Results for 'divisible goods'

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  1. Fairness and the Strengths of Agents' Claims.Nathaniel Sharadin - 2016 - Utilitas 28 (3):347-360.
    John Broome has proposed a theory of fairness according to which fairness requires that agents’ claims to goods be satisfied in proportion to the relative strength of those claims. In the case of competing claims for a single indivisible good, Broome argues that what fairness requires is the use of a weighted lottery as a surrogate to satisfying the competing claims: the relative chance of each claimant's winning the lottery should be set to the relative strength of each claimant's (...)
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  2.  7
    Knowledge Matters: Institutional.Global Public Goods - 2012 - In Eric Brousseau, Tom Dedeurwaerdere & Bernd Siebenhüner (eds.), Reflexive Governance for Global Public Goods. MIT Press.
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  3. Limitations on Structural Principles of Distributive Justice: The Case of Discrete Idiosyncratic Goods.Richard Galvin & Chares Lockhart - 2012 - In Kjell Törnblom & Ali Kazemi (eds.), A Handbook of Social Resource Theory. New York, NY, USA: Springer. pp. 351-372.
    Our aim is to draw a set of distinctions among types of goods which has significant implications for theories of distributive justice. We begin by providing a general account of two sets of properties--fungibility and nonfungibility, divisibility and indivisibility--and argue that goods can be distinguished according to these criteria. Further, we contend that these distinctions entail complications for structural principles of distributive justice (i.e., principles such as maximin that distribute payoffs to positions). As an example we consider James (...)
     
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  4. Evolutionary Game Theory and the Origins of Fairness Norms.Zachary J. Ernst - 2002 - Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison
    In numerous studies, experimental economists have documented the fact that people tend to propose that divisible goods be divided equally. It has often been proposed, most notably by the sociobiologists, that this tendency may have a biological basis, and might be the product of evolution and natural selection. ;My dissertation addresses methodological and philosophical problems that arise in the course of establishing this naturalistic claim. Specifically, the focus of this dissertation is on the project of using evolutionary game (...)
     
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  5. Rights and Participatory Goods.Morauta James - 2002 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 22 (1):91-113.
    What sorts of things can individuals have rights to? In this paper I consider one influential negative claim: that individuals cannot have rights to so-called “participatory goods”. I argue that this claim is mistaken. There are two kinds of counter-examples, what I call “actualization rights” and “conditional rights”. Although the scope for individual actualization rights to participatory goods may be relatively narrow, individual conditional rights to participatory goods are both common and important: they are one of the (...)
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  6. The Goods of Work (Other Than Money!).Anca Gheaus & Lisa Herzog - 2016 - Journal of Social Philosophy 47 (1):70-89.
    The evaluation of labour markets and of particular jobs ought to be sensitive to a plurality of benefits and burdens of work. We use the term 'the goods of work' to refer to those benefits of work that cannot be obtained in exchange for money and that can be enjoyed mostly or exclusively in the context of work. Drawing on empirical research and various philosophical traditions of thinking about work we identify four goods of work: 1) attaining various (...)
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  7.  25
    External Goods and the Complete Exercise of Virtue in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics.Sukaina Hirji - forthcoming - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie.
    In Nicomachean Ethics 1.8, Aristotle seems to argue that certain external goods are needed for happiness because, in the first place, they are needed for virtuous activity. This has puzzled scholars. After all, it seems possible for a virtuous agent to exercise her virtuous character even under conditions of extreme hardship or deprivation. Indeed, it is natural to think these are precisely the conditions under which one's virtue shines through most clearly. Why then does Aristotle think that a wide (...)
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  8. Public Health and Public Goods.Jonny Anomaly - 2011 - Public Health Ethics 4 (3):251-259.
    It has become increasingly difficult to distinguish public health from tangentially related fields like social work. I argue that we should reclaim the more traditional conception of public health as the provision of health-related public goods. The public goods account has the advantage of establishing a relatively clear and distinctive mission for public health. It also allows a consensus of people with different comprehensive moral and political commitments to endorse public health measures, even if they disagree about precisely (...)
