Results for 'divine command'

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  1. In Defence of the Epistemological Objection to Divine Command Theory.John Danaher - 2019 - Sophia 58 (3):381-400.
    Divine command theories come in several different forms but at their core all of these theories claim that certain moral statuses exist in virtue of the fact that God has commanded them to exist. Several authors argue that this core version of the DCT is vulnerable to an epistemological objection. According to this objection, DCT is deficient because certain groups of moral agents lack epistemic access to God’s commands. But there is confusion as to the precise nature and (...)
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  2. Counterpossibles and the ‘Terrible’ Divine Command Deity.Richard Brian Davis & W. Paul Franks - 2015 - Religious Studies 51 (1):1-19.
    In a series of articles, Wes Morriston has launched what can only be considered a full-scale assault on the divine command theory (DCT) of morality. According to Morriston, proponents of this theory are committed to an alarming counterpossible: that if God did command an annual human sacrifice, it would be morally obligatory. Since only a ‘terrible’ deity would do such a ‘terrible’ thing, we should reject DCT. Indeed, if there were such a deity, the world would be (...)
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  3. The Euthyphro, Divine Command Theory and Moral Realism.Gerald K. Harrison - 2014 - Philosophy (1):107-123.
    Divine command theories of metaethics are commonly rejected on the basis of the Euthyphro problem. In this paper, I argue that the Euthyphro can be raised for all forms of moral realism. I go on to argue that this does not matter as the Euthyphro is not really a problem after all. I then briefly outline some of the attractions of a divine command theory of metaethics. I suggest that given one of the major reasons for (...)
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  4. The Divine Command Theory and Objective Good.Bruce Reichenbach - 1984 - In Rocco Porreco (ed.), Georgetown Symposium on Ethics. University Press of America. pp. 219-233.
    I reply to criticisms of the divine command theory with an eye to noting the relation of ethics to an ontological ground. The criticisms include: the theory makes the standard of right and wrong arbitrary, it traps the defender of the theory in a vicious circle, it violates moral autonomy, it is a relic of our early deontological state of moral development. I then suggest how Henry Veatch's view of good as an ontological feature of the world provides (...)
     
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  5.  89
    Taking God Seriously, but Not Too Seriously: The Divine Command Theory and William James' 'The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life’.Mark J. Boone - 2013 - William James Studies 10:1-20.
    While some scholars neglect the theological component to William James’s ethical views in “The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life,” Michael Cantrell reads it as promoting a divine command theory (DCT) of the foundations of moral obligation. While Cantrell’s interpretation is to be commended for taking God seriously, he goes a little too far in the right direction. Although James’s view amounts to what could be called (and what Cantrell does call) a DCT because on it God’s demands (...)
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  6.  18
    Divine Command Theory and Moral Supervenience.Blake McAllister - 2016 - Philosophia Christi 18 (1):65-78.
    Mark Murphy argues that the property identity version of divine command theory, coupled with the doctrine that God has freedom in commanding, violates the supervenience of the moral on the nonmoral. In other words, they permit two situations exactly alike in nonmoral facts to differ in moral facts. I give three arguments to show that a divine command theorist of this sort can consistently affirm moral supervenience. Each argument contends that there are always nonmoral differences between (...)
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  7.  46
    On Justifying One’s Acceptance of Divine Command Theory.Dennis Plaisted - 2017 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 81 (3):315-334.
    It has been alleged against divine command theory that we cannot justify our acceptance of it without giving it up. For if we provide moral reasons for our acceptance of God’s commands, then those reasons, and not God’s commands, must be our ultimate moral standard. Kai Nielsen has offered the most forceful version of this objection in his book, Ethics Without God. My principal aim is to show that Nielsen’s charge does not succeed. His argument crucially relies upon (...)
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  8.  35
    A Jewish Modified Divine Command Theory.Randi Rashkover Martin Kavka - 2004 - Journal of Religious Ethics 32 (2):387 - 414.
