Results for 'empirical significance'

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  1.  58
    Criteria of Empirical Significance: Foundations, Relations, Applications.Sebastian Lutz - 2012 - Dissertation, Utrecht University
    This dissertation consists of three parts. Part I is a defense of an artificial language methodology in philosophy and a historical and systematic defense of the logical empiricists' application of an artificial language methodology to scientific theories. These defenses provide a justification for the presumptions of a host of criteria of empirical significance, which I analyze, compare, and develop in part II. On the basis of this analysis, in part III I use a variety of criteria to evaluate (...)
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  2.  83
    Criteria of Empirical Significance: A Success Story.Sebastian Lutz - manuscript
    The sheer multitude of criteria of empirical significance has been taken as evidence that the pre-analytic notion being explicated is too vague to be useful. I show instead that a significant number of these criteria—by Ayer, Popper, Przełęcki, Suppes, and David Lewis, among others—not only form a coherent whole, but also connect directly to the theory of definition, the notion of empirical content as explicated by Ramsey sentences, and the theory of measurement; two criteria by Carnap and (...)
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  3.  33
    Hypothetico-Deductivism: The Current State of Play; The Criterion of Empirical Significance: Endgame.Ken Gemes - 1998 - Erkenntnis 49 (1):1 - 20.
    : Any precise version of H-D needs to handle various problems, most notably, the problem of selective confirmation: Precise formulations of H-D should not have the consequence that where S confirms T, for any T', S confirms T&T'. It is the perceived failure of H-D to solve such problems that has lead John Earman to recently conclude that H-D is "very nearly a dead horse". This suggests the following state of play: H-D is an intuitively plausible idea that breaks down (...)
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  4.  77
    Carnap on Empirical Significance.Sebastian Lutz - 2017 - Synthese 194 (1):217-252.
    Carnap’s search for a criterion of empirical significance is usually considered a failure. I argue that the results from two out of his three different approaches are at the very least problematic, but that one approach led to success. Carnap’s criterion of translatability into logical syntax is too vague to allow for definite results. His criteria for terms—introducibility by chains of reduction sentences and his criterion from “The Methodological Character of Theoretical Concepts”—are almost trivial and have no clear (...)
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  5.  34
    Carnap's Forgotten Criterion of Empirical Significance.James Justus - 2014 - Mind 123 (490):415-436.
    The waning popularity of logical empiricism and the supposed discovery of insurmountable technical difficulties led most philosophers to abandon the project to formulate a formal criterion of empirical significance. Such a criterion would delineate claims that observation can confirm or disconfirm from those it cannot. Although early criteria were clearly inadequate, criticisms made of later, more sophisticated criteria were often indefensible or easily answered. Most importantly, Carnap’s last criterion was seriously misinterpreted and an amended version of it remains (...)
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  6.  4
    The Neopositivist Conception of Empirical Significance, and Logical Analysis of Scientific Knowledge.V. S. Shvyrev - 1963 - Russian Studies in Philosophy 2 (1):10-29.
    It is a characteristic of neopositivism that the pursuit of its effort in theoretical cognition, the attempt to discover the "given" content of knowledge, the "empirical significance" of its elements — concepts and assertions — is associated, with the employment of the method of logical analysis of knowledge. On the one hand, this gives logical analysis a distinctly philosophical, epistemological emphasis, while on the other it converts the theory of knowledge of neopositivism into "applied logic," engaged in establishing (...)
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  7.  29
    Logical Content and Empirical Significance.Ken Gemes - manuscript
    Logical Positivism, could not be said to be au courant as a philosophical movement.1 Indeed not only is the movement no longer in existence, it's projects are no longer central to philosophical investigations, even to the investigations of those who specialize in the philosophy of science. If Positivism has been making a comeback it is primarily as an object of historical inquiry, perhaps as a means to answering the question of how we got from there (our forefathers' primary philosophical interests (...)
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  8.  18
    Galileo’s Gauge: Understanding the Empirical Significance of Gauge Symmetry.Nicholas J. Teh - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 83 (1):93-118.
