Results for 'entropy'

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  1. Abner Shimony.Carnap On Entropy - 1975 - In Jaakko Hintikka (ed.), Rudolf Carnap, Logical Empiricist: Materials and Perspectives. D. Reidel Pub. Co.. pp. 381.
     
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  2.  13
    Entropy: Into the Greenhouse World.Jeremy Rifkin & Ted Howard - 1989 - Bantam.
    For the first time Entropy has been completely revised and updated to include a new subtitle which reflects the expanded focus on the greenhouse effect--the largest crisis ever to face mankind.
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  3.  22
    Entropy: a new world view.Jeremy Rifkin - 1980 - New York: Viking Press. Edited by Ted Howard.
  4. Entropy - A Guide for the Perplexed.Roman Frigg & Charlotte Werndl - 2011 - In Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann (eds.), Probabilities in Physics. Oxford University Press. pp. 115-142.
    Entropy is ubiquitous in physics, and it plays important roles in numerous other disciplines ranging from logic and statistics to biology and economics. However, a closer look reveals a complicated picture: entropy is defined differently in different contexts, and even within the same domain different notions of entropy are at work. Some of these are defined in terms of probabilities, others are not. The aim of this chapter is to arrive at an understanding of some of the (...)
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  5.  58
    Psychological entropy: A framework for understanding uncertainty-related anxiety.Jacob B. Hirsh, Raymond A. Mar & Jordan B. Peterson - 2012 - Psychological Review 119 (2):304-320.
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  6. Entropy and the Direction of Time.Jerzy Gołosz - 2021 - Entropy 23 (4):388.
    The paper tries to demonstrate that the process of the increase of entropy does not explain the asymmetry of time itself because it is unable to account for its fundamental asymmetries, that is, the asymmetry of traces (we have traces of the past and no traces of the future), the asymmetry of causation (we have an impact on future events with no possibility of having an impact on the past), and the asymmetry between the fixed past and the open (...)
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  7. Entropy and information: Suggestions for common language.Jeffrey S. Wicken - 1987 - Philosophy of Science 54 (2):176-193.
    Entropy and information are both emerging as currencies of interdisciplinary dialogue, most recently in evolutionary theory. If this dialogue is to be fruitful, there must be general agreement about the meaning of these terms. That this is not presently the case owes principally to the supposition of many information theorists that information theory has succeeded in generalizing the entropy concept. The present paper will consider the merits of the generalization thesis, and make some suggestions for restricting both (...) and information to specific arenas of discourse. (shrink)
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  8.  84
    Entropy in evolution.John Collier - 1986 - Biology and Philosophy 1 (1):5-24.
    Daniel R. Brooks and E. O. Wiley have proposed a theory of evolution in which fitness is merely a rate determining factor. Evolution is driven by non-equilibrium processes which increase the entropy and information content of species together. Evolution can occur without environmental selection, since increased complexity and organization result from the likely capture at the species level of random variations produced at the chemical level. Speciation can occur as the result of variation within the species which decreases the (...)
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  9. Logical Entropy: Introduction to Classical and Quantum Logical Information theory.David Ellerman - 2018 - Entropy 20 (9):679.
    Logical information theory is the quantitative version of the logic of partitions just as logical probability theory is the quantitative version of the dual Boolean logic of subsets. The resulting notion of information is about distinctions, differences and distinguishability and is formalized using the distinctions of a partition. All the definitions of simple, joint, conditional and mutual entropy of Shannon information theory are derived by a uniform transformation from the corresponding definitions at the logical level. The purpose of this (...)
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  10.  30
    Maximum Entropy and Probability Kinematics Constrained by Conditionals.Stefan Lukits - 2015 - Entropy 17 (4):1690-1700.
    Two open questions of inductive reasoning are solved: (1) does the principle of maximum entropy (pme) give a solution to the obverse Majerník problem; and (2) is Wagner correct when he claims that Jeffrey’s updating principle (jup) contradicts pme? Majerník shows that pme provides unique and plausible marginal probabilities, given conditional probabilities. The obverse problem posed here is whether pme also provides such conditional probabilities, given certain marginal probabilities. The theorem developed to solve the obverse Majerník problem demonstrates that (...)
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  11. The entropy theory of counterfactuals.Douglas N. Kutach - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (1):82-104.
    I assess the thesis that counterfactual asymmetries are explained by an asymmetry of the global entropy at the temporal boundaries of the universe, by developing a method of evaluating counterfactuals that includes, as a background assumption, the low entropy of the early universe. The resulting theory attempts to vindicate the common practice of holding the past mostly fixed under counterfactual supposition while at the same time allowing the counterfactual's antecedent to obtain by a natural physical development. Although the (...)
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  12.  10
    Entropy, Free Energy, and Symbolization: Free Association at the Intersection of Psychoanalysis and Neuroscience.Thomas Rabeyron & Claudie Massicotte - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Both a method of therapy and an exploration of psychic reality, free association is a fundamental element of psychoanalytical practices that refers to the way a patient is asked to describe what comes spontaneously to mind in the therapeutic setting. This paper examines the role of free association from the point of view of psychoanalysis and neuroscience in order to improve our understanding of therapeutic effects induced by psychoanalytic therapies and psychoanalysis. In this regard, we first propose a global overview (...)
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  13. Entropy.G. J. Whitrow - 1967 - In Paul Edwards (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York: Macmillan.
  14.  63
    Entropy of Polysemantic Words for the Same Part of Speech.Mihaela Colhon, Florentin Smarandache & Dan Valeriu Voinea - unknown
    In this paper, a special type of polysemantic words, that is, words with multiple meanings for the same part of speech, are analyzed under the name of neutrosophic words. These words represent the most dif cult cases for the disambiguation algorithms as they represent the most ambiguous natural language utterances. For approximate their meanings, we developed a semantic representation framework made by means of concepts from neutrosophic theory and entropy measure in which we incorporate sense related data. We show (...)
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    On Entropy Production in the Madelung Fluid and the Role of Bohm’s Potential in Classical Diffusion.Eyal Heifetz, Roumen Tsekov, Eliahu Cohen & Zohar Nussinov - 2016 - Foundations of Physics 46 (7):815-824.