    We claim that divine command metaethicists have not thought through the nature of the expression of divine love with sufficient rigor. We argue, against prior divine command theories, that the radical difference between God and the natural world means that grounding divine command in divine love can only ground a formal claim of the divine on the human; recipients of revelation must construct particular commands out of this formal claim. While some (...)
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  9. Can God’s Goodness Save the Divine Command Theory From Euthyphro?Jeremy Koons - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4 (1):177--195.
    Recent defenders of the divine command theory like Adams and Alston have confronted the Euthyphro dilemma by arguing that although God’s commands make right actions right, God is morally perfect and hence would never issue unjust or immoral commandments. On their view, God’s nature is the standard of moral goodness, and God’s commands are the source of all obligation. I argue that this view of divine goodness fails because it strips God’s nature of any features that would (...)
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  10. Divine Command, Divine Will, and Moral Obligation.Mark C. Murphy - 1998 - Faith and Philosophy 15 (1):3-27.
    In this article I consider the respective merits of three interpretations of divine command theory. On DCT1, S’s being morally obligated to φ depends on God’s command that S φ; on DCT2, that moral obligation depends on God’s willing that S be morally obligated to φ; on DCT3, that moral obligation depends on God’s willing that S φ. I argue that the positive reasons that have been brought forward in favor of DCT1 have implications theists would find (...)
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  11. Divine Command Metaethics Modified Again.Robert Merrihew Adams - 1979 - Journal of Religious Ethics 7 (1):66 - 79.
    This essay presents a version of divine command metaethics inspired by recent work of Donnellan, Kripke, and Putnam on the relation between necessity and conceptual analysis. What we can discover a priori, by conceptual analysis, about the nature of ethical wrongness is that wrongness is the property of actions that best fills a certain role. What property that is cannot be discovered by conceptual analysis. But I suggest that theists should claim it is the property of being contrary (...)
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  12. What If God Commanded Something Terrible? A Worry for Divine-Command Meta-Ethics.Wes Morriston - 2009 - Religious Studies 45 (3):249-267.
    If God commanded something that was obviously evil, would we have a moral obligation to do it? I critically examine three radically different approaches divine-command theorists may take to the problem posed by this question: (1) reject the possibility of such a command by appealing to God's essential goodness; (2) avoid the implication that we should obey such a command by modifying the divine-command theory; and (3) accept the implication that we should obey such (...)
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  13. Supervenience and Property-Identical Divine-Command Theory.Michael J. Almeida - 2004 - Religious Studies 40 (3):323-333.
    Property-identical divine-command theory (PDCT) is the view that being obligatory is identical to being commanded by God in just the way that being water is identical to being H2O. If these identity statements are true, then they express necessary a posteriori truths. PDCT has been defended in Robert M. Adams (1987) and William Alston (1990). More recently Mark C. Murphy (2002) has argued that property-identical divine-command theory is inconsistent with two well-known and well-received theses: the free- (...) thesis and the supervenience thesis. I show that Murphy's argument is vitiated by mistaken assumptions about the substitutivity of metaphysical identicals in contexts of supervenience. The free-command thesis and the supervenience thesis therefore pose no serious threat to PDCT. (Published Online August 11 2004). (shrink)
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  14. Another Step in Divine Command Dialectics.Alexander R. Pruss - 2009 - Faith and Philosophy 26 (4):432-439.
    Consider the following three-step dialectics. (1) Even if God (consistently) commanded torture of the innocent, it would still be wrong. Therefore Divine Command Metaethics (DCM) is false. (2) No: for it is impossible for God to command torture of the innocent. (3) Even if it is impossible, there is a non-trivially true per impossibile counterfactual that even if God (consistently) com­manded torture of the innocent, it would still be wrong, and this counterfac­tual is incompatible with DCM. I (...)
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  15. Divine Will/Divine Command Moral Theories and the Problem of Arbitrariness.Thomas L. Carson - 2012 - Religious Studies 48 (4):445 - 468.
    A well-known objection to divine will/divine command moral theories is that they commit us to the view that God's will is arbitrary. I argue that several versions of divine will/divine command moral theories, including two of Robert Adams's versions of the DCT and my own divine preference theory, can be successfully defended against this objection. I argue that, even if God's preferences are somewhat arbitrary, we have reasons to conform our wills to them. (...)