    This article investigates and resolves the question whether gauge symmetry can display analogs of the famous Galileo’s ship scenario. In doing so, it builds on and clarifies the work of Greaves and Wallace on this subject.
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  9.  12
    More on Empirical Significance.M. L. Pokriefka - 1984 - Analysis 44 (2):92-93.
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  10.  67
    The Formalization of Empirical Significance.G. Schlesinger - 1964 - Philosophy of Science 31 (1):65-67.
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  11.  16
    Ayer's Definition of Empirical Significance Revisited.M. L. Pokriefka - 1983 - Analysis 43 (4):166 - 170.
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  12. Scientific Theories and Empirical Significance.Peter Achinstein - 1965 - Review of Metaphysics 19:758-769.
     
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  13.  7
    On the Empirical Significance of Pure Determinism.Andy Kukla - 1978 - Philosophy of Science 45 (1):141-144.
  14.  10
    Empirical Significance and Relevance.Marcelo Pascal - 1971 - Philosophia 1 (1-2):81-106.
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  15.  11
    Achinstein on Empirical Significance: A Matter of Principle.Leonard J. Berkowitz - 1979 - Philosophy of Science 46 (3):459-465.
  16. Ayer's definition of empirical significance revisited.M. L. Pokriefka - 1983 - Erkenntnis 43 (4):166.
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  17. The Theological Significance of the Method of Empirical Analysis in the Philosophy of A. N. Whitehead.Bernard MacDougall Loomer - 1945 - Chicago: Chicago University Press.
     
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  18.  5
    Cognitive Access to Numbers: The Philosophical Significance of Empirical Findings About Basic Number Abilities.Giaquinto Marcus - unknown
    How can we acquire a grasp of cardinal numbers, even the first very small positive cardinal numbers, given that they are abstract mathematical entities? That problem of cognitive access is the main focus of this paper. All the major rival views about the nature and existence of cardinal numbers face difficulties; and the view most consonant with our normal thought and talk about numbers, the view that cardinal numbers are sizes of sets, runs into the cognitive access problem. The source (...)
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  19.  67
    Debunking Confabulation: Emotions and the Significance of Empirical Psychology for Kantian Ethics.Pauline Kleingeld - 2014 - In Alix Cohen (ed.), Kant on Emotion and Value. Palgrave. pp. 145-165.
    It is frequently argued that research findings in empirical moral psychology spell trouble for Kantian ethics. Sometimes the charge is merely that Kantianism is mistaken about the role of emotions in human action, but it has also been argued that empirical moral psychology ‘debunks’ Kantian ethics as the product of precisely the emotion-driven processes it fails to acknowledge. In this essay I argue for a negative and a positive thesis. The negative thesis is that the ‘debunking’ argument against (...)
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  20.  9
    Recontextualizing Kaufmann: His Empirical Conception of the Bible and Its Significance in Jewish Intellectual History.Job Y. Jindo - 2011 - Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy 19 (2):95-129.
    This essay revisits the significance of Kaufmann's Toledot ha-emunah ha-yisre'elit in Jewish intellectual history, as its reception has hitherto been somewhat reductive. His work is generally viewed as an anti-Christian polemic with a Zionist agenda that sought to glorify the formative period of his people. A closer look at his intellectual background, as well as his theoretical framework, leads us to a different understanding of his work in general and of its alleged nationalistic features in particular. The essay shows, (...)
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  21.  2
    Patient Incompetence in the Practice of Old Age Psychiatry : The Significance of Empirical Research for the Law.Sander Welie - 2008 - In Guy Widdershoven (ed.), Empirical Ethics in Psychiatry. Oxford University Press. pp. 231--47.
