported by some diagnoses found in the DMS-IV, such as Antisocial personality disorder, and the ICD-10, such as Dissocial personality disorder. The aim of the paper is to answer the question: (...)
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  29.  3
    Maximus the Confessor's ‘Aeon’ as a Distinct Mode of Temporality.Sotiris Mitralexis - 2017 - Heythrop Journal 58 (5).
    In this paper, I shall focus on the semantic content of αἰὼν in Maximus the Confessor's works, particularly in the instances in which he employs it as a distinct form of temporality, i.e. not as simply meaning ‘eternity’. I focus on αἰὼν as a Maximian terminus technicus in spite of the diverse meanings that he himself ascribes to the word in certain cases. I will also engage with the status of time as humanity's slavery, as humanity's enemy in Maximus’ (...)
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  30.  1
    To Disclose or Not to Disclose: The Ironic Effects of the Disclosure of Personal Information About Ethnically Distinct Newcomers to a Team.Bret Crane, Melissa Thomas-Hunt & Selin Kesebir - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-13.
    Recently, scholars have argued that disclosure of personal information is an effective mechanism for building high-quality relationships. However, personal information can focus attention on differences in demographically diverse teams. In an experiment using 37 undergraduate teams, we examine how sharing personal information by ethnically similar and ethnically distinct newcomers to a team affects team perceptions, performance, and behavior. Our findings indicate that the disclosure of personal information by ethnically distinct newcomers improves team performance. However, the positive impact on (...)
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  31.  4
    Distinct Task-Independent Visual Thresholds for Egocentric and Allocentric Information Pick Up.Matthieu M. De Wit, John Van der Kamp & Rich Sw Masters - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1410-1418.
    The dominant view of the ventral and dorsal visual systems is that they subserve perception and action. De Wit, Van der Kamp, and Masters suggested that a more fundamental distinction might exist between the nature of information exploited by the systems. The present study distinguished between these accounts by asking participants to perform delayed matching , pointing and perceptual judgment responses to masked Müller–Lyer stimuli of varying length. Matching and pointing responses of participants who could not perceptually judge stimulus length (...)
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  32.  2
    Beyond the Sterility of a Distinct African Bioethics: Addressing the Conceptual Bioethics Lag in Africa.Gerald M. Ssebunnya - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1):22-31.
    In the current debate on the future of bioethics in Africa, several authors have argued for a distinct communitarian African bioethics that can counter the dominancy of Western atomistic principlism in contemporary bioethics. In this article I examine this rather contentious argument and evaluate its validity and viability. Firstly, I trace the contextual origins of contemporary bioethics and highlight the rise and dominance of principlism. I particularly note that principlism was premised on a content-thin notion of the common morality (...)
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  33. God and Descartes’ Principle of Clear and Distinct Knowledge.Sara F. García-gómez - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:283-302.
    In the present study of Descartes’ epistemological investigations, I have tried to show that his renowned principle of clarity and distinctness is not, in fact, one but two axioms. Most interpreters and critics have taken the two formulations of such a principle here considered as successive moments of it. At best, this position is insufficient, for each “version” of the principle of clarity and distinctness guarantees different kinds of cognitive content. Moreover, while the validity of one “version” is not dependent (...)
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  34. Every Look Matters: Appraisals of Faces Follow Distinct Rules of Information Integration Under Arousing Versus Non-Arousing Conditions.Martina Kaufmann & Nicola Baumann - forthcoming - Cognition and Emotion:1-13.
    ABSTRACTIn this research, we investigated whether appraisals of faces follow distinct rules of information integration under arousing versus non-arousing conditions. Support for this prediction was found in four experiments in which participants observed angry faces that were presented with a direct versus an averted gaze, on a red versus a grey background, and after performing a motor exercise versus no exercise. Under arousing conditions, participants’ appraisals of faces reflected summation whereas, under non-arousing conditions, appraisals did not reflect summation and (...)
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  35.  1
    Traditionalism and Parallel Distributed Processing as Qualitatively Distinct Models of the Mind.Mary M. Litch - 1996 - Dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst
    My main concern in this work is answering the question: does parallel distributed processing as a model of the mind offer a genuine alternative to traditionalism? There has been vigorous debate within the last eight years on the subject of the relative merits of the one model over the other; however, a detailed examination of the nature of their respective differences has not been attempted. ;The mental realm is that realm in which causal interaction is governed by laws quantifying over (...)
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  36.  62
    Attention and Consciousness: Two Distinct Brain Processes.Christof Koch & Naotsugu Tsuchiya - 2007 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (1):16-22.
  37. The True Self: A Psychological Concept Distinct From the Self.Nina Strohminger, Joshua Knobe & George Newman - forthcoming - Perspectives on Psychological Science.
    A long tradition of psychological research has explored the distinction between characteristics that are part of the self and those that lie outside of it. Recently, a surge of research has begun examining a further distinction. Even among characteristics that are internal to the self, people pick out a subset as belonging to the true self. These factors are judged as making people who they really are, deep down. In this paper, we introduce the concept of the true self and (...)