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  16.  28
    What If God Commanded Something Terrible? A Worry for Divine-Command Meta-Ethics: Wes Morriston.Wes Morriston - 2009 - Religious Studies 45 (3):249-267.
    If God commanded something that was obviously evil, would we have a moral obligation to do it? I critically examine three radically different approaches divine-command theorists may take to the problem posed by this question: reject the possibility of such a command by appealing to God's essential goodness; avoid the implication that we should obey such a command by modifying the divine-command theory; and accept the implication that we should obey such a command (...)
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  17. Divine Command Morality and the Autonomy of Ethics.Robert Audi - 2007 - Faith and Philosophy 24 (2):121-143.
    This paper formulates a kind of divine command ethical theory intended to comport with two major views: that basic moral principles are necessary truths and that necessary truths are not determined by divine will. The theory is based on the possibility that obligatoriness can be a theological property even if its grounds are such that the content of our obligations has a priori limits. As developed in the paper, the proposed divine command theory is compatible (...)
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  18.  76
    Ockham as a Divine-Command Theorist.Thomas M. Osborne - 2005 - Religious Studies 41 (1):1-22.
    Although this thesis is denied by much recent scholarship, Ockham holds that the ultimate ground of a moral judgement's truth is a divine command, rather than natural or non-natural properties. God could assign a different moral value not only to every exterior act, but also to loving God. Ockham does allow that someone who has not had access to revelation can make correct moral judgements. Although her right reason dictates what God in fact commands, she need not know (...)
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  19. Procedure, Substance, and the Divine Command Theory.Jeffery L. Johnson - 1994 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 35 (1):39 - 55.
    Natural theology is still practiced as though substantive theological conclusions can be derived by a quasi-deductive process. Perhaps relevant "evidence" may lead to interesting theological conclusions -- the fact of natural evil, or the cosmic fine-tuning we hear about in contemporary cosmology, both cry out for theological explanation. I remain a skeptic, however, about the value of "a priori" methods in natural theology. The case study in this short discussion is the well known attempt to establish the logical incoherence of (...)
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  20. Kierkegaard and Divine-Command Theory: Replies to Quinn and Evans.R. Zachary Manis - 2009 - Religious Studies 45 (3):289-307.
    One of the most important recent developments in the discussion of Kierkegaard's ethics is an interpretation defended, in different forms, by Philip Quinn and Stephen Evans. Both argue that a divine-command theory of moral obligation (DCT) is to be found in "Works of Love". Against this view, I argue that, despite significant overlap between DCT and the view of moral obligation found in "Works of Love", there is at least one essential difference between the two: the former, but (...)
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  21. Richard Joyce's New Objections to the Divine Command Theory.Scott Hill - 2010 - Journal of Religious Ethics 38 (1):189-196.
    In a 2002 paper for this journal, Richard Joyce presents three new arguments against the Divine Command Theory. In this comment, I attempt to show that each of these arguments is either unpersuasive or uninteresting. Two of Joyce’s arguments are unpersuasive because they rely on an implausible principle or an implausible claim about what counts as a platitude governing use of the term “wrong.” Joyce’s other argument is uninteresting because it is persuasive only if Joyce’s formulation of the (...)
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  22. Necessity, Control, and the Divine Command Theory.Dale Tuggy - 2005 - Sophia 44 (1):53-75.
    The simplest Divine Command Theory is one which identifies rightness with being commanded or willed by God. Two clear and appealing arguments for this theory turn on the idea that laws require a lawgiver, and the idea that God is sovereign or omnipotent. Critical examination of these arguments reveals some fundamental principles at odds with the Divine Command Theory, and yields some more penetrating versions of traditional objections to that theory.
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  23.  51
    Is the Divine Command Theory Defensible?John Chandler - 1984 - Religious Studies 20 (3):443-452.