    The Madelung equations map the non-relativistic time-dependent Schrödinger equation into hydrodynamic equations of a virtual fluid. While the von Neumann entropy remains constant, we demonstrate that an increase of the Shannon entropy, associated with this Madelung fluid, is proportional to the expectation value of its velocity divergence. Hence, the Shannon entropy may grow due to an expansion of the Madelung fluid. These effects result from the interference between solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Growth of the Shannon (...) due to expansion is common in diffusive processes. However, in the latter the process is irreversible while the processes in the Madelung fluid are always reversible. The relations between interference, compressibility and variation of the Shannon entropy are then examined in several simple examples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that for classical diffusive processes, the “force” accelerating diffusion has the form of the positive gradient of the quantum Bohm potential. Expressing then the diffusion coefficient in terms of the Planck constant reveals the lower bound given by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in terms of the product between the gas mean free path and the Brownian momentum. (shrink)
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  16.  93
    Horizon Entropy.Ted Jacobson & Renaud Parentani - 2003 - Foundations of Physics 33 (2):323-348.
    Although the laws of thermodynamics are well established for black hole horizons, much less has been said in the literature to support the extension of these laws to more general settings such as an asymptotic de Sitter horizon or a Rindler horizon (the event horizon of an asymptotic uniformly accelerated observer). In the present paper we review the results that have been previously established and argue that the laws of black hole thermodynamics, as well as their underlying statistical mechanical content, (...)
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  17. Entropy and uncertainty.Teddy Seidenfeld - 1986 - Philosophy of Science 53 (4):467-491.
    This essay is, primarily, a discussion of four results about the principle of maximizing entropy (MAXENT) and its connections with Bayesian theory. Result 1 provides a restricted equivalence between the two: where the Bayesian model for MAXENT inference uses an "a priori" probability that is uniform, and where all MAXENT constraints are limited to 0-1 expectations for simple indicator-variables. The other three results report on an inability to extend the equivalence beyond these specialized constraints. Result 2 established a sensitivity (...)
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  18. Gravity, Entropy, and Cosmology: in Search of Clarity.David Wallace - 2010 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (3):513-540.
    I discuss the statistical mechanics of gravitating systems and in particular its cosmological implications, and argue that many conventional views on this subject in the foundations of statistical mechanics embody significant confusion; I attempt to provide a clearer and more accurate account. In particular, I observe that (i) the role of gravity in entropy calculations must be distinguished from the entropy of gravity, that (ii) although gravitational collapse is entropy-increasing, this is not usually because the collapsing matter (...)
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  19.  27
    Entropy and Counterfactual Asymmetry.Douglas Kutach - 2001 - Dissertation, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick
    I assess the thesis that counterfactual asymmetries are explained by an asymmetry of the global entropy at the temporal boundaries of the universe by developing a new semantic element for counterfactuals called objective assertibility and a method of evaluating counterfactuals that constrains consideration to possibilities where the early universe has low entropy. The resulting theory vindicates the common practice of holding the past mostly fixed under counterfactual supposition while at the same time allowing the counterfactual's antecedent to obtain (...)
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  20.  15
    Entropies and the Anthropocene crisis.Maël Montévil - 2021 - AI and Society:1-21.
    The Anthropocene crisis is frequently described as the rarefaction of resources or resources per capita. However, both energy and minerals correspond to fundamentally conserved quantities from the perspective of physics. A specific concept is required to understand the rarefaction of available resources. This concept, entropy, pertains to energy and matter configurations and not just to their sheer amount. However, the physics concept of entropy is insufficient to understand biological and social organizations. Biological phenomena display both historicity and systemic (...)
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  21. Entropy, Information and Evolution: New Perspectives on Physical and Biological Evolution.Bruce H. Weber, David J. Depew, James D. Smith & C. Dyke - 1990 - Behavior and Philosophy 18 (2):79-84.
     
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  22.  5
    Entropy and Art: An Essay on Disorder and Order.Rudolf Arnheim - 1971 - Berkeley,: University of California Press.
    This essay is an attempt to reconcile the disturbing contradiction between the striving for order in nature and in man and the principle of entropy implicit in the second law of thermodynamics - between the tendency toward greater organization and the general trend of the material universe toward death and disorder.
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  23.  32
    Entropy in Relation to Incomplete Knowledge.Michael J. Zenzen - 1985 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book is about an important issue which has arisen within two of the branches of physical science - namely thermodynamics and statistical mechanics - where the notion of entropy plays an essential role. A number of scientists and information theorists have maintained that entropy is a subjective concept and is a measure of human ignorance. Such a view, if it is valid, would create some profound philosophical problems and would tend to undermine the objectivity of the scientific (...)
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  24.  34
    The Entropy Law and the Economic Process.L. A. Boland - 1976 - Synthese 33 (2):371-391.
  25. Entropy a New World View /by Jeremy Rifkin with Ted Howard ; Afterword by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen. --. --.Jeremy Rifkin & Ted Howard - 1980 - Viking Press, 1980.
  26.  65
    Entropy and Art: An Essay on Disorder and Order.Rudolf Arnheim - 1973 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 32 (2):280-281.
    This essay is an attempt to reconcile the disturbing contradiction between the striving for order in nature and in man and the principle of entropy implicit in the second law of thermodynamics - between the tendency toward greater organization and the general trend of the material universe toward death and disorder.
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    Entropy and Chemical Substance.Robin Findlay Hendry - 2010 - Philosophy of Science 77 (5):921-932.
    In this essay I critically examine the role of entropy of mixing in articulating a macroscopic criterion for the sameness and difference of chemical substances. Consider three cases of mixing in which entropy change occurs: isotopic variants, spin isomers, and populations of atoms in different orthogonal quantum states. Using these cases I argue that entropy of mixing tracks differences between physical states, differences that may or may not correspond to a difference of substance. It does not provide (...)
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  28.  79
    Entropy and information in evolving biological systems.Daniel R. Brooks, John Collier, Brian A. Maurer, Jonathan D. H. Smith & E. O. Wiley - 1989 - Biology and Philosophy 4 (4):407-432.
    Integrating concepts of maintenance and of origins is essential to explaining biological diversity. The unified theory of evolution attempts to find a common theme linking production rules inherent in biological systems, explaining the origin of biological order as a manifestation of the flow of energy and the flow of information on various spatial and temporal scales, with the recognition that natural selection is an evolutionarily relevant process. Biological systems persist in space and time by transfor ming energy from one state (...)
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    Is entropy relevant to the asymmetry between retrodiction and prediction?Martin Barrett & Elliott Sober - 1992 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 43 (2):141-160.
    The idea that the changing entropy of a system is relevant to explaining why we know more about the system's past than about its future has been criticized on several fronts. This paper assesses the criticisms and clarifies the epistemology of the inference problem. It deploys a Markov process model to investigate the relationship between entropy and temporally asymmetric inference.
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    Entropy and Insufficient Reason: A Note on the Judy Benjamin Problem.Anubav Vasudevan - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 71 (3):1113-1141.
