Results for 'electronic commerce'

999 found
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  1.  20
    Law, Ethics and Electronic Commerce.Thomas Hoeren - 2005 - International Review of Information Ethics 3:06.
    Unlike the Internet community had expected electronic commerce does not lead to an anarchic dissolution of law. In the context of electronic trade, problems arising between users and providers can be solved, for instance by applying traditional principles of contract law. And yet, the legal dispute of Internet related facts and circumstances gives rise to a number of interesting topoi. Even though these subjects have already been considered in the past , they only now show their specific (...)
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  2.  8
    »Elektronische« Marktwirtschaft?: Grundlegende Veränderungen Durch den Electronic Commerce.Helmut Kaiser - 2001 - Zeitschrift Für Evangelische Ethik 45 (1):29-46.
    Electronic commerce has become an important factor in present-day business. The reflection ofbusiness ethics asks four questions: - To what extent does e-commerce improve the ethical quality of decision making and performing in the sphere of commerce? - Does e-commerce promote the »reason« for business? - Does e-commerce reinforce or endanger the market's functional value principles? -Will e-commerce side-Iine or establish the ethical reflexivity of business? The present considerations will not answer definitively the (...)
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  3.  31
    Electronic Commerce and Free Speech.Jessica Litman - 1999 - Ethics and Information Technology 1 (3):213-225.
    For commercial purveyors of digital speech, information and entertainment, the biggest threat posed by the Internet isn''t the threat of piracy, but the threat posed by free speech -- speech that doesn''t cost any money. Free speech has the potential to squeeze out expensive speech. A glut of high quality free stuff has the potential to run companies in the business of selling speech out of business. We haven''t had to worry about this before, because speaking in a meaningful way (...)
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  4.  25
    A Foundation for Understanding Online Trust in Electronic Commerce.Beverly Kracher, Cynthia L. Corritore & Susan Wiedenbeck - 2005 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 3 (3):131-141.
  5.  6
    Electronic Commerce and Consumer Privacy: Establishing Online Trust in the U.S. Digital Economy.Thomas A. Hemphill - 2002 - Business and Society Review 107 (2):221-239.
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  6.  7
    The Federal Trade Commission and Electronic Commerce Security Policy: A Viable Solution?Thomas A. Hemphill - 2001 - Business and Society Review 106 (2):161-169.
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  7. Ideas On Electronic Commerce.John McCarthy - unknown
    • substantially overlaps XML and ICE • used Lisp data format, e.g. (PRICE $1.00 ) instead of $5.00 (...)
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  8. On Constraint-Based Reasoning in E-Negotiation Agents. Agent-Mediated Electronic Commerce III.R. Kowalczyk & V. Bui - 2001 - In P. Bouquet (ed.), Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 2003--1.
     
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  9. Minisymposia-XV Approaches or Methods of Security Engineering (AMSE)-Efficient Key Distribution Protocol for Electronic Commerce in Mobile Communications.Jin Kwak, Soohyun Oh & Dongho Won - 2006 - In O. Stock & M. Schaerf (eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Verlag. pp. 3732--1009.
     
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  10. Business Electronic Commerce.D. Lucking-Reiley & D. Spulber - forthcoming - Manuscrito). Northwester.
     
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  11. The Role of Consumers' Trust in Online-Shopping.Sonja Grabner-Kraeuter - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 39 (1-2):43 - 50.
    Many consumers are sceptical or suspicious about the functional mechanisms of electronic commerce, its intransparent processes and effects, and the quality of many products that are offered online. This paper analyses the role of consumer trust as a foundation for the diffusion and acceptance of electronic commerce. Starting from a functional perspective trust is seen as distinct but potentially coexisting mechanism for reducing the uncertainty and complexity of transactions and relationships in electronic markets. The analysis (...)
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  12.  54
    An Ethical Exploration of Privacy and Radio Frequency Identification.Alan R. Peslak - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 59 (4):327-345.
    This manuscript reviews the background of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) as well as the ethical foundations of individual privacy. This includes a historical perspective on personal privacy, a review of the United States Constitutional privacy interpretations, the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, European Union Regulations, as well as the positions of industry and advocacy groups. A brief review of the information technology ethics literature is also included. The RFID privacy concerns are three-fold: pre-sales activities, sales transaction activities, and post-sales (...)