  22. The Nature and Philosophical Significance of Empirical Judgment.Robert Hanna - 1989 - Dissertation, Yale University
    Simple or "standard" empirical judgments--as expressed in such statements as "The rose is red" or "Socrates is mortal"--are logically basic for theoretical rationality. All the more complex forms of judgment presuppose the existence and tenability of judgments of the "standard" type. The overall aim of this study is twofold: to show how the traditional theory of standard empirical judgments--as represented by Kant's doctrine of judgment--is subject to a through-going form of skepticism that I entitle "judgmental skepticism" and to (...)
     
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  23.  87
    The Significance of Empirical Evidence for Developments in the Foundations of Decision Theory.Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
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  24.  18
    De Gravitatione Reconsidered: The Changing Significance of Empirical Evidence for Newton's Metaphysics of Space.Zvi Biener - unknown
    I argue that Isaac Newton's _De Gravitatione_ should not be considered an authoritative expression of his thought about the metaphysics of space and its relation to physical inquiry. I establish the following narrative: In _De Gravitatione_, Newton claimed he had direct experimental evidence for the work's central thesis: that space had ``its own manner of existing'' as an affection or emanative effect. In the 1710s, however, through the prodding of both Roger Cotes and G. W. Leibniz, he came to see (...)
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  25.  50
    Deficiency Arguments Against Empiricism and the Question of Empirical Indefeasibility.Lisa Warenski - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (6):1675-1686.
    I give a brief overview of Albert Casullo’s Essays on A Priori Knowledge and Justification, followed by a summary of his diagnostic framework for evaluating accounts of a priori knowledge and a priori justification. I then discuss Casullo’s strategy for countering deficiency arguments against empiricism. A deficiency argument against empiricism can be countered by mounting a parallel argument against moderate rationalism that shows moderate rationalism to be defective in a similar way. I argue that a particular deficiency argument put forth (...)
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  26.  44
    The Aesthetic Relevance of Empirical Findings.Fabian Dorsch - 2011 - Kongress-Akten der Deutschen Gesellschaft Für Ästhetik 2:1-21.
    Empirical findings may be relevant for aesthetic evaluation in at least two ways. First — within criticism — they may help us to identify the aesthetic value of objects. Second— whithin philosophy — they may help us to decide which theory of aesthetic value and evaluation to prefer. In this paper, I address both kinds of relevance. My focus is thereby on empirical evidence gathered, not by means of first-personal experiences, but by means of third-personal scientific investigations of (...)
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  27.  24
    Deficiency Arguments Against Empiricism and the Question of Empirical Indefeasibility.Lisa Warenski - 2015 - Philosophical Studies:1-12.
    I give a brief overview of Albert Casullo’s Essays on A Priori Knowledge and Justification (2012), followed by a summary of his diagnostic framework for evaluating accounts of a priori knowledge and a priori justification. I then discuss Casullo’s strategy for countering deficiency arguments against empiricism. A deficiency argument against empiricism can be countered by mounting a parallel argument against moderate rationalism that shows moderate rationalism to be defective in a similar way. I argue that a particular deficiency argument put (...)
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  28.  45
    On Kaplan on Carnap on Significance.Richard Creath - 1976 - Philosophical Studies 30 (6):393 - 400.
    In 'the methodological character of theoretical concepts' carnap offered a sophisticated criterion of empirical significance. Unfortunately, Shortly thereafter david kaplan devised a pair of devastating counter-Examples which appeared to show that carnap's criterion was simultaneously too wide and too narrow. In this note I show that kaplan's first counter-Example misses its mark and that his second counter-Example can be avoided by a natural generalization of carnap's method.
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  29.  25
    Symmetry, Empirical Equivalence, and Identity.Simon Friederich - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (3):537-559.
    The article proposes a novel approach to the much discussed question of which symmetries have ‘direct empirical significance’ and which do not. The approach is based on a development of a recently proposed framework by Hilary Greaves and David Wallace, who claim that, contrary to the standard folklore among philosophers of physics, ‘local’ symmetries may have direct empirical significance no less than ‘global’ ones. Partly vindicating the standard folklore, a result is derived here from a number (...)