    One well-known objection to the principle of maximum entropy is the so-called Judy Benjamin problem, first introduced by van Fraassen. The problem turns on the apparently puzzling fact that, on the basis of information relating an event’s conditional probability, the maximum entropy distribution will almost always assign to the event conditionalized on a probability strictly less than that assigned to it by the uniform distribution. In this article, I present an analysis of the Judy Benjamin problem that can (...)
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    The Entropy-Limit (Conjecture) for $$Sigma _2$$ Σ 2 -Premisses.Jürgen Landes - 2020 - Studia Logica 109 (2):1-20.
    The application of the maximum entropy principle to determine probabilities on finite domains is well-understood. Its application to infinite domains still lacks a well-studied comprehensive approach. There are two different strategies for applying the maximum entropy principle on first-order predicate languages: applying it to finite sublanguages and taking a limit; comparing finite entropies of probability functions defined on the language as a whole. The entropy-limit conjecture roughly says that these two strategies result in the same probabilities. While (...)
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    The Entropy-Limit (Conjecture) for $$Sigma _2$$ Σ 2 -Premisses.Jürgen Landes - 2020 - Studia Logica 109 (2):423-442.
    The application of the maximum entropy principle to determine probabilities on finite domains is well-understood. Its application to infinite domains still lacks a well-studied comprehensive approach. There are two different strategies for applying the maximum entropy principle on first-order predicate languages: applying it to finite sublanguages and taking a limit; comparing finite entropies of probability functions defined on the language as a whole. The entropy-limit conjecture roughly says that these two strategies result in the same probabilities. While (...)
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  33. Maximising entropy efficiently.Jon Williamson - 2002
    Recommended citation: . . Link¨ oping Electronic Articles in Computer and Information Science, Vol. 7(2002): nr 0. http://www.ep.liu.se/ea/cis/2002/00/. September 18, 2002. </div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-WILMEE"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/thermodynamics-and-statistical-mechanics' rel='section'>Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-physical-science' rel='section'>Philosophy of Physical Science</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" class='outLink' href="https://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=WILMEE&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fkar.kent.ac.uk%2F7376%2F"><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> <a href='/rec/WILMEE'>(2 more)</a>   <div id="la-WILMEE" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('WILMEE')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-WILMEE" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Bookmark this publication" class="ll" onclick="showLists('WILMEE','')"><i class="fa fa-bookmark"></i> Bookmark<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/WILMEE"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 3 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-WILMEE"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eBAUCEI-2' onclick="ee('click','BAUCEI-2')" onmouseover="ee('over','BAUCEI-2')" onmouseout="ee('out','BAUCEI-2')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/BAUCEI-2#analytics'><span style='color:#109D49'>83 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a href="/rec/BAUCEI-2"><span class='articleTitle recTitle'>Characterizing <span class='Hi'>Entropy</span> in Statistical Physics and in Quantum Information Theory.</span></a><a class='discreet' title="View other works by Bernhard Baumgartner" href="/s/Bernhard%20Baumgartner"><span class='name'>Bernhard Baumgartner</span></a> - <span class="pubYear">2014</span> - <span class='pubInfo'> <i class='pubName'>Foundations of Physics</i> 44 (10):1107-1123.</span></span><span class='toggle' style='display:none' data-target='extras'>details</span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">A new axiomatic characterization with a minimum of conditions for <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> as a function on the set of states in quantum mechanics is presented. Traditionally unspoken assumptions are unveiled and replaced by proven consequences of the axioms. First the Boltzmann–Planck formula is derived. Building on this formula, using the Law of Large Numbers—a basic theorem of probability theory—the von Neumann formula is deduced. Axioms used in older theories on the foundations are now derived facts. </div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-BAUCEI-2"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/physics-of-information' rel='section'>Physics of Information</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-computing-and-information' rel='section'>Philosophy of Computing and Information</a></div> <div><a class='catName' href='/browse/thermodynamics-and-statistical-mechanics' rel='section'>Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-physical-science' rel='section'>Philosophy of Physical Science</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" class='outLink' href="https://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=BAUCEI-2&proxyId=&u=https%3A%2F%2Fdx.doi.org%2F10.1007%2Fs10701-014-9832-y"><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> <a href='/rec/BAUCEI-2'>(2 more)</a>   <div id="la-BAUCEI-2" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('BAUCEI-2')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-BAUCEI-2" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Bookmark this publication" class="ll" onclick="showLists('BAUCEI-2','')"><i class="fa fa-bookmark"></i> Bookmark<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-BAUCEI-2"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eNORAEQ-2' onclick="ee('click','NORAEQ-2')" onmouseover="ee('over','NORAEQ-2')" onmouseout="ee('out','NORAEQ-2')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/NORAEQ-2#analytics'><span style='color:#109D49'>164 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a href="/rec/NORAEQ-2"><span class='articleTitle recTitle'>Atoms, <span class='Hi'>entropy</span>, quanta: Einstein's miraculous argument of 1905.</span></a><a class='discreet' title="View other works by John D. Norton" href="/s/John D.%20Norton"><span class='name'>John D. Norton</span></a> - <span class="pubYear">2006</span> - <span class='pubInfo'> <i class='pubName'>Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics</i> 37 (1):71-100.</span></span><span class='toggle' style='display:none' data-target='extras'>details</span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">In the sixth section of his light quantum paper of 1905, Einstein presented the miraculous argument, as I shall call it. Pointing out an analogy with ideal gases and dilute solutions, he showed that the macroscopic, thermodynamic properties of high frequency heat radiation carry a distinctive signature of finitely many, spatially localized, independent components and so inferred that it consists of quanta. I describe how Einstein’s other statistical papers of 1905 had already developed and exploited the idea that the ideal<span id="NORAEQ-2-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("NORAEQ-2-abstract2").show();$("NORAEQ-2-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="NORAEQ-2-abstract2" style="display:none"> gas law is another macroscopic signature of finitely many, spatially localized, independent components and that these papers in turn drew on his first two, “worthless” papers of 1901 and 1902 on intermolecular forces. However, while the ideal gas law was a secure signature of independence, it was harder to use as an indicator that there are finitely many components and that they are spatially localized. Further, since his analysis of the ideal gas law depended on the assumption that the number of components was fixed, its use was precluded for heat radiation, whose component quanta vary in number in most processes. So Einstein needed and found another, more powerful signature of discreteness applicable to heat radiation and which indicated all these properties. It used one of the few processes, volume fluctuation, in which heat radiation does not alter the number of quanta. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("NORAEQ-2-abstract2").hide();$("NORAEQ-2-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-NORAEQ-2"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/history-of-quantum-mechanics' rel='section'>History of Quantum Mechanics</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-physical-science' rel='section'>Philosophy of Physical Science</a></div> <div><a class='catName' href='/browse/quantum-mechanics' rel='section'>Quantum Mechanics</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-physical-science' rel='section'>Philosophy of Physical Science</a></div> <div><a class='catName' href='/browse/quantum-statistical-mechanics' rel='section'>Quantum Statistical Mechanics</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-physical-science' rel='section'>Philosophy of Physical Science</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" class='outLink' href="https://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=NORAEQ-2&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fd-scholarship.pitt.edu%2F12560%2F1%2FJDN2006_2.pdf"><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> <a href='/rec/NORAEQ-2'>(13 more)</a>   <div id="la-NORAEQ-2" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('NORAEQ-2')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-NORAEQ-2" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Bookmark this publication" class="ll" onclick="showLists('NORAEQ-2','')"><i class="fa fa-bookmark"></i> Bookmark<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/NORAEQ-2"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 21 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-NORAEQ-2"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eBARMEI-4' onclick="ee('click','BARMEI-4')" onmouseover="ee('over','BARMEI-4')" onmouseout="ee('out','BARMEI-4')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/BARMEI-4#analytics'><span style='color:#109D49'>18 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a href="/rec/BARMEI-4"><span class='articleTitle recTitle'>Maximum <span class='Hi'>Entropy</span> Inference with Quantified Knowledge.</span></a><a class='discreet' title="View other works by Owen Barnett" href="/s/Owen%20Barnett"><span class='name'>Owen Barnett</span></a> & <a class='discreet' title="View other works by Jeff Paris" href="/s/Jeff%20Paris"><span class='name'>Jeff Paris</span></a> - <span class="pubYear">2008</span> - <span class='pubInfo'> <i class='pubName'>Logic Journal of the IGPL</i> 16 (1):85-98.</span></span><span class='toggle' style='display:none' data-target='extras'>details</span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">We investigate uncertain reasoning with quantified sentences of the predicate calculus treated as the limiting case of maximum <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> inference applied to finite domains. </div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-BARMEI-4"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/indifference-principles' rel='section'>Indifference Principles</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-probability' rel='section'>Philosophy of Probability</a></div> <div><a class='catName' href='/browse/maximum-entropy-principles' rel='section'>Maximum Entropy Principles</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-probability' rel='section'>Philosophy of Probability</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" class='outLink' href="https://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=BARMEI-4&proxyId=&u=https%3A%2F%2Fdx.doi.org%2F10.1093%2Fjigpal%2Fjzm028"><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> <a href='/rec/BARMEI-4'>(2 more)</a>   <div id="la-BARMEI-4" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('BARMEI-4')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-BARMEI-4" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Bookmark this publication" class="ll" onclick="showLists('BARMEI-4','')"><i class="fa fa-bookmark"></i> Bookmark<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/BARMEI-4"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 9 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-BARMEI-4"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eSOBEIA-2' onclick="ee('click','SOBEIA-2')" onmouseover="ee('over','SOBEIA-2')" onmouseout="ee('out','SOBEIA-2')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/SOBEIA-2#analytics'><span style='color:#109D49'>86 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a href="/rec/SOBEIA-2"><span class='articleTitle recTitle'><span class='Hi'>Entropy</span> increase and information loss in Markov models of evolution.</span></a><a class='discreet' title="View other works by Elliott Sober" href="/s/Elliott%20Sober"><span class='name'>Elliott Sober</span></a> & <a class='discreet' title="View other works by Mike Steel" href="/s/Mike%20Steel"><span class='name'>Mike Steel</span></a> - <span class="pubYear">2011</span> - <span class='pubInfo'> <i class='pubName'>Biology and Philosophy</i> 26 (2):223-250.</span></span><span class='toggle' style='display:none' data-target='extras'>details</span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">Markov models of evolution describe changes in the probability distribution of the trait values a population might exhibit. In consequence, they also describe how <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> and conditional <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> values evolve, and how the mutual information that characterizes the relation between an earlier and a later moment in a lineage’s history depends on how much time separates them. These models therefore provide an interesting perspective on questions that usually are considered in the foundations of physics—when and why does <span<span id="SOBEIA-2-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("SOBEIA-2-abstract2").show();$("SOBEIA-2-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="SOBEIA-2-abstract2" style="display:none"> class='Hi'>entropy</span> increase and at what rates do changes in <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> take place? They also throw light on an important epistemological question: are there limits on what your observations of the present can tell you about the evolutionary past? (<span class="ll" onclick='$("SOBEIA-2-abstract2").hide();$("SOBEIA-2-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-SOBEIA-2"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/evolutionary-biology-misc' rel='section'>Evolutionary Biology, Misc</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-biology' rel='section'>Philosophy of Biology</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" class='outLink' href="https://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=SOBEIA-2&proxyId=&u=https%3A%2F%2Fdx.doi.org%2F10.1007%2Fs10539-010-9239-x"><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> <a href='/rec/SOBEIA-2'>(4 more)</a>   <div id="la-SOBEIA-2" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('SOBEIA-2')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-SOBEIA-2" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Bookmark this publication" class="ll" onclick="showLists('SOBEIA-2','')"><i class="fa fa-bookmark"></i> Bookmark<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/SOBEIA-2"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 5 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-SOBEIA-2"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eKROEAE-6' onclick="ee('click','KROEAE-6')" onmouseover="ee('over','KROEAE-6')" onmouseout="ee('out','KROEAE-6')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/KROEAE-6#analytics'><span style='color:#109D49'>2 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a href="/rec/KROEAE-6"><span class='articleTitle recTitle'><span class='Hi'>Entropy</span> and Entropic Differences in the Work of Michel Serres.</span></a><a class='discreet' title="View other works by Lilian Kroth" href="/s/Lilian%20Kroth"><span class='name'>Lilian Kroth</span></a> - <span class="pubYear">forthcoming</span> - <span class='pubInfo'> <i class='pubName'>Theory, Culture and Society</i>.