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  9. Public Goods and Education.Jonny Anomaly - 2018 - In Andrew I. Cohen (ed.), Philosophy and Public Policy. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
  10. A Critique of Charles Taylor's Notions of “Moral Sources” and “Constitutive Goods”.Arto Laitinen - 2004 - In Jussi Kotkavirta & Michael Quante (eds.), Moral Realism. Acta Philosophica Fennica. pp. 73-104.
    In this paper I argue that moral realism does not, pace Charles Taylor, need “moral sources” or “constitutive goods”, and adding these concepts distorts the basic insights of what can be called “cultural” moral realism.1 Yet the ideas of “moral topography” or “moral space” as well as the idea of “ontological background pictures” are valid, if separated from those notions. What does Taylor mean by these notions?
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  11. The 'Intrinsic Goods of Childhood' and the Just Society.Anca Gheaus - 2014 - In Alexander Bagattini & Colin Macleod (eds.), The Nature of Children's Well-being: Theory and Practice. Springer.
    I distinguish between three different ideas that have been recently discussed under the heading of 'the intrinsic goods of childhood': that childhood is itself intrinsically valuable, that certain goods are valuable only for children, and that children are being owed other goods than adults. I then briefly defend the claim the childhood is intrinsically good. Most of the chapter is dedicated to the analysis, and rejection, of the claim that certain goods are valuable only for children. (...)
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  12.  30
    The Theory and Politics of Solidarity and Public Goods.Avigail Ferdman & Margaret Kohn - 2017 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-8.
    For over forty years, economic inequality and distributive justice have been two of the primary concerns of political philosophers. This volume addresses these issues in a novel way, by focusing on the concepts of solidarity and public goods as both descriptive and normative frameworks. Solidarity links the social, political and moral together, in a distinctively political approach that recognizes the social sources of power on the one hand and sources of moral motivation on the other. Public goods such (...)
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  13.  74
    Revising Global Theories of Justice to Include Public Goods.Heather Widdows & Peter G. N. West-Oram - 2013 - Journal of Global Ethics 9 (2):227 - 243.
    Our aim in this paper is to suggest that most current theories of global justice fail to adequately recognise the importance of global public goods. Broadly speaking, this failing can be attributed at least in part to the complexity of the global context, the individualistic focus of most theories of justice, and the localised nature of the theoretical foundations of most theories of global justice. We argue ? using examples (particularly that of protecting antibiotic efficacy) ? that any truly (...)
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  14.  37
    Sunscreen Safety: The Precautionary Principle, the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration and Nanoparticles in Sunscreens. [REVIEW]Thomas Faunce, Katherine Murray, Hitoshi Nasu & Diana Bowman - 2008 - NanoEthics 2 (3):231-240.
    The ‘Precautionary Principle’ provides a somewhat ill-defined guide, often of uncertain normative status, for those exercising administrative decision-making power in circumstances where that may create potential risks to human health or the environment. This paper seeks to explore to what extent the precautionary principle should have been and was in fact utilised by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) in its decision to approve the marketing of sunscreens containing titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) in nanoparticulate form. In (...)
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  15.  8
    Integrating Intermediate Goods to Theories of Distributive Justice: The Importance of Platforms.Daniel Weinstock - 2015 - Res Publica 21 (2):171-183.
    There is an underappreciated disconnect between the ultimate values that lie at the heart of contemporary theories of distributive justice, and the practice of state institutions. State institutions deliver “intermediate goods” – goods such as health-care, education, housing, transportation, and the like – that are instrumental to a society being distributively just, but that do not in an of themselves constitute criteria of justice. Researchers who have emphasized the “social determinants of health” provide an insight that, when generalized, (...)
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  16. Public Goods and Government Action.Jonny Anomaly - 2015 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 14 (2):109-128.