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  30. Testing Universal Gravitation in the Laboratory, or the Significance of Research on the Mean Density of the Earth and Big G, 1798-1898: Changing Pursuits and Long-Term Methodological-Experimental Continuity. [REVIEW]Steffen Ducheyne - unknown
    This paper seeks to provide a historically well-informed analysis of an important post-Newtonian area of research in experimental physics between 1798 and 1898, namely the determination of the mean density of the earth and, by the end of the nineteenth century, the gravitational constant. Traditionally, research on these matters is seen as a case of ‘puzzle solving.’ In this paper, I show that such focus does not do justice to the evidential significance of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century experimental research on (...)
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  31. The Significance of Attention.Sebastian Watzl - 2010 - Dissertation, Columbia University
    This dissertation investigates the nature, the phenomenal character and the philosophical significance of attention. According to its central thesis, attention is the ongoing mental activity of structuring the stream of consciousness or phenomenal field. The dissertation connects the scientific study of attention in psychology and the neurosciences with central discussions in the philosophy of mind. Once we get clear on the nature and the phenomenal character of attention, we can make progress toward understanding foundational issues concerning the nature and (...)
     
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  32.  72
    Can Empirical Theories of Semantic Competence Really Help Limn the Structure of Reality?Steven Gross - 2006 - Noûs 40 (1):43–81.
    There is a long tradition of drawing metaphysical conclusions from investigations into language. This paper concerns one contemporary variation on this theme: the alleged ontological significance of cognitivist truth-theoretic accounts of semantic competence. According to such accounts, human speakers’ linguistic behavior is in part empirically explained by their cognizing a truth-theory. Such a theory consists of a finite number of axioms assigning semantic values to lexical items, a finite number of axioms assigning semantic values to complex expressions on the (...)
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  33.  28
    Sound and Fury: McCloskey and Significance Testing in Economics.Kevin D. Hoover & Mark V. Siegler - 2008 - Journal of Economic Methodology 15 (1):1-37.
    For more than 20 years, Deidre McCloskey has campaigned to convince the economics profession that it is hopelessly confused about statistical significance. She argues that many practices associated with significance testing are bad science and that most economists routinely employ these bad practices: ?Though to a child they look like science, with all that really hard math, no science is being done in these and 96 percent of the best empirical economics ?? (McCloskey 1999). McCloskey's charges are (...)
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  34.  5
    History and Significance of Jakob von Uexküll and of His Institute in Hamburg.Torsten Rüting - 2004 - Sign Systems Studies 32 (1-2):35-71.
    This paper aims to give an insight into developments that contributed to the significance of the work of Jakob von Uexküll and stresses the importance of his occupation in Hamburg. A biographical survey pays tribute to the implication of the historical pretext and context. A scientific survey describes findings and ideas of Uexküll that proved important for the development of biology and the cognitive sciences. In addition, this paper sets out to reject the common notion that Uexküll’s concepts were (...)
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  35.  59
    Reproducibility of Empirical Findings: Experiments in Philosophy and Beyond.Hamid Seyedsayamdost - unknown
    The field of experimental philosophy has received considerable attention, essentially for producing results that seem highly counter-intuitive and at the same time question some of the fundamental methods used in philosophy. A substantial part of this attention has focused on the role of intuitions in philosophical methodology. One of the major contributions of experimental philosophy on this topic has been concrete evidence in support of intuitional diversity; the idea that intuitions vary systematically depending on variables such as ethnicity, socioeconomic background, (...)
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  36.  38
    Haag’s Theorem, Apparent Inconsistency, and the Empirical Adequacy of Quantum Field Theory.Michael Miller - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axw029.
    Haag's theorem has been interpreted as establishing that quantum field theory cannot consistently represent interacting fields. Earman and Fraser have clarified how it is possible to give mathematically consistent calculations in scattering theory despite the theorem. However, their analysis does not fully address the worry raised by the result. In particular, I argue that their approach fails to be a complete explanation of why Haag's theorem does not undermine claims about the empirical adequacy of particular quantum field theories. I (...)