</span></span><span class='toggle' style='display:none' data-target='extras'>details</span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">Michel Serres’s philosophy of <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> takes what he famously calls the ‘Northwest Passage’ between the sciences and the humanities. By contextualizing his approach to <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> and affirming the role of a philosophy of difference, this paper explores Serres’s approach by means of ‘entropic differences’. It claims that <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> – or rather, entropies – provide Serres with a paradigmatic case for critical translations between different domains of knowledge. From his early Hermès series, through to The Birth of Physics<span id="KROEAE-6-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("KROEAE-6-abstract2").show();$("KROEAE-6-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="KROEAE-6-abstract2" style="display:none"> and later writings on social and ethical themes, he keeps thermodynamical and informational – or ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ – understandings of <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> apart, while simultaneously exploring their relation. By focusing on the systematic significance of Serres’s ‘entropic difference’, this paper shows how it unfolds not necessarily as an ontological difference but as an operative function between the history and philosophy of science, epistemology, and a theory of negentropic (inter)subjectivity. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("KROEAE-6-abstract2").hide();$("KROEAE-6-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-KROEAE-6">No categories</div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" class='outLink' href="https://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=KROEAE-6&proxyId=&u=https%3A%2F%2Fdx.doi.org%2F10.1177%2F02632764231187593"><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> <a href='/rec/KROEAE-6'>(2 more)</a>   <div id="la-KROEAE-6" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('KROEAE-6')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-KROEAE-6" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Bookmark this publication" class="ll" onclick="showLists('KROEAE-6','')"><i class="fa fa-bookmark"></i> Bookmark<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-KROEAE-6"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eCIEBED' onclick="ee('click','CIEBED')" onmouseover="ee('over','CIEBED')" onmouseout="ee('out','CIEBED')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/CIEBED#analytics'><span style='color:#109D49'>5 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a href="/rec/CIEBED"><span class='articleTitle recTitle'>Brain <span class='Hi'>Entropy</span> During Aging Through a Free Energy Principle Approach.</span></a><a class='discreet' title="View other works by Filippo Cieri" href="/s/Filippo%20Cieri"><span class='name'>Filippo Cieri</span></a>, <a class='discreet' title="View other works by Xiaowei Zhuang" href="/s/Xiaowei%20Zhuang"><span class='name'>Xiaowei Zhuang</span></a>, <a class='discreet' title="View other works by Jessica Z. K. Caldwell" href="/s/Jessica Z. K.%20Caldwell"><span class='name'>Jessica Z. K. Caldwell</span></a> & <a class='discreet' title="View other works by Dietmar Cordes" href="/s/Dietmar%20Cordes"><span class='name'>Dietmar Cordes</span></a> - <span class="pubYear">2021</span> - <span class='pubInfo'> <i class='pubName'>Frontiers in Human Neuroscience</i> 15.</span></span><span class='toggle' style='display:none' data-target='extras'>details</span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">Neural complexity and brain <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> have gained greater interest in recent years. The dynamics of neural signals and their relations with information processing continue to be investigated through different measures in a variety of noteworthy studies. The BEN of spontaneous neural activity decreases during states of reduced consciousness. This evidence has been showed in primary consciousness states, such as psychedelic states, under the name of “the entropic brain hypothesis.” In this manuscript we propose an extension of this hypothesis to<span id="CIEBED-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("CIEBED-abstract2").show();$("CIEBED-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="CIEBED-abstract2" style="display:none"> physiological and pathological aging. We review this particular facet of the complexity of the brain, mentioning studies that have investigated BEN in primary consciousness states, and extending this view to the field of neuroaging with a focus on resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. We first introduce historic and conceptual ideas about <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> and neural complexity, treating the mindbrain as a complex nonlinear dynamic adaptive system, in light of the free energy principle. Then, we review the studies in this field, analyzing the idea that the aim of the neurocognitive system is to maintain a dynamic state of balance between order and chaos, both in terms of dynamics of neural signals and functional connectivity. In our exploration we will review studies both on acute psychedelic states and more chronic psychotic states and traits, such as those in schizophrenia, in order to show the increase of <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> in those states. Then we extend our exploration to physiological and pathological aging, where BEN is reduced. Finally, we propose an interpretation of these results, defining a general trend of BEN in primary states and cognitive aging. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("CIEBED-abstract2").hide();$("CIEBED-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-CIEBED"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/cognitive-sciences' rel='section'>Cognitive Sciences</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" class='outLink' href="https://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=CIEBED&proxyId=&u=https%3A%2F%2Fdx.doi.org%2F10.3389%2Ffnhum.2021.647513"><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> <a href='/rec/CIEBED'>(2 more)</a>   <div id="la-CIEBED" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('CIEBED')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-CIEBED" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Bookmark this publication" class="ll" onclick="showLists('CIEBED','')"><i class="fa fa-bookmark"></i> Bookmark<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/CIEBED"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 2 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-CIEBED"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eKOPEOF' onclick="ee('click','KOPEOF')" onmouseover="ee('over','KOPEOF')" onmouseout="ee('out','KOPEOF')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/KOPEOF#analytics'><span style='color:#109D49'>83 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a href="/rec/KOPEOF"><span class='articleTitle recTitle'><span class='Hi'>Entropy</span> of formulas.</span></a><a class='discreet' title="View other works by Vera Koponen" href="/s/Vera%20Koponen"><span class='name'>Vera Koponen</span></a> - <span class="pubYear">2009</span> - <span class='pubInfo'> <i class='pubName'>Archive for Mathematical Logic</i> 48 (6):515-522.</span></span><span class='toggle' style='display:none' data-target='extras'>details</span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">A probability distribution can be given to the set of isomorphism classes of models with universe {1, ..., n} of a sentence in first-order logic. We study the <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> of this distribution and derive a result from the 0–1 law for first-order sentences. </div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-KOPEOF"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/thermodynamics-and-statistical-mechanics' rel='section'>Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-physical-science' rel='section'>Philosophy of Physical Science</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" class='outLink' href="https://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=KOPEOF&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww2.math.uu.se%2F~vera%2Fresearch%2Fentropy.pdf"><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> <a href='/rec/KOPEOF'>(4 more)</a>   <div id="la-KOPEOF" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('KOPEOF')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-KOPEOF" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Bookmark this publication" class="ll" onclick="showLists('KOPEOF','')"><i class="fa fa-bookmark"></i> Bookmark<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-KOPEOF"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eRUSEAE' onclick="ee('click','RUSEAE')" onmouseover="ee('over','RUSEAE')" onmouseout="ee('out','RUSEAE')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/RUSEAE#analytics'><span style='color:#109D49'>56 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a href="/rec/RUSEAE"><span class='articleTitle recTitle'><span class='Hi'>Entropy</span> and evil.</span></a><a class='discreet' title="View other works by Robert John Russell" href="/s/Robert John%20Russell"><span class='name'>Robert John Russell</span></a> - <span class="pubYear">1984</span> - <span class='pubInfo'> <i class='pubName'>Zygon</i> 19 (4):449-468.