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  13.  26
    Dynamics of Crimes Against the Security of Electronic Data and Information Systems and its Influence on the Development of Electronic Business in Lithuania.Tatjana Bilevičienė & Eglė Bilevičiūtė - 2011 - Jurisprudencija: Mokslo darbu žurnalas 18 (2):689-702.
    The development of an information society and information technologies does not result in positive consequences only. Individuals with criminal intent also find their niche. Information security includes the creation of the input, processing and output processes of protection. The objective of information security is to protect the system of values, to protect and ensure accuracy and integrity and to minimize losses that may be incurred if the information is modified or destroyed. In the development of an information society, the new (...)
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  14.  23
    The Path Dependency of National Electronic Identities.Herbert Kubicek & Torsten Noack - 2010 - Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):111-153.
    This paper compares the four national electronic Identity Management Systems (eIDMS), which have been described in the previous chapters. The section Similarities and differences between four national eIDMS will highlight the differences between these systems conceived as socio-technical systems with regard to the eID itself, the eID cards as tokens, the authentication processes as well as the procedures for distribution and personalisation, the support provided for installing the technology and any provider-related regulation. The section A three-fold path dependency , (...)
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  15.  64
    Ethical Issues in Electronic Comemrce.Bette Ann Stead & Jackie Gilbert - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 34 (2):75 - 85.
    This article reviews the incredible growth of electronic commerce (e-commerce) and presents ethical issues that have emerged. Security concerns, spamming, Web sites that do not carry an "advertising" label, cybersquatters, online marketing to children, conflicts of interest, manufacturers competing with intermediaries online, and "dinosaurs" are discussed. The power of the Internet to spotlight issues is noted as a significant force in providing a kind of self-regulation that supports an ethical e-commerce environment.
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  16.  46
    A Typology of Communicative Strategies in Online Privacy Policies: Ethics, Power and Informed Consent.Irene Pollach - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 62 (3):221-235.
    The opaque use of data collection methods on the WWW has given rise to privacy concerns among Internet users. Privacy policies on websites may ease these concerns, if they communicate clearly and unequivocally when, how and for what purpose data are collected, used or shared. This paper examines privacy policies from a linguistic angle to determine whether the language of these documents is adequate for communicating data-handling practices in a manner that enables informed consent on the part of the user. (...)
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  17.  33
    Balancing Internet Marketing Needs with Consumer Concerns: A Property Rights Framework.E. Rose - 2001 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 31 (1):17-21.
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  18. Електронна комерція як спосіб задоволення попиту на онлайн-ринку.Tetiana Kurant - 2014 - Схід 6 (132):19-24.
    У статті розглянуто процеси віртуалізації взаємовідносин споживача та виробника в глобальній економіці. Доведено, що збільшення доступу користувачів до мережі Інтернет вплинуло на формування значного за обсягами сегмента електронної комерції. Систематизовано підходи до визначення моделей е-комерції з виокремленням сегмента мобільної комерції як такої, що має найбільший потенціал до швидкого росту. Досліджено специфіку онлайн-поведінки споживачів України та їхній вплив на формування й розвиток національного ринку е-комерції.
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  19.  5
    Group–Proxy Signature Scheme: A Novel Solution to Electronic Cash.Zhenfu Cao & Haiyong Bao - 2013 - Journal of Intelligent Systems 22 (2):95-110.
    Proxy signature and group signature are two basic cryptographic primitives. Due to their valuable characteristics, many schemes have been put forward independently and they have been applied in many practical scenarios up to the present. However, with the development of electronic commerce, many special requirements come into being. In this article, we put forward the concept of group–proxy signature, which integrates the merits of proxy signature and group signature for the first time. We also demonstrate how to apply (...)
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  20.  5
    Looking Back to See Ahead: The Changing Face of Users in European E-Commerce Law.Emily M. Weitzenboeck - 2015 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 23 (3):201-215.