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  37.  68
    Becoming a Father/Refusing Fatherhood: An Empirical Bioethics Approach to Paternal Responsibilities and Rights.J. Ives, H. Draper, H. Pattison & C. Williams - 2008 - Clinical Ethics 3 (2):75-84.
    In this paper, we present the first stage of an empirical bioethics project exploring the moral sources of paternal responsibilities and rights. In doing so, we present both (1) data on men's normative constructions of fatherhood and (2) the first of a two-stage methodological approach to empirical bioethics. Using data gathered from 12 focus groups run with UK men who have had a variety of different fathering experiences (n = 50), we examine men's perspectives on how paternal responsibilities (...)
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  38.  38
    Significance Testing in Theory and Practice.Daniel Greco - 2011 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 62 (3):607-637.
    Frequentism and Bayesianism represent very different approaches to hypothesis testing, and this presents a skeptical challenge for Bayesians. Given that most empirical research uses frequentist methods, why (if at all) should we rely on it? While it is well known that there are conditions under which Bayesian and frequentist methods agree, without some reason to think these conditions are typically met, the Bayesian hasn’t shown why we are usually safe in relying on results reported by significance testers. In (...)
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  39.  29
    On the Philosophical Significance of Consistency Proofs.Michael D. Resnik - 1974 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 3 (1/2):133 - 147.
    We have seen that despite Feferman's results Gödel's second theorem vitiates the use of Hilbert-type epistemological programs and consistency proofs as a response to mathematical skepticism. Thus consistency proofs fail to have the philosophical significance often attributed to them.This does not mean that consistency proofs are of no interest to philosophers. We know that a ‘non-pathological’ consistency proof for a system S will use methods which are not available in S. When S is as strong a system as we (...)
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  40.  23
    On the Significance of Bodily Awareness for Bodily Action.Hong Yu Wong - 2015 - Philosophical Quarterly 65 (261):790-812.
    What is the significance of bodily awareness for bodily action? The orthodox philosophical account from O'Shaughnessy claims that bodily awareness is necessary for bodily action. Whilst O'Shaughnessy's account appears to be consonant with the phenomenology of ordinary agency, it falls afoul to empirical counterexamples. The failure of O'Shaughnessy's account and its cousins might suggest that bodily action does not depend on bodily awareness. On the contrary, I argue that the contrast between the character of afferented and deafferented agency (...)
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  41.  30
    The Disappearance of the Empirical: Some Reflections on Contemporary Culture Theory and Historiography.Paul A. Roth - 2007 - Journal of the Philosophy of History 1 (3):271-292.
    This paper surveys the parallel fates of the notion of the empirical in philosophy of science in the 20th century and the notion of experience as evidence in one important line of debate in historiography/philosophy of history. The focus concerns the presumably crucial role some notion of the empirical plays in the assessment of knowledge claims. The significance of 'the empirical' disappears on the assumption that theories either determine what counts as experience or explain away any (...)
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  42.  45
    The Null-Hypothesis Significance-Test Procedure is Still Warranted.Siu L. Chow - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):228-235.
    Entertaining diverse assumptions about empirical research, commentators give a wide range of verdicts on the NHSTP defence in Statistical significance. The null-hypothesis significance- test procedure is defended in a framework in which deductive and inductive rules are deployed in theory corroboration in the spirit of Popper's Conjectures and refutations. The defensible hypothetico-deductive structure of the framework is used to make explicit the distinctions between substantive and statistical hypotheses, statistical alternative and conceptual alternative hypotheses, and making statistical decisions (...)
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  43.  3
    Haag’s Theorem, Apparent Inconsistency, and the Empirical Adequacy of Quantum Field Theory.E. Miller Michael - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axw029.
    Haag’s theorem has been interpreted as establishing that quantum field theory cannot consistently represent interacting fields. Earman and Fraser have clarified how it is possible to give mathematically consistent calculations in scattering theory despite the theorem. However, their analysis does not fully address the worry raised by the result. In particular, I argue that their approach fails to be a complete explanation of why Haag’s theorem does not undermine claims about the empirical adequacy of particular quantum field theories. I (...)