</span></span><span class='toggle' style='display:none' data-target='extras'>details</span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">This paper explores a possible relationship between <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> and evil in terms of metaphor. After presenting the various meanings of <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> in classical thermodynamics and statical mechanics, and the Augustinian and Irenaean theodicies, several similarities and dissimilarities between <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> and evil are described. Underlying the concepts of evil and <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> is the assumption that time has a direction. After examining the scientific basis for this assumption, it is hypothesized that, if evil is real in nature, <span<span id="RUSEAE-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("RUSEAE-abstract2").show();$("RUSEAE-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="RUSEAE-abstract2" style="display:none"> class='Hi'>entropy</span> is what one would expect to find at the level of physical processes, and conversely that, if <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> is coupled to a physical arrow of time, one could expect to find dissipative yet catalytic processes in history and religious experience. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("RUSEAE-abstract2").hide();$("RUSEAE-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-RUSEAE"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/evil' rel='section'>Evil</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-religion' rel='section'>Philosophy of Religion</a></div> <div><a class='catName' href='/browse/philosophy-of-religion' rel='section'>Philosophy of Religion</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" class='outLink' href="https://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=RUSEAE&proxyId=&u=https%3A%2F%2Fdx.doi.org%2F10.1111%2Fj.1467-9744.1984.tb00941.x"><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> <a href='/rec/RUSEAE'>(2 more)</a>   <div id="la-RUSEAE" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('RUSEAE')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-RUSEAE" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Bookmark this publication" class="ll" onclick="showLists('RUSEAE','')"><i class="fa fa-bookmark"></i> Bookmark<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/RUSEAE"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 6 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-RUSEAE"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eRUSSEA-8' onclick="ee('click','RUSSEA-8')" onmouseover="ee('over','RUSSEA-8')" onmouseout="ee('out','RUSSEA-8')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/RUSSEA-8#analytics'><span style='color:#109D49'>19 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a href="/rec/RUSSEA-8"><span class='articleTitle recTitle'>Striving, <span class='Hi'>entropy</span>, and meaning.</span></a><a class='discreet' title="View other works by J. S. Russell" href="/s/J. S.%20Russell"><span class='name'>J. S. Russell</span></a> - <span class="pubYear">2020</span> - <span class='pubInfo'> <i class='pubName'>Journal of the Philosophy of Sport</i> 47 (3):419-437.</span></span><span class='toggle' style='display:none' data-target='extras'>details</span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">This paper argues that striving is a cardinal virtue in sport and life. It is an overlooked virtue that is an important component of human happiness and a source of a sense of dignity. The human ps... </div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-RUSSEA-8"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/sporting-virtues' rel='section'>Sporting Virtues</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/social-and-political-philosophy' rel='section'>Social and Political Philosophy</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" class='outLink' href="https://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=RUSSEA-8&proxyId=&u=https%3A%2F%2Fdx.doi.org%2F10.1080%2F00948705.2020.1789987"><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> <a href='/rec/RUSSEA-8'>(3 more)</a>   <div id="la-RUSSEA-8" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('RUSSEA-8')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-RUSSEA-8" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Bookmark this publication" class="ll" onclick="showLists('RUSSEA-8','')"><i class="fa fa-bookmark"></i> Bookmark<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/RUSSEA-8"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 5 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-RUSSEA-8"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eSCHAEO-4' onclick="ee('click','SCHAEO-4')" onmouseover="ee('over','SCHAEO-4')" onmouseout="ee('out','SCHAEO-4')" class='entry'><span class="citation"><a href="/rec/SCHAEO-4"><span class='articleTitle recTitle'>Algorithmic <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> of sets.</span></a><a class='discreet' title="View other works by J. T. Schwartz" href="/s/J. T.%20Schwartz"><span class='name'>J. T. Schwartz</span></a> - <span class="pubYear">unknown</span></span><span class='toggle' style='display:none' data-target='extras'>details</span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">In a previous paper a theory of program size formally identical to information theory was developed. The <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> of an individual finite object was defined to be the size in bits of the smallest program for calculating it. It was shown that this is − log2 of the probability that the object is obtained by means of a program whose successive bits are chosen by flipping an unbiased coin. Here a theory of the <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> of recursively enumerable sets<span id="SCHAEO-4-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("SCHAEO-4-abstract2").show();$("SCHAEO-4-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="SCHAEO-4-abstract2" style="display:none"> of objects is proposed which includes the previous theory as the special case of sets having a single element. The primary concept in the generalized theory is the probability that a computing machine enumerates a given set when its program is manufactured by coin flipping. The <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> of a set is defined to be − log2 of this probability. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("SCHAEO-4-abstract2").hide();$("SCHAEO-4-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-SCHAEO-4"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/thermodynamics-and-statistical-mechanics' rel='section'>Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-physical-science' rel='section'>Philosophy of Physical Science</a></div> </div><div class="options"><div id="la-SCHAEO-4" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('SCHAEO-4')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-SCHAEO-4" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Bookmark this publication" class="ll" onclick="showLists('SCHAEO-4','')"><i class="fa fa-bookmark"></i> Bookmark<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <span class="eMsg" id="msg-SCHAEO-4"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eNORAEQ-3' onclick="ee('click','NORAEQ-3')" onmouseover="ee('over','NORAEQ-3')" onmouseout="ee('out','NORAEQ-3')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/NORAEQ-3#analytics'><span style='color:#109D49'>21 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a href="/rec/NORAEQ-3"><span class='articleTitle recTitle'>Atoms, <span class='Hi'>Entropy</span>, Quanta: Einstein’s Miraculous Argument of 1905.</span></a><a class='discreet' title="View other works by John D. Norton" href="/s/John D.%20Norton"><span class='name'>John D. Norton</span></a> - <span class="pubYear">2005</span> - <span class='pubInfo'> <i class='pubName'>Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics</i> 37 (1):71-100.