    The ubiquity of the Internet has given rise to new hybrid types of online users such as hybrid consumers and prosumers. This paper looks at some of the new legal challenges raised by the exciting opportunities for active participation and co-creation by such users in electronic commerce transactions. The method employed, in homage to Jon Bing, is to look back in time to understand how users in sales transactions have been progressively regarded—alternatively exposed to risk, alternatively protected—and how (...)
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  21. Internet Characteristics and Online Alternative Dispute Resolution.Bashar H. Malkawi - 2008 - Harvard Negotiation Law Review 13:327-348.
    Electronic commerce is important, and perhaps, inevitable. Thus, to consider the legal implications of the growth and development of electronic commerce is essential. However, the lack of suitable dispute resolution mechanisms in cyberspace will constitute a serious obstacle to the further development of electronic commerce. Bearing this in mind, this thesis argues that when Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) moves to cyberspace, particularly arbitration and mediation as the main types of ADR, the form of Online (...)
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  22.  31
    Equality of Arms in the Digital Age.Bashar H. Malkawi, Haitham Haloush & Basem Melhem - 2008 - Macquarie Journal of Business Law 5:73-85.
    Electronic commerce is important, and perhaps, inevitable. Thus to consider the legal implications of the growth and development of electronic commerce is essential. However, the lack of suitable dispute resolution mechanisms in cyberspace will constitute a serious obstacle to the further development of electronic commerce. Bearing this in mind, this paper argues that when Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) moves to cyberspace, particularly arbitration and mediation as the main types of ADR, the form of online (...)
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  23.  60
    Has Technology Introduced New Ethical Problems?Kimball P. Marshall - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 19 (1):81 - 90.
    Drawing on William F. Ogburn's cultural lag thesis, an inherent conflict is proposed between the rapid speed of modern technological advances and the slower speed by which ethical guidelines for utilization of new technologies are developed. Ogburn's cultural lag thesis proposes that material culture advances more rapidly than non-material culture. Technology is viewed as part of material culture and ethical guidelines for technology utilization are viewed as an adaptive aspect of non-material culture. Cultural lag is seen as a critical ethical (...)
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  24.  36
    Assessing Gender Differences in Computer Professionals' Self-Regulatory Efficacy Concerning Information Privacy Practices.Feng-Yang Kuo, Cathy S. Lin & Meng-Hsiang Hsu - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 73 (2):145 - 160.
    Concerns with improper collection and usage of personal information by businesses or governments have been seen as critical to the success of the emerging electronic commerce. In this regard, computer professionals have the oversight responsibility for information privacy because they have the most extensive knowledge of their organization's systems and programs, as well as an intimate understanding of the data. Thus, the competence of these professionals in ensuring sound practice of information privacy is of great importance to both (...)
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  25.  4
    Assessing Gender Differences in Computer Professionals’ Self-Regulatory Efficacy Concerning Information Privacy Practices.Feng-Yang Kuo, Cathy S. Lin & Meng-Hsiang Hsu - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 73 (2):145-160.
    Concerns with improper collection and usage of personal information by businesses or governments have been seen as critical to the success of the emerging electronic commerce. In this regard, computer professionals have the oversight responsibility for information privacy because they have the most extensive knowledge of their organization's systems and programs, as well as an intimate understanding of the data. Thus, the competence of these professionals in ensuring sound practice of information privacy is of great importance to both (...)
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  26.  76
    Contracting Agents: Legal Personality and Representation. [REVIEW]Francisco Andrade, Paulo Novais, José Machado & José Neves - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (4):357-373.
    The combined use of computers and telecommunications and the latest evolution in the field of Artificial Intelligence brought along new ways of contracting and of expressing will and declarations. The question is, how far we can go in considering computer intelligence and autonomy, how can we legally deal with a new form of electronic behaviour capable of autonomous action? In the field of contracting, through Intelligent Electronic Agents, there is an imperious need of analysing the question of expression (...)
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  27.  30
    Hohfeld in Cyberspace and Other Applications of Normative Reasoning in Agent Technology.Christen Krogh & Henning Herrestad - 1999 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 7 (1):81-96.
    Two areas of importance for agents and multiagent systems are investigated: design of agent programming languages, and design of agent communication languages. The paper contributes in the above mentioned areas by demonstrating improved or novel applications for deontic logic and normative reasoning. Examples are taken from computer-supported cooperative work, and electronic commerce.