  17.  37
    Why the Intrinsic Value of Public Goods Matters.Avigail Ferdman - 2017 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-16.
    Existing accounts of public-goods distribution rely on the existence of solidarity for providing non-universal public goods, such as the humanities or national parks. There are three fundamental problems with these accounts: they ignore instances of social fragmentation; they treat preferences for public goods as morally benign, and they assume that these preferences are the only relevant moral consideration. However, not all citizens unanimously require public goods such as the humanities or national parks. Public-goods distribution that (...)
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  18.  14
    Are Fair Trade Goods Credence Goods? A New Proposal, with French Illustrations.Gaëlle Balineau & Ivan Dufeu - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):331 - 345.
    In the literature, Fair Trade (FT) goods are usually associated with other products differentiated by process attributes such as organic food, genetically modified (GM) food or child labour-free clothing. All of these products are regarded as credence goods. This classification refers to the simplified definition of credence goods, which describes product attributes which consumers cannot evaluate, even after having consumed the good. Focusing on the characteristics of FT goods, this article proposes a reassessment of the link (...)
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  19. Fitting Attitudes, Finkish Goods, and Value Appearances.Graham Oddie - 2016 - In Russ Shafer Landau & Russ Shafer-Landau (eds.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics (Volume 11). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 74-101.
    According to Fitting Attitude theorists, for something to possess a certain value it is necessary and sufficient that it be fitting (appropriate, or good, or obligatory, or something) to take a certain attitude to the bearer of that value. The idea seems obvious for thick evaluative attributes, but less obvious for the thin evaluative attributes—like goodness, betterness, and degrees of value. This paper is an extended argument for the thesis that the fitting response to the thin evaluative attributes of states (...)
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  20.  93
    Transformable Goods and the Limits of What Money Can Buy.David G. Dick - 2017 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 4 (1):121-140.
    There are some things money literally cannot buy. Invariably transformable goods are such things because when they are exchanged for money, they become something else. These goods are destroyed rather than transferred in monetary exchanges. They mark out an impassable limit beyond which money and the market cannot reach. They cannot be for sale, in the strongest and most literal sense. Variably transformable goods are similar. They can be destroyed when offered or exchanged for money, but they (...)
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  21.  41
    A Threshold for Biological Altruism in Public Goods Games Played in Groups Including Kin.Hannes Rusch - 2014 - MAGKS Discussion Paper Series in Economics.
    Phenomena like meat sharing in hunter-gatherers, altruistic self-sacrifice in intergroup conflicts, and contribution to the production of public goods in laboratory experiments have led to the development of numerous theories trying to explain human prosocial preferences and behavior. Many of these focus on direct and indirect reciprocity, assortment, or (cultural) group selection. Here, I investigate analytically how genetic relatedness changes the incentive structure of that paradigmatic game which is conventionally used to model and experimentally investigate collective action problems: the (...)
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  22.  16
    Genomic Databases as Global Public Goods?Ruth Chadwick & Sarah Wilson - 2004 - Res Publica 10 (2):123-134.
    Recent discussions of genomics and international justice have adopted the concept of ‘global public goods’ to support both the view of genomics as a benefit and the sharing of genomics knowledge across nations. Such discussion relies on a particular interpretation of the global public goods argument, facilitated by the ambiguity of the concept itself. Our aim in this article is to demonstrate this by a close examination of the concept of global public goods with particular reference to (...)
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  23.  14
    The Origins of Prestige Goods as Honest Signals of Skill and Knowledge.Aimée M. Plourde - 2008 - Human Nature 19 (4):374-388.
    This work addresses the emergence of prestige goods, which appear with fully modern Homo sapiens but at different times in different regions. I theorize that such goods came into existence to signal the level of skill held by their owners, in order to gain deference benefits from learning individuals in exchange for access. A game theoretic model demonstrates that a signaling strategy can invade a non-signaling population and can be evolutionarily stable under a set of reasonable parameter values. (...)