</span></span><span class='toggle' style='display:none' data-target='extras'>details</span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">In the sixth section of his light quantum paper of 1905, Einstein presented the miraculous argument, as I shall call it. Pointing out an analogy with ideal gases and dilute solutions, he showed that the macroscopic, thermodynamic properties of high-frequency heat radiation carry a distinctive signature of finitely many, spatially localized, independent components and so inferred that it consists of quanta. I describe how Einstein's other statistical papers of 1905 had already developed and exploited the idea that the ideal gas<span id="NORAEQ-3-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("NORAEQ-3-abstract2").show();$("NORAEQ-3-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="NORAEQ-3-abstract2" style="display:none"> law is another macroscopic signature of finitely many, spatially localized, independent components and that these papers in turn drew on his first two, "worthless" papers of 1901 and 1902 on intermolecular forces. However, while the ideal gas law was a secure signature of independence, it was harder to use as an indicator that there are finitely many components and that they are spatially localized. Further, since his analysis of the ideal gas law depended on the assumption that the number of components was fixed, its use was precluded for heat radiation, whose component quanta vary in number in most processes. So Einstein needed and found another, more powerful signature of discreteness applicable to heat radiation and which indicated all these properties. It used one of the few processes, volume fluctuation, in which heat radiation does not alter the number of quanta. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("NORAEQ-3-abstract2").hide();$("NORAEQ-3-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-NORAEQ-3"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/philosophy-of-physical-science' rel='section'>Philosophy of Physical Science</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" class='outLink' href="https://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=NORAEQ-3&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fd-scholarship.pitt.edu%2F12560%2F1%2FJDN2006_2.pdf"><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> <a href='/rec/NORAEQ-3'>(7 more)</a>   <div id="la-NORAEQ-3" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('NORAEQ-3')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-NORAEQ-3" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Bookmark this publication" class="ll" onclick="showLists('NORAEQ-3','')"><i class="fa fa-bookmark"></i> Bookmark<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/NORAEQ-3"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 20 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-NORAEQ-3"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eLEFEIL' onclick="ee('click','LEFEIL')" onmouseover="ee('over','LEFEIL')" onmouseout="ee('out','LEFEIL')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/LEFEIL#analytics'><span style='color:#109D49'>91 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a href="/rec/LEFEIL"><span class='articleTitle recTitle'><span class='Hi'>Entropy</span>, Its Language, and Interpretation.</span></a><a class='discreet' title="View other works by Harvey S. Leff" href="/s/Harvey S.%20Leff"><span class='name'>Harvey S. Leff</span></a> - <span class="pubYear">2007</span> - <span class='pubInfo'> <i class='pubName'>Foundations of Physics</i> 37 (12):1744-1766.</span></span><span class='toggle' style='display:none' data-target='extras'>details</span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">The language of <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> is examined for consistency with its mathematics and physics, and for its efficacy as a guide to what <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> means. Do common descriptors such as disorder, missing information, and multiplicity help or hinder understanding? Can the language of <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> be helpful in cases where <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> is not well defined? We argue in favor of the descriptor spreading, which entails space, time, and energy in a fundamental way. This includes spreading of energy spatially<span id="LEFEIL-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("LEFEIL-abstract2").show();$("LEFEIL-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="LEFEIL-abstract2" style="display:none"> during processes and temporal spreading over accessible microstates states in thermodynamic equilibrium. Various examples illustrate the value of the spreading metaphor. To provide further support for this metaphor’s utility, it is shown how a set of reasonable spreading properties can be used to derive the <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> function. A main conclusion is that it is appropriate to view <span class='Hi'>entropy</span>’s symbol S as shorthand for spreading. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("LEFEIL-abstract2").hide();$("LEFEIL-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-LEFEIL"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/thermodynamics-and-statistical-mechanics' rel='section'>Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-physical-science' rel='section'>Philosophy of Physical Science</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" class='outLink' href="https://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=LEFEIL&proxyId=&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.fisica.unam.mx%2Fpersonales%2Ffj%2Fentropia.pdf"><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> <a href='/rec/LEFEIL'>(4 more)</a>   <div id="la-LEFEIL" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('LEFEIL')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-LEFEIL" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Bookmark this publication" class="ll" onclick="showLists('LEFEIL','')"><i class="fa fa-bookmark"></i> Bookmark<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/LEFEIL"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 4 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-LEFEIL"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eGEOTEL-2' onclick="ee('click','GEOTEL-2')" onmouseover="ee('over','GEOTEL-2')" onmouseout="ee('out','GEOTEL-2')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/GEOTEL-2#analytics'><span style='color:#109D49'>8 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a href="/rec/GEOTEL-2"><span class='articleTitle recTitle'>The <span class='Hi'>Entropy</span> Law and the Economic Process.</span></a><a class='discreet' title="View other works by L. A. Boland" href="/s/L. A.%20Boland"><span class='name'>L. A. Boland</span></a> - <span class="pubYear">1972</span> - <span class='pubInfo'> <i class='pubName'>Philosophy of Science</i> 39 (3):423-424.</span></span><span class='toggle' style='display:none' data-target='extras'>details</span><div class="extras"><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-GEOTEL-2"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/science-logic-and-mathematics' rel='section'>Science, Logic, and Mathematics</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" class='outLink' href="https://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=GEOTEL-2&proxyId=&u=https%3A%2F%2Fdx.doi.org%2F10.1086%2F288463"><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> <a href='/rec/GEOTEL-2'>(2 more)</a>   <div id="la-GEOTEL-2" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('GEOTEL-2')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-GEOTEL-2" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Bookmark this publication" class="ll" onclick="showLists('GEOTEL-2','')"><i class="fa fa-bookmark"></i> Bookmark<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/GEOTEL-2"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 34 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-GEOTEL-2"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eRUSSEA-5' onclick="ee('click','RUSSEA-5')" onmouseover="ee('over','RUSSEA-5')" onmouseout="ee('out','RUSSEA-5')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/RUSSEA-5#analytics'><span style='color:#109D49'>18 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a href="/rec/RUSSEA-5"><span class='articleTitle recTitle'>Striving, <span class='Hi'>entropy</span>, and meaning.</span></a><a class='discreet' title="View other works by J. S. Russell" href="/s/J. S.%20Russell"><span class='name'>J. S. Russell</span></a> - <span class="pubYear">2020</span> - <span class='pubInfo'> <i class='pubName'>Journal of the Philosophy of Sport</i> 47 (3):419-437.</span></span><span class='toggle' style='display:none' data-target='extras'>details</span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">ABSTRACT This paper argues that striving is a cardinal virtue in sport and life. It is an overlooked virtue that is an important component of human happiness and a source of a sense of dignity. The human psychological capacity for striving emerged as a trait for addressing the entropic features of our existence, but it can be engaged and used for other purposes. Sport is one such example. Sport appears exceptional in being designed specifically to test and display our capacities<span id="RUSSEA-5-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("RUSSEA-5-abstract2").show();$("RUSSEA-5-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="RUSSEA-5-abstract2" style="display:none"> to strive. Although striving is connected to pursuit of excellence in sport, it supports a more democratic conception of the value of sport than achievement-oriented perfectionist accounts. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("RUSSEA-5-abstract2").hide();$("RUSSEA-5-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-RUSSEA-5"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/sporting-virtues' rel='section'>Sporting Virtues</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/social-and-political-philosophy' rel='section'>Social and Political Philosophy</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" class='outLink' href="https://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=RUSSEA-5&proxyId=&u=https%3A%2F%2Fdx.doi.org%2F10.1080%2F00948705.2020.1789987"><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> <a href='/rec/RUSSEA-5'>(3 more)</a>   <div id="la-RUSSEA-5" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('RUSSEA-5')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-RUSSEA-5" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Bookmark this publication" class="ll" onclick="showLists('RUSSEA-5','')"><i class="fa fa-bookmark"></i> Bookmark<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/RUSSEA-5"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 5 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-RUSSEA-5"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eARNEAA' onclick="ee('click','ARNEAA')" onmouseover="ee('over','ARNEAA')" onmouseout="ee('out','ARNEAA')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/ARNEAA#analytics'><span style='color:#109D49'>9 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a href="/rec/ARNEAA"><span class='articleTitle pub_name recTitle'><span class='Hi'>Entropy</span> and art.</span></a><a class='discreet' title="View other works by Rudolf Arnheim" href="/s/Rudolf%20Arnheim"><span class='name'>Rudolf Arnheim</span></a> - <span class="pubYear">1971</span> - <span class='pubInfo'> Berkeley,: University of California Press.</span></span><span class='toggle' style='display:none' data-target='extras'>details</span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">Views the process of artistic creation in light of the conflict between man's quest for order and increasing universal disorder. </div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-ARNEAA"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/thermodynamics-and-statistical-mechanics' rel='section'>Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-physical-science' rel='section'>Philosophy of Physical Science</a></div> </div><div class="options"><div class='affiliateLinks'><span class='price_used bargain'><a class='price_used bargain' target="_blank" rel="nofollow" href="https://www.amazon.com/dp/0520266005?tag=philp02-20&linkCode=osi&th=1&psc=1">$12.98 used</a></span>   <span class='price_new'><a class='price_new' target="_blank" rel="nofollow" href="https://www.amazon.com/dp/0520266005?tag=philp02-20&linkCode=osi&th=1&psc=1">$19.91 new</a></span>   <span class='price_amazon'><a class='price_amazon' target="_blank" rel="nofollow" href="https://www.amazon.com/dp/0520266005?tag=philp02-20&linkCode=osi&th=1&psc=1">$24.95 from Amazon </a></span>   <a href="https://www.amazon.com/dp/0520266005?tag=philp02-20&linkCode=osi&th=1&psc=1"> View on Amazon.com</a></div><a rel="nofollow" class='outLink' href="https://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=ARNEAA&proxyId=&u=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DkL75af7hbXsC%26printsec%3Dfront_cover"><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a>   <div id="la-ARNEAA" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('ARNEAA')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-ARNEAA" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Bookmark this publication" class="ll" onclick="showLists('ARNEAA','')"><i class="fa fa-bookmark"></i> Bookmark<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/ARNEAA"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 6 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-ARNEAA"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eNORPEA' onclick="ee('click','NORPEA')" onmouseover="ee('over','NORPEA')" onmouseout="ee('out','NORPEA')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/NORPEA#analytics'><span style='color:#109D49'>42 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a href="/rec/NORPEA"><span class='articleTitle recTitle'>Physical <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> and the senses.</span></a><a class='discreet' title="View other works by Kenneth H. Norwich" href="/s/Kenneth H.%20Norwich"><span class='name'>Kenneth H. Norwich</span></a> - <span class="pubYear">2005</span> - <span class='pubInfo'> <i class='pubName'>Acta Biotheoretica</i> 53 (3):167-180.</span></span><span class='toggle' style='display:none' data-target='extras'>details</span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">With reference to two specific modalities of sensation, the taste of saltiness of chloride salts, and the loudness of steady tones, it is shown that the laws of sensation (logarithmic and power laws) are expressions of the <span class='Hi'>entropy</span> per mole of the stimulus. That is, the laws of sensation are linear functions of molar <span class='Hi'>entropy</span>. In partial verification of this hypothesis, we are able to derive an approximate value for the gas constant, a fundamental physical constant, directly from<span id="NORPEA-absexp"> (<span class="ll" onclick='$("NORPEA-abstract2").show();$("NORPEA-absexp").hide()'>...</span>)</span><span id="NORPEA-abstract2" style="display:none"> psychophysical measurements. The significance of our observation lies in the linking of the phenomenon of “sensation” directly to a physical measure. It suggests that if the laws of physics are universal, the laws of sensation and perception are similarly universal. It also connects the sensation of a simple, steady physical signal with the molecular structure of the signal: the greater the number of microstates or complexions of the stimulus signal, the greater the magnitude of the sensation (saltiness or loudness). The hypothesis is currently tested on two sensory modalities. (<span class="ll" onclick='$("NORPEA-abstract2").hide();$("NORPEA-absexp").show();'>shrink</span>)</span></div><div class="catsCon" id="ecats-con-NORPEA"><div><a class='catName' href='/browse/sensation-and-perception' rel='section'>Sensation and Perception</a><span class='catIn'> in </span><a class='catArea' href='/browse/philosophy-of-mind' rel='section'>Philosophy of Mind</a></div> </div><div class="options"><a rel="nofollow" class='outLink' href="https://philpapers.org/go.pl?id=NORPEA&proxyId=&u=https%3A%2F%2Fdx.doi.org%2F10.1007%2Fs10441-005-2526-2"><i class="fa fa-download"></i> Direct download</a> <a href='/rec/NORPEA'>(2 more)</a>   <div id="la-NORPEA" title="Export to another format" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span class="ll" onclick="showExports('NORPEA')"><i class="fa fa-external-link"></i> Export citation<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>   <div id="ml-NORPEA" class="yui-skin-sam ldiv"> </div><span title="Bookmark this publication" class="ll" onclick="showLists('NORPEA','')"><i class="fa fa-bookmark"></i> Bookmark<img src="/philpapers/raw/subind.gif"></span>  <a href="/citations/NORPEA"><i class="fa fa-share-alt"></i> 3 citations</a>   <span class="eMsg" id="msg-NORPEA"></span></div></div></li> <li id='eWATOEO' onclick="ee('click','WATOEO')" onmouseover="ee('over','WATOEO')" onmouseout="ee('out','WATOEO')" class='entry'><div style='float:right' class='subtle'> <a href='/rec/WATOEO#analytics'><span style='color:#109D49'>16 <i class="fa fa-download"></i></span></a></div><span class="citation"><a href="/rec/WATOEO"><span class='articleTitle recTitle'>On <span class='Hi'>Entropy</span> of Quantum Compound Systems.</span></a><a class='discreet' title="View other works by Noboru Watanabe" href="/s/Noboru%20Watanabe"><span class='name'>Noboru Watanabe</span></a> - <span class="pubYear">2015</span> - <span class='pubInfo'> <i class='pubName'>Foundations of Physics</i> 45 (10):1311-1329.</span></span><span class='toggle' style='display:none' data-target='extras'>details</span><div class="extras"><div class="abstract">We review some notions for general quantum entropies. 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