    Recent defences of the Divine Command Theory have ranged from those which attempt to meet objections half-way, and in the process transform the theory, to restatements and defences of the theory in its full rigour. Philip Quinn's Divine Commands and Moral Requirements is one of the latter. Quinn's purpose is to show that the theory, in its several variants, can be stated precisely within several current systems of deontic logic, and that contrary to a common belief, there (...)
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  24. Thomas Aquinas and Divine Command Theory.M. V. Dougherty - 2002 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 76:153-164.
    Nearly all attempts to include Aquinas among the class of divine command theorists have focused on two kinds of texts: those exhibiting Aquinas’s treatment of the apparent immoralities of the patriarchs (e.g., Abraham’s intention to kill Isaac), and those pertaining to Aquinas’s discussion of the divine will. In the present paper, I lay out a third approach unrelated to these two. I argue that Aquinas’s explicit endorsement of one ethical proposition as self-evident throughout his writings is sufficient (...)
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  25.  71
    Divine Command.John E. Hare - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Divine Command defends the thesis that what makes something morally obligatory is that God commands it, and what makes something morally forbidden is that God forbids it. John E. Hare successfully defends a version of divine command theory, but also shows that there is considerable overlap with some versions of natural law theory. Hare engages with a number of Christian theologians, most especially Karl Barth, and extends into a discussion of divine command within Judaism (...)
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  26.  74
    A Semantic Attack on Divine-Command Metaethics.Stephen Maitzen - 2004 - Sophia 43 (2):15-28.
    According to divine-command metaethics (DCM), whatever is morally good or right has that status because, and only because, it conforms to God’s will. I argue that DCM is false or vacuous: either DCM is false, or else there are no instantiated moral properties, and no moral truths, to which DCM can even apply. The sort of criticism I offer is familiar, but I develop it in what I believe is a novel way.
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  27.  38
    Divine Command Morality and Jewish Tradition.Avi Sagi & Daniel Statman - 1995 - Journal of Religious Ethics 23 (1):39 - 67.
    Given the religious appeal of divine command theories of morality (DCM), and given that these theories are found in both Christianity and Islam, we could expect DCM to be represented in Judaism, too. In this essay, however, we show that hardly any echoes of support for this thesis can be found in Jewish texts. We analyze texts that appear to support DCM and show they do not. We then present a number of sources clearly opposed to DCM. Finally, (...)
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  28.  57
    Divine Command Theory in the Passage of History.Simin Rahimi - 2009 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 14 (2):307-328.
    Are actions that are morally good, morally good because God makes them so ? Or does God urge humans to do them because they are morally good anyway? What is, in general, the relationship between divine commands and ethical duties? It is not an uncommon belief among theists that morality depends entirely on the will or commands of God: all moral facts consist exclusively in facts about his will or commands. Thus, not only is an action right because it (...)
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  29.  24
    Divine Command Ethics in Early Islam: Al-Shafi'i and the Problem of Guidance.John Kelsay - 1994 - Journal of Religious Ethics 22 (1):101 - 126.
    Al-Shafi'i (d. 820) is clearly one of the most important figures in the early history of Islamic jurisprudence. His Risala or "Treatise" on the "principles of jurisprudence" (usul al-fiqh) is also of interest as an example of an approach to ethics that focuses on divine commands. Following a brief introduction, I offer the reader a few comments about al-Shafi'i's context. I summarize the content of the Risala and then analyze it as an example of divine command reasoning (...)
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  30.  72
    Divine Command Theory and Theistic Activism.Simin Rahimi - 2012 - Heythrop Journal 53 (4):551-559.
    If the divine will is not subject to any principle, and God controls all truths including moral truths, morality will be arbitrary at the deepest level. It will not be possible to offer any explanation of why God has willed certain actions rather than their contraries. Throughout the history of philosophical debate there have been many attempts to support the dependence of moral truths on God's command (or divine command theory) and at the same time to (...)
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  31.  65
    Divine Simplicity and Divine Command Ethics.Susan Peppers-Bates - 2008 - International Philosophical Quarterly 48 (3):361-369.