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  24.  12
    Environmentally Virtuous Agriculture: How and When External Goods and Humility Ethically Constrain Technology Use.J. Barker Matthew & Lettner Alana Friend - 2017 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 30 (2):287-309.
    This paper concerns virtue-based ethical principles that bear upon agricultural uses of technologies, such as GM crops and CRISPR crops. It does three things. First, it argues for a new type of virtue ethics approach to such cases. Typical virtue ethics principles are vague and unspecific. These are sometimes useful, but we show how to supplement them with more specific virtue ethics principles that are useful to people working in specific applied domains, where morally relevant domain-specific conditions recur. We do (...)
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  25.  24
    Ancestral Kinship Patterns Substantially Reduce the Negative Effect of Increasing Group Size on Incentives for Public Goods Provision.Hannes Rusch - 2015 - University of Cologne, Working Paper Series in Economics 82.
    Phenomena like meat sharing in hunter-gatherers, self-sacrifice in intergroup conflicts, and voluntary contribution to public goods provision in laboratory experiments have led to the development of numerous theories on the evolution of altruistic in-group beneficial behavior in humans. Many of these theories abstract away from the effects of kinship on the incentives for public goods provision, though. Here, it is investigated analytically how genetic relatedness changes the incentive structure of that paradigmatic game which is conventionally used to model (...)
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  26.  21
    Refinements of the No-Envy Solution in Economies with Indivisible Goods.Koichi Tadenuma & William Thomson - 1995 - Theory and Decision 39 (2):189-206.
    We consider the problem of fair allocation in economies with indivisible goods. Our primary concept is that of an envy-free allocation, that is, an allocation such that no agent would prefer anyone else's bundle to his own. Since there typically is a large set (a continuum) of such allocations, the need arises to identify well-behaved selections from the no-envy solution. First we establish the non-existence of ‘population monotonic’ selections. Then we propose a variety of selections motivated by intuitive considerations (...)
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  27.  39
    Public Goods and the Paying Public.Edmund F. Byrne - 1995 - Journal of Business Ethics 14 (2):117 - 123.
    This paper proposes a way to undercut anarchist objections to taxation without endorsing an authoritarian justification of government coercion. The argument involves public goods, as understood by economists and others. But I do not analyse options of autonomous prisoners and the like; for, however useful otherwise, these abstractions underestimate the real-world task of sorting out the prerogatives of and limits on ownership. Proceeding more contextually, I come to recommend a shareholder addendum to the doctrine of public goods. This (...)
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  28.  17
    Global Justice and the Priority of Basic Goods to Basic Freedoms: Reflexions on Amartya Sen's Development and Freedom.Mario Solís Umaña - 2012 - Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) 37 (1):123-153.
    The paper examines Amartya Sen’s seminal work Development and Freedom (1999) in relation to his underlying conception of justice and particularly in relation to the tension that arises in the correlation between basic freedom and basic goods. The idea is to address the question as to which of the two elements (basic goods or basic freedoms) takes precedence to the enactment of global justice. The paper advances a particular distinction between a foundational approach and a functional approach when (...)
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  29.  15
    Public Goods Games in Japan.Keiko Ishii & Robert Kurzban - 2008 - Human Nature 19 (2):138-156.
    Social dilemmas, in which individually selfish behavior leads to collectively deficient outcomes, continue to be an important topic of research because of their ubiquity. The present research with Japanese participants replicates, with slight modifications, public goods games previously run in the United States. In contrast to recent work showing profound cross-cultural differences, the results of two studies reported here show remarkable cross-cultural similarities. Specifically, results suggest that (1) as in the U.S., allowing incremental commitment to a public good is (...)
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  30.  14
    Weak Historicism: On Hierarchies of Intellectual Virtues and Goods.Herman Paul - 2012 - Journal of the Philosophy of History 6 (3):369-388.