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  38.  5
    Investigating Emotions as Functional States Distinct From Feelings.Ralph Adolphs & Daniel Andler - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (3):191-201.
    We defend a functionalist approach to emotion that begins by focusing on emotions as central states with causal connections to behavior and to other cognitive states. The approach brackets the conscious experience of emotion, lists plausible features that emotions exhibit, and argues that alternative schemes are unpromising candidates. We conclude with the benefits of our approach: one can study emotions in animals; one can look in the brain for the implementation of specific features; and one ends up with an architecture (...)
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  39.  26
    Working Memory and Neural Oscillations: Alpha–Gamma Versus Theta–Gamma Codes for Distinct WM Information?Frédéric Roux & Peter J. Uhlhaas - 2014 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (1):16-25.
  40.  3
    Two Paths to Blame: Intentionality Directs Moral Information Processing Along Two Distinct Tracks.Andrew E. Monroe & Bertram F. Malle - 2017 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 146 (1):123-133.
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  41.  8
    An Evolutionary Approach to Understanding Distinct Emotions.J. L. Tracy - 2014 - Emotion Review 6 (4):308-312.
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  42. The Bundle Theory is Compatible with Distinct but Indiscernible Particulars.Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra - 2004 - Analysis 64 (1):72-81.
    1. The Bundle Theory I shall discuss is a theory about the nature of substances or concrete particulars, like apples, chairs, atoms, stars and people. The point of the Bundle Theory is to avoid undesirable entities like substrata that allegedly constitute particulars. The version of the Bundle Theory I shall discuss takes particulars to be entirely constituted by the universals they instantiate.' Thus particulars are said to be just bundles of universals. Together with the claim that it is necessary that (...)
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  43.  83
    Are Random Drift and Natural Selection Conceptually Distinct?Roberta L. Millstein - 2001 - Biology and Philosophy 17 (1):33-53.
    The latter half of the twentieth century has been marked by debates in evolutionary biology over the relative significance of natural selection and random drift: the so-called “neutralist/selectionist” debates. Yet John Beatty has argued that it is difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish the concept of random drift from the concept of natural selection, a claim that has been accepted by many philosophers of biology. If this claim is correct, then the neutralist/selectionist debates seem at best futile, and at worst, (...)
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  44.  53
    Log or Linear? Distinct Intuitions of the Number Scale in Western and Amazonian Indigene Cultures.Pierre Pica, Stanislas Dehaene, Elizabeth Spelke & Véronique Izard - 2008 - Science 320 (5880):1217-1220.
    The mapping of numbers onto space is fundamental to measurement and to mathematics. Is this mapping a cultural invention or a universal intuition shared by all humans regardless of culture and education? We probed number-space mappings in the Mundurucu, an Amazonian indigene group with a reduced numerical lexicon and little or no formal education. At all ages, the Mundurucu mapped symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers onto a logarithmic scale, whereas Western adults used linear mapping with small or symbolic numbers and logarithmic (...)
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  45.  5
    How Space-Number Associations May Be Created in Preliterate Children: Six Distinct Mechanisms.Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Katarzyna Patro, Ulrike Cress, Ulrike Schild, Claudia K. Friedrich & Silke M. Göbel - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  46.  34
    Reasoning to and From Belief: Deduction and Induction Are Still Distinct.Jonathan St B. T. Evans & David E. Over - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):267-283.
  47.  22
    Scientists as Experts: A Distinct Role?Torbjørn Gundersen - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 69:52-59.
    The role of scientists as experts is crucial to public policymaking. However, the expert role is contested and unsettled in both public and scholarly discourse. In this paper, I provide a systematic account of the role of scientists as experts in policymaking by examining whether there are any normatively relevant differences between this role and the role of scientists as researchers. Two different interpretations can be given of how the two roles relate to each other. The separability view states that (...)
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    Is Sharing Specific Autobiographical Memories a Distinct Form of Self-Disclosure?Denise R. Beike, Nicole R. Brandon & Holly E. Cole - 2016 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 145 (4):434-450.
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    Money Does Not Guarantee Time: Discretionary Time as a Distinct Object of Distributive Justice.Julie L. Rose - 2014 - Journal of Political Philosophy 22 (4):438-457.
  50.  7
    Seeing Human: Distinct and Overlapping Neural Signatures Associated with Two Forms of Dehumanization.Anthony I. Jack, Abigail J. Dawson & Megan E. Norr - 2013 - NeuroImage 79:313-328.
    The process of dehumanization, or thinking of others as less than human, is a phenomenon with significant societal implications. According to Haslam's model, two concepts of humanness derive from comparing humans with either animals or machines: individuals may be dehumanized by likening them to either animals or machines, or humanized by emphasizing differences from animals or machines. Recent work in cognitive neuroscience emphasizes understanding cognitive processes in terms of interactions between distributed cortical networks. It has been found that reasoning about (...)
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