    In this paper I will argue that a false assumption drives the attraction of philosophers to a divine command theory of morality. Specifically, I suggest the idea thatanything not created by God is independent of God is a misconception. The idea misleads us into thinking that our only choice in offering a theistic ground for morality is between making God bow to a standard independent of his will or God creating morality in revealing his will. Yet what is (...)
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  32.  64
    Divine Command and Ethical Duty: A Critique of the Scriptural Argument.Simin Rahimi - 2008 - Journal of Islamic Philosophy 4:77-108.
    What is the relationship between divine commands and ethical duties? According to the divine command theory of ethics, moral actions are obligatory simply because God commands people to do them. This position raises a serious question about the nature of ethics, since it suggests that there is no reason, ethical or non-ethical, behind divine commands; hence both his commands and morality become arbitrary. This paper investigates the scriptural defense of the divine command theory and (...)
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  33. A Critique of Graber's Divine Command Theory of Ethics.John P. Reeder - 1975 - Journal of Religious Ethics 3 (1):157-163.
    The author criticizes a divine command theory of moral obligation offered by Glenn C. Graber. Reeder opposes Graber's claim that divine righteousness can be understood independent of standards of moral obligation and questions the plausibility of basing moral obligation on unchecked command, even the commands of God. Speaking historically, he discusses the relation of this theory to the moral theory of Ockham.
     
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  34.  62
    The Divine Command Theory of Mozi.Yong Li - 2006 - Asian Philosophy 16 (3):237 – 245.
    In this study, I will examine the famous 'divine command theory' of Mozi. Through the discussion of several important chapters of Mozi, including Fayi (law), Tianzhi (the will of heaven), Minggui (knowing the spirits) and Jianai (universal love), I attempt to clarify the arguments of Mozi offered in support of his distinctive ideas of serving heaven, knowing the spirits and loving all. The analysis shows that there are serious problems with his assumptions, hence they fail to support his (...)
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  35.  5
    Wat Heeft God Met De Moraal Te Maken? - What Has God To Do With Morality?De Goddelijke Gebodstheorie Van De Morele Verplichting - The Divine Command Theory Of Moral Obligation.A. Van Den Beld - 1997 - Bijdragen 58 (4):362-380.
    The article deals with the classical idea that God's will is the foundation of moral obligation. The particular theory should be understood as a theory of a certain moral practice. Therefore, its 'Sitz im Leben' is first invoked by means of an episode of Walter Scott's The Heart of Midlothian. Then a strong version of the theory is stated and defended against a couple of current and classical objections. A successful defense would give rational support to the theory, but it (...)
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  36.  12
    Divine Command Theory in Early Franciscan Thought: A Response to the Autonomy Objection.Lydia Schumacher - 2016 - Studies in Christian Ethics 29 (4):461-476.
    In recent years, many scholars have bemoaned the gradual demise of traditional virtue ethics, and its eventual replacement in the later Middle Ages by divine command theory. Where virtue ethics nurtures a capacity for spontaneous moral judgement, this theory turns on adherence to ordained duties and laws. Thus, virtue ethicists among others have tended to object to the theory on the grounds that it undermines the role of the moral agent in moral adjudication. In this article, by contrast, (...)
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  37.  25
    Divine Command/Divine Law: A Biblical Perspective.P. D. Miller - 2010 - Studies in Christian Ethics 23 (1):21-34.
    The starting point for thinking about divine command is the reality of God, the initiating and effecting word of God and the character of God, reflected in Scripture especially in regard to goodness and justice.The necessity of social interaction as context for divine command is reflected in several ways; among those mentioned here are the divine council, the covenant, and the incarnation, the word made flesh and living among us. The covenant is central to thinking (...)
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  38.  7
    Thomas Aquinas and Divine Command Theory.M. V. Dougherty - 2002 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 76:153-164.
    Nearly all attempts to include Aquinas among the class of divine command theorists have focused on two kinds of texts: those exhibiting Aquinas’s treatment of the apparent immoralities of the patriarchs, and those pertaining to Aquinas’s discussion of the divine will. In the present paper, I lay out a third approach unrelated to these two. I argue that Aquinas’s explicit endorsement of one ethical proposition as self-evident throughout his writings is sufficient justification to include Aquinas among the (...)