    This article seeks to reconcile a historicist sensitivity to how intellectually virtuous behavior is shaped by historical contexts with a non-relativist account of historical scholarship. To that end, it distinguishes between hierarchies of intellectual virtues and hierarchies of intellectual goods . The first hierarchy rejects a one-size-fits-all model of historical virtuousness in favor of a model that allows for significant varieties between the relative weight that historians must assign to intellectual virtues in order to acquire justified historical understanding. It (...)
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  31. Public Goods and Procreation.Jonny Anomaly - 2014 - Monash Bioethics Review 32 (3-4):172-188.
  32.  28
    Goods That Are Truly Good and Services That Truly Serve: Reflections on “Caritas in Veritate”. [REVIEW]Kenneth E. Goodpaster - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 100 (S1):9-16.
    If we read the central message of Caritas in Veritate (CV) through the lens of contemporary business ethics—and the encyclical does seem to invite such a reading (CV 40–41, and 45–47)—there is first of all a diagnosis of a crisis. Then, we are offered a response to the diagnosis: charity in truth , “the principle around which the Church’s social doctrine turns, a principle that takes on practical form in the criteria that govern moral action .” (CV 6) In business (...)
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  33.  7
    The Possibilities of the Acting Person Within an Institutional Framework: Goods, Norms, and Virtues. [REVIEW]Javier Aranzadi - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 99 (1):87 - 100.
    The aim of this article is to present the dynamics of the structure of human action to enable us to link the organizational level of institutions, norms, and culture of the firm. At the organizational level, the existing institutions and culture are the confines of our individual action. However, at the individual level, we focus on the external consequences of our acts. It is our acts that maintain social institutions and culture. The ethics of personal virtues demands an ethics of (...)
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  34.  37
    Prisoner's Dilemma and Public Goods Games in Different Geometries: Compulsory Versus Voluntary Interactions.Christoph Hauert & György Szabó - 2003 - Complexity 8 (4):31-38.
  35.  50
    Cooperative Provision of Indivisible Public Goods.Pierre Dehez - 2013 - Theory and Decision 74 (1):13-29.
  36.  15
    Raz on Liberal Rights and Common Goods.Joseph Chan - 1995 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 15 (1):15-31.
  37.  21
    The Repeated Public Goods Game: A Solution Using Tit-for-Tat and the Lindahl Point.Mark Irving Lichbach - 1992 - Theory and Decision 32 (2):133-146.
  38.  4
    Grotius and Kant on Original Community of Goods and Property.Sylvie Loriaux - 2017 - Grotiana 38 (1):106-128.
    _ Source: _Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 106 - 128 This paper is interested in the critical potential of the idea of original common possession of the Earth. On the basis of a comparative analysis of Hugo Grotius and Immanuel Kant, it shows how different the meaning of this idea can be within a theory of property or territory. The first part is devoted to Grotius’s account of why and how the institution of property was progressively introduced. It highlights the (...)
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  39.  32
    The Primary-Goods Indexation Problem in Rawls's Theory of Justice.Douglas H. Blair - 1988 - Theory and Decision 24 (3):239-252.
  40.  16
    Public Goods.Garrett Cullity - 2001 - In Lawrence C. Becker Charlotte B. Becker (ed.), Encyclopedia of Ethics, Vol. III. New York: Routledge. pp. 1413-16.
  41.  3
    The Goods and Services Directive: Limitations and Opportunities.Eugenia Caracciolo Di Torella - 2005 - Feminist Legal Studies 13 (3):337-347.
  42. Introduction: Social Primary Goods and Capabilities as Metrics of Justice.Ingrid Robeyns & Harry Brighouse - unknown
     
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  43. Closet Doors and Stage Lights: On the Goods of Out.Alice MacLachlan - 2012 - Social Theory and Practice 38 (2):302-332.
    This paper makes an ethical and a conceptual case against any purported duty to come out of the closet. While there are recognizable goods associated with coming out, namely, leading an authentic life and resisting oppression, these goods generate a set of imperfect duties that are defeasible in a wide range of circumstances, and are only sometimes fulfilled by coming out. Second, practices of coming out depend on a ‘lump’ picture of sexuality and on an insufficiently subtle account (...)