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  44.  7
    Empirical Realism and the Legitimacy of Ontology: A Dialogue.Dustin McWherter - 2015 - Journal of Critical Realism 14 (5):449-460.
    The purpose of this dialogue between an ‘empirical realist’ and a ‘traditional ontologist’ is to clarify and evaluate the presuppositions of the kind of anti-ontological position exemplified by empirical realism. After ontology is defined and the empirical realist's position explained, the traditional ontologist pursues a series of dialectical developments and criticisms of the empirical realist's claim to have a coherently non-ontological position. The eventual conclusion is that the empirical realist's opposition to ontology just arbitrarily assumes (...)
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  45.  35
    Mathematics as a Quasi-Empirical Science.Gianluigi Oliveri - 2004 - Foundations of Science 11 (1-2):41-79.
    The present paper aims at showing that there are times when set theoretical knowledge increases in a non-cumulative way. In other words, what we call ‘set theory’ is not one theory which grows by simple addition of a theorem after the other, but a finite sequence of theories T1, ..., Tn in which Ti+1, for 1 ≤ i < n, supersedes Ti. This thesis has a great philosophical significance because it implies that there is a sense in which mathematical (...)
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  46.  11
    Foundations of Quantum Gravity: The Role of Principles Grounded in Empirical Reality.Marc Holman - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 46 (2):142-153.
    When attempting to assess the strengths and weaknesses of various principles in their potential role of guiding the formulation of a theory of quantum gravity, it is crucial to distinguish between principles which are strongly supported by empirical data – either directly or indirectly – and principles which instead rely heavily on theoretical arguments for their justification. Principles in the latter category are not necessarily invalid, but their a priori foundational significance should be regarded with due caution. These (...)
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  47.  4
    Incidental Findings of Uncertain Significance: To Know or Not to Know - That is Not the Question.Bjørn Hofmann - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):1-9.
    BackgroundAlthough the “right not to know” is well established in international regulations, it has been heavily debated. Ubiquitous results from extended exome and genome analysis have challenged the right not to know. American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics Recommendations urge to inform about incidental findings that pretend to be accurate and actionable. However, ample clinical cases raise the question whether these criteria are met. Many incidental findings are of uncertain significance. The eager to feedback information appears to enter (...)
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  48.  22
    Conflict of Interest and its Significance in Science and Medicine Warsaw, Poland, 5–6 April, 2002.Wendy Baldwin - 2002 - Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (3):469-475.
    This article summarizes the April 5–6, 2002 conference on Conflict of Interest and Its Significance in Science and Medicine. Several themes are identified and addressed, including the globalization of science, the widespread presence of conflicts, the increased interest and involvement in conflict of interest by a number of organizations, the difference between academic research and research conducted by industry, and the tension between science and medicine. At the heart of the matter lies objectivity in research and the need for (...)
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  49.  7
    What Philosophers Can Contribute in the Face of Fundamental Empirical Disagreement: A Response to Benatar and Lang.Joseph Mazor - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (7):432-433.
    I wish to first thank the two respondents for seriously engaging with my arguments. Their responses suggest that they are both individuals of good conscience who are deeply committed to the quest for truth and to human welfare.Their responses also highlight the deep empirical disagreements that lie at the heart of the circumcision debate. Given such empirical disagreements, what can philosophers contribute? I wish to reply to my critics in a way that highlights four types of contributions that (...)
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  50.  9
    Freedom to Choose and Democracy: The Empirical Question.Robin Harding - 2011 - Economics and Philosophy 27 (03):221-245.
    Intuitively it would seem that choice is important for democracy. Yet the empirical question, whether people actually do value facing distinct platforms when they vote, remains open. In this paper I seek to remedy that situation by systematically addressing the question using cross-national survey data. Specifically, I investigate whether satisfaction with democracy depends on the number and/or the substance of the choices that are available to people when they vote. The analysis offers strong support for the idea that what (...)
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