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  28.  9
    La Pêche aux Internautes.Josiane JouËt - 2003 - Hermes 37:203-211.
    Après avoir questionné l'application de la notion d'audience à Internet, l'article se livre à une analyse critique des dispositifs de mesures et d'études d'audience qui reposent sur un agencement d'outils informatiques, statistiques et marketing. Les mesures de trafic et les enquêtes en ligne ne sont pas tant conçues pour la connaissance des publics que comme outils stratégiques pour la conception de site, la publicité et le commerce électronique. Outre les enjeux déontologiques soulevés par l'exploitation des traces laissées par les (...)
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  29. Boilerplate: The Foundation of Market Contracts.Omri Ben-Shahar (ed.) - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    Boilerplate, the fine print of standard contracts, is more prevalent than ever in commercial trade and in electronic commerce. But what is in it, beyond legal technicalities? Why is it so hard to read and why is it often so one-sided? Who writes it, who reads it, and what effect does it have? The studies in this volume question whether boilerplate is true contract. Does it resemble a statute? Is it a species of property? Should we think of (...)
     
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  30. E-Tail Atmospherics: A Critique of the Literature and Model Extension.P. Sautter, M. R. Hyman & V. Lukosius - 2004 - Journal of Electronic Commerce Research 5 (1):14--24.
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  31.  57
    Electronic Banking Services From the Point of View of Bank Customers in Palestine.Suliman A. El Talla, Mazen J. Al Shobaki & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Accounting, Finance and Management Research (IJAAFMR) 3 (10):45-60.
    This study aims to identify the electronic banking services in Palestine from the point of view of the customers of the banks, where researchers used the descriptive analytical method, through a questionnaire distributed electronically to the sample of beneficiaries of the electronic banking services provided by banks operating in Palestine. The study reached a number of results, the most important of which are: There is a moderate degree of efficiency of electronic banking services provided in banks operating (...)
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  32. How Bioethics Principles Can Aid Design of Electronic Health Records to Accommodate Patient Granular Control.Eric M. Meslin & Peter H. Schwartz - 2014 - Journal of General Internal Medicine 30 (1):3-6.
    Ethics should guide the design of electronic health records (EHR), and recognized principles of bioethics can play an important role. This approach was adopted recently by a team of informaticists designing and testing a system where patients exert granular control over who views their personal health information. While this method of building ethics in from the start of the design process has significant benefits, questions remain about how useful the application of bioethics principles can be in this process, especially (...)
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  33. Strategies for Referent Tracking in Electronic Health Records.Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith - 2006 - Journal of Biomedical Informatics 39 (3):362-378.
    The goal of referent tracking is to create an ever-growing pool of data relating to the entities existing in concrete spatiotemporal reality. In the context of Electronic Healthcare Records (EHRs) the relevant concrete entities are not only particular patients but also their parts, diseases, therapies, lesions, and so forth, insofar as these are salient to diagnosis and treatment. Within a referent tracking system, all such entities are referred to directly and explicitly, something which cannot be achieved when familiar concept-based (...)
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  34. Negative Findings in Electronic Health Records and Biomedical Ontologies: A Realist Approach.Werner Ceusters, Peter Elkin & Barry Smith - 2007 - International Journal of Medical Informatics 76 (3):S326-S333.
    PURPOSE—A substantial fraction of the observations made by clinicians and entered into patient records are expressed by means of negation or by using terms which contain negative qualifiers (as in “absence of pulse” or “surgical procedure not performed”). This seems at first sight to present problems for ontologies, terminologies and data repositories that adhere to a realist view and thus reject any reference to putative non-existing entities. Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) and Referent Tracking (RT) are examples of such paradigms. The (...)
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  35.  39
    The Inexorable Sociality of Commerce: The Individual and Others in Adam Smith.David Bevan & Patricia Werhane - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 127 (2):327-335.
    In this paper we reconsider Adam Smith’s ethics, what he means by self-interest and the role this plays in the famous “invisible hand.” Our efforts focus in part on the misreading of “the invisible hand” by certain economists with a view to legitimizing their neoclassical economic paradigm. Through exegesis and by reference to notions that are developed in Smith’s two major works, we deconstruct Smith’s ideas of conscience, justice, self-interest, and the invisible hand. We amplify Smith’s insistence, through his notions (...)