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  44. Why Communities and Their Goods Matter: Illustrated with the Example of Biobanks.H. Widdows & S. Cordell - 2011 - Public Health Ethics 4 (1):14-25.
    It is now being recognized across the spectrum of bioethics, and particularly in genetics and population ethics, that to focus on the individual person, and thereby neglect communities and the goods which accrue to them, is to fail to see all the ethically significant features of a range of ethical issues. This article argues that more work needs to be done in order for bioethics to respect not only goods (such as rights and interests) of communities per se, (...)
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  45.  33
    Of Goals and Goods and Floundering About: A Dissensus Report on Clinical Ethics Consultation. [REVIEW]Jeffrey P. Bishop, Joseph B. Fanning & Mark J. Bliton - 2009 - HEC Forum 21 (3):275-291.
    Of Goals and Goods and Floundering About: A Dissensus Report on Clinical Ethics Consultation Content Type Journal Article Pages 275-291 DOI 10.1007/s10730-009-9101-1 Authors Jeffrey P. Bishop, Vanderbilt University Center for Biomedical Ethics and Society 2525 West End Avenue, Suite 400 Nashville Tennessee 37203 USA Joseph B. Fanning, Vanderbilt University Center for Biomedical Ethics and Society 2525 West End Avenue, Suite 400 Nashville Tennessee 37203 USA Mark J. Bliton, Vanderbilt University Center for Biomedical Ethics and Society 2525 West End Avenue, (...)
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  46. Priceless Goods: How Should Life-Saving Drugs Be Priced?Ian Maitland - 2002 - Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (4):451-480.
    Abstract: This article examines the ethical issues raised by the pricing of priceless goods. Priceless goods are defined as ones that are widely held to have some special non-market value that makes them unsuited for buying and selling. One subset of priceless goods is prescription drugs—particularly life-saving and life-enhancing ones. Drug makers are under pressure to price their medicines responsibly, which means to restrain their prices (and profits). However, this article argues that it is precisely because life-saving (...)
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  47. Weighing Goods: Equality, Uncertainty and Time.John Broome - 1991 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    This study uses techniques from economics to illuminate fundamental questions in ethics, particularly in the foundations of utilitarianism. Topics considered include the nature of teleological ethics, the foundations of decision theory, the value of equality and the moral significance of a person's continuing identity through time.
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  48.  25
    From Primary Goods to Capabilities.Eric Nelson - 2008 - Political Theory 36 (1):93-122.
    The capability approach to distributive justice, as defended by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, represents perhaps the most influential recent attempt to reconcile the competing demands of liberty and equality. Specifically, capability theorists have claimed that their insistence on the universal cultivation of a set of capabilities for basic human "functionings" is fully consistent with a liberal neutrality commitment. Their reason is that these capabilities are, like Rawls's primary goods, rational to want "whatever else one wants." This article suggests, (...)
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  49.  63
    Aristotle on Self-Sufficiency, External Goods, and Contemplation.Marc Gasser-Wingate - forthcoming - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie.
    Aristotle tells us that contemplation is the most self-sufficient form of virtuous activity: we can contemplate alone, and with minimal resources, while moral virtues like courage require other individuals to be courageous towards, or courageous with. This is hard to square with the rest of his discussion of self-sufficiency in the Ethics: Aristotle doesn’t generally seek to minimize the number of resources necessary for a flourishing human life, and seems happy to grant that such a life will be self-sufficient despite (...)
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  50. Measuring Justice: Primary Goods and Capabilities.Harry Brighouse & Ingrid Robeyns (eds.) - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book brings together a team of leading theorists to address the question 'What is the right measure of justice?' Some contributors, following Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, argue that we should focus on capabilities, or what people are able to do and to be. Others, following John Rawls, argue for focussing on social primary goods, the goods which society produces and which people can use. Still others see both views as incomplete and complementary to one another. Their (...)
     
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