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  39.  19
    Divine Command Theories and Human Analogies.John L. Hammond - 1986 - Journal of Religious Ethics 14 (1):216 - 223.
    Some writers employ human analogies in their attempts to defend a "divine command theory" of the foundation of morals. I argue that this strategy is self-defeating. Appeal to human analogies has implications which tend to undermine any interesting or full-bodied version of divine command theory. Indeed, this line of discussion suggests there is a logical confusion in the very idea that some agent-even God-might bring about obligations by an act of will.
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  40.  19
    The Undoing of Sex: The Proper Enjoyment of Divine Command.L. P. Hemming - 2010 - Studies in Christian Ethics 23 (1):59-72.
    This paper examines the way in which divine law and divine command have in cases been commandeered for the purposes of demonstrating fidelity to religious orthodoxy. It takes the example of one theologian’s investigation into the tradition and asks whether, in the very name of producing an orthodox theology of sexual difference, the debate does not end up being cast in contemporary, sexualised terms. It then takes the example of how contemporary understandings of sexual difference can be (...)
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  41.  16
    Divine Law/Divine Command: The Ground of Ethics in the Western Tradition -- Muslim Perspectives.A. Nanji - 2010 - Studies in Christian Ethics 23 (1):35-41.
    The article examines the ideas of divine command and divine law in their Quranic and Muslim legal contexts. It suggests a strong connection between western and Muslim values based on linkages developed in medieval times through Latin appropriation of Arabic studies of Classical philosophy. It also traces the need to address common, contemporary concerns such as poverty, through a shared ethical stance.
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  42. Divine Command Theory and the Semantics of Quantified Modal Logic.David Efird - 2009 - In Yujin Nagasawa & Erik J. Wielenberg (eds.), New Waves in Philosophy of Religion. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 91.
    I offer a series of axiomatic formalizations of Divine Command Theory motivated by certain methodological considerations. Given these considerations, I present what I take to be the best axiomatization of Divine Command Theory, an axiomatization which requires a non-standardsemantics for quantified modal logic.
     
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  43. Divine Command.John E. Hare - 2015 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Divine Command defends the thesis that what makes something morally obligatory is that God commands it, and what makes something morally forbidden is that God forbids it. John E. Hare successfully defends a version of divine command theory, but also shows that there is considerable overlap with some versions of natural law theory. Hare engages with a number of Christian theologians, most especially Karl Barth, and extends into a discussion of divine command within Judaism (...)
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  44.  92
    Islamic Ethics: Divine Command Theory in Arabo-Islamic Thought.Mariam Attar - 2010 - Routledge.
  45. The Mandate of Heaven: The Divine Command and the Natural Order.Michael Keeling - 1995 - T&t Clark.
     
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  46.  25
    Divine Justice/Divine Command.D. Novak - 2010 - Studies in Christian Ethics 23 (1):6-20.
    In the Jewish tradition there are those who simply identify divine justice with the specific divine commands, which is a theological version of legal positivism. This paper argues for another view in the Jewish tradition, viz., divine justice or divine wisdom is the rationale of the specific divine commands, thus making them more than arbitrary decrees. As the rationale of the specific divine commands, divine justice functions as a criterion of judgment that prevents (...)
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  47. A Modified Divine Command Theory of Ethical Wrongness.Robert Merrihew Adams - 1997 - In Thomas L. Carson & Paul K. Moser (eds.), Morality and the Good Life. Oup Usa.
  48. A Trilemma for Divine Command Theory.Mark C. Murphy - 2002 - Faith and Philosophy 19 (1):22-31.
  49. Divine Command Theory.Philip L. Quinn - 2000 - In Hugh LaFollette - (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Ethical Theory. Blackwell. pp. 53--73.
  50. Some Suggestions for Divine Command Theorists.William Alston - 1990 - In M. Beaty (ed.), Christian Theism and the Problems of Philosophy. University of Notre Dame Press. pp. 303--326.
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