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  36.  25
    Systems of Survival: A Dialogue on the Moral Foundations of Commerce and Politics.Jane Jacobs - 1994 - Vintage Books.
    The author of The Death and Life of Great American Cities looks at business fraud and criminal enterprise, overextended government farm subsidies and zealous transit police, to show what happens when the moral systems of commerce collide with those of politics.
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  37. Marketing, Consumers and Technology: Perspectives for Enhancing Ethical Transactions.Gene R. Laczniak & Patrick E. Murphy - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (3):313-322.
    Abstract: The advance of technology has influenced marketing in a number of ways that have ethical implications. Growth in use of the Internet and e-commerce has placed electronic “cookies,” spyware, spam, RFIDs, and data mining at the forefront of the ethical debate. Some marketers have minimized the significance of these trends. This overview paper examines these issues and introduces the two articles that follow. It is hoped that these entries will further the important “marketing and technology” ethical debate.
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  38.  11
    Marketing, Consumers and Technology: Perspectives for Enhancing Ethical Transactions.Gene R. Laczniak & Patrick E. Murphy - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (3):313-321.
    The advance of technology has influenced marketing in a number of ways that have ethical implications. Growth in use of the Internetand e-commerce has placed electronic “cookies,” spyware, spam, RFIDs, and data mining at the forefront of the ethical debate. Some marketers have minimized the significance of these trends. This overview paper examines these issues and introduces the two articles that follow. It is hoped that these entries will further the important “marketing and technology” ethical debate.
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  39. Electronic Monitoring and Privacy Issues in Business-Marketing: The Ethics of the Doubleclick Experience. [REVIEW]Darren Charters - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 35 (4):243 - 254.
    The paper examines the ethics of electronic monitoring for advertising purposes and the implications for Internet user privacy using as a backdrop DoubleClick Incs recent controversy over matching previously anonymous user profiles with personally identifiable information. It explores various ethical theories that are applicable to understand privacy issues in electronic monitoring. It is argued that, despite the fact that electronic monitoring always constitutes an invasion of privacy, it can still be ethically justified on both Utilitarian and Kantian (...)
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  40.  72
    Tracking Referents in Electronic Health Records.Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith - 2005 - Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 116:71–76.
    Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are organized around two kinds of statements: those reporting observations made, and those reporting acts performed. In neither case does the record involve any direct reference to what such statements are actually about. They record not: what is happening on the side of the patient, but rather: what is said about what is happening. While the need for a unique patient identifier is generally recognized, we argue that we should now move to an EHR regime (...)
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  41.  29
    Electronic Identity Management in Estonia Between Market and State Governance.Tarvi Martens - 2010 - Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):213-233.
    The present paper summarizes the development of the national electronic Identity Management System (eIDMS) in Estonia according to a conceptual framework developed in an European comparative research project outlined in the first chapter of this special issue. Its main function is to amend the picture of the European eIDMS landscape by presenting a case with high involvement of the private sector and thereby checking the generalizations from the comparisons of Austria, Belgium, Germany and Spain, presented by Kubicek and Noack (...)
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  42.  41
    Virtue and Commerce in Domingo de Soto’s Thought: Commercial Practices, Character, and the Common Good. [REVIEW]André Azevedo Alves & José Manuel Moreira - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 113 (4):627-638.
    This paper draws from the work of sixteenth century theologian, philosopher, and ethicist Domingo de Soto and considers his virtue-based approach to the ethical evaluation of commerce within an Aristotelian–Thomistic framework for the articulation of business and the common good. Particular attention is given to the fundamental emphasis placed by Soto in distinguishing between commerce as an activity and the specific conduct of persons engaging in commercial activity. The distinction between the material and the formal parts of the (...)
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  43.  36
    Electronic Identity Management in Sweden: Governance of a Market Approach. [REVIEW]Åke Grönlund - 2010 - Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):195-211.
    This paper reviews the history and current status of electronic identities (eID) and eID management in Sweden, including an outlook for the future. The paper is based on official policy documents, technical documentation, presentations by key experts, and comments from government agencies and independent experts. The future perspective is based on the October 2009 public investigation (SOU 2009:86) by the E-delegation. It is concluded that the E-delegation proposal, while still pending political decision, is a major step forward in terms (...)
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  44.  37
    Electronic Identity in Finland: ID Cards Vs. Bank IDs. [REVIEW]Teemu Rissanen - 2010 - Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):175-194.
    This chapter describes the introduction and diffusion of the Finnish Electronic Identity Card (FINEID card). FINEID establishes an electronic identity (eID), based on the civil registry and placed on an identity chip card issued by Finnish government to Finnish citizens and permanent residents from age 18 and older. It is a non-mandatory electronic identity card introduced in 1999 in order to replace the older citizen ID card. It serves as a travel document and is intended to facilitate (...)
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  45.  39
    The Introduction of Online Authentication as Part of the New Electronic National Identity Card in Germany.Torsten Noack & Herbert Kubicek - 2010 - Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):87-110.
    This chapter provides an analysis of the long process of introducing an electronic identity for online authentication in Germany. This process is described as a multi-facet innovation, involving actors from different policy fields shifting over time. The eID process started in the late ‘90s in the context of eGovernment and eCommerce with the legislation on e-signatures, which were supposed to allow for online authentication of citizens. When after 5 years it was recognized that this was not the case, a (...)
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  46.  33
    Electronic Monitoring of Offenders: An Ethical Review.William Bülow - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (2):505-518.
    This paper considers electronic monitoring (EM) a promising alternative to imprisonment as a criminal sanction for a series of criminal offenses. However, little has been said about EM from an ethical perspective. To evaluate EM from an ethical perspective, six initial ethical challenges are addressed and discussed. It is argued that since EM is developing as a technology and a punitive means, it is urgent to discuss its ethical implications and incorporate moral values into its design and development.
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  47.  76
    Advanced Lexical Ontologies and Hybrid Knowledge Based Systems: First Steps to a Dynamic Legal Electronic Commentary. [REVIEW]Erich Schweighofer & Doris Liebwald - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (2):103-115.
    Legal Information Retrieval (IR) research has stressed the fact that legal knowledge systems should be sufficiently capable to interpret and handle the semantics of a database. Modeling (expert-) knowledge by using ontologies enhances the ability to extract and exploit information from documents. This contribution presents theories, ideas and notions regarding the development of dynamic electronic commentaries based on a comprehensive legal ontology.
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  48.  63
    A Legal Analysis of Human and Electronic Agents.Steffen Wettig & Eberhard Zehender - 2004 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 12 (1-2):111-135.
    Currently, electronic agents are being designed and implemented that, unprecedentedly, will be capable of performing legally binding actions. These advances necessitate a thorough treatment of their legal consequences. In our paper, we first demonstrate that electronic agents behave structurally similar to human agents. Then we study how declarations of intention stated by an electronic agent are related to ordinary declarations of intention given by natural persons or legal entities, and also how the actions of electronic agents (...)
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  49.  32
    Institutionalizing Peace Through Commerce: Engagement or Divestment in South African and Sudan.Michelle Westermann-Behaylo - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 89 (S4):417 - 434.
    Peace through Commerce literature has discussed how business can engage in more responsible behavior in order to mitigate conflict risk and promote conflict resolution. However, in many conflict situations, the question arises at what point does it become impossible for a firm to remain engaged on the ground and still function as an ethical business? This article discusses the role of divestment activist groups in changing institutional norms among MNCs operating in conflict situations. Institutional norms shift from firms conducting (...)
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  50.  51
    Ontology-Based Integration of Medical Coding Systems and Electronic Patient Records.W. Ceusters, Barry Smith & G. De Moor - 2004 - IFOMIS Reports.
    In the last two decades we have witnessed considerable efforts directed towards making electronic healthcare records comparable and interoperable through advances in record architectures and (bio)medical terminologies and coding systems. Deep semantic issues in general, and ontology in particular, have received some interest from the research communities. However, with the exception of work on so-called ‘controlled vocabularies’, ontology has thus far played little role in work on standardization. The prime focus has been rather the rapid population of terminologies at (...)
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