Results for 'equity'

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  1. X Equity, Arrow S Conditions, and Rawls's Difference Principlei Peter J. Hammond.Arrow S. Conditions Equity - 1979 - In Frank Hahn & Martin Hollis (eds.), Philosophy and Economic Theory. Oxford University Press. pp. 44--4.
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  2.  2
    Equity and Choice an Essay in Economics and Applied Philosophy.Julian Le Grand - 1991 - Routledge.
    Offering a new answer to an age-old problem: the meaning of a just or equitable distribution of resources, Julian Le Grand examines the principal interpretations of equity used by economists and political philosophers. He argues that none captures the essence of the term as well as an alternative conception relating equity to the existence or otherwise of individual choice. Le Grand shows that this conception is not only philosophically well-grounded but is also directly relevant to key areas of (...)
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  3. Efficiency, Equity, and Price Gouging: A Response to Zwolinski.Jeremy Snyder - 2009 - Business Ethics Quarterly 19 (2):303-306.
    In this response, I reiterate my argument that price gouging undercuts the goal of equity in access to essential goods whereas Zwolinski emphasizes the importance of the efficient provision of essential goods above all other goals. I agree that the efficient provision of essential goods is important as I argue for the goal of equitable access to sufficient of the goods essential to living a minimally flourishing human life. However, efficiency is a means to this goal rather than the (...)
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  4.  56
    Engineering Equity: How AI Can Help Reduce the Harm of Implicit Bias.Ying-Tung Lin, Tzu-Wei Hung & Linus Ta-Lun Huang - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (1):65-90.
    This paper focuses on the potential of “equitech”—AI technology that improves equity. Recently, interventions have been developed to reduce the harm of implicit bias, the automatic form of stereotype or prejudice that contributes to injustice. However, these interventions—some of which are assisted by AI-related technology—have significant limitations, including unintended negative consequences and general inefficacy. To overcome these limitations, we propose a two-dimensional framework to assess current AI-assisted interventions and explore promising new ones. We begin by using the case of (...)
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  5.  27
    Health Equity in Public Health: Clarifying Our Commitment.Maxwell J. Smith - 2015 - Public Health Ethics 8 (2):173-184.
    Health equity is increasingly identified as a principal goal to be achieved through public health policies and activities. However, what is to be measured in the assessment of health equity and how inequities in health ought to be redressed are among the pressing questions that must be answered if health equity is to serve as a meaningful and consistent ethical guide for measurement and intervention in public health. In this article I argue that the concept of health (...)
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  6.  39
    Private Equity and the Public Good.Kevin Morrell & Ian Clark - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 96 (2):249 - 263.
    The dominance of agency theory can reduce our collective scope to analyse private equity in all its diversity and depth. We contribute to theorisation of private equity by developing a contrasting perspective that draws on a rich tradition of virtue ethics. In doing so, we juxtapose 'private equity' with 'public good' to develop points of rhetorical and analytical contrast. We develop a typology differentiating various forms of private equity, and focus on the 'take private' form. These (...)
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  7.  29
    Ethics, Equity and the Economics of Climate Change Paper 2: Economics and Politics.Nicholas Stern - 2014 - Economics and Philosophy 30 (3):445-501.
    Both intertemporal and intratemporal equity are central to the examination of policy towards climate change. However, many discussions of intertemporal issues have been marred by serious analytical errors, particularly in applying standard approaches to discounting; the errors arise, in part, from paying insufficient attention to the magnitude of potential damages, and in part from overlooking problems with market information. Some of the philosophical concepts and principles of Paper 1 are applied to the analytics and ethics of pure-time discounting and (...)
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  8. Gender Equity Within the Couple – a Postmodern Approach.Alexandra Huidu - 2022 - Postmodern Openings 13 (2):550-553.
    This paper is a book review of the volume Bărbatul și femeia. Imaginea unei polemici cu privire la echitatea de gen [The man and the woman. The image of a controversy over gender equity], authored by Iulian Apostu and Cristina Petrescu and published by Lumen Publishing House from Iași, Romania, in 2017. The book addresses issues like the psycho-social dynamic of the marital couple, the emancipation of women within the couple, solidarity and conflict between men and women, while placing (...)
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  9. Health Equity and Social Justice.Fabienne Peter - 2001 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 18 (2):159–170.
    There is consistent and strong empirical evidence for social inequalities in health, as a vast and fast growing literature shows. In recent years, these findings have helped to move health equity high on international research and policy agendas. This paper examines how the empirical identification of social inequalities in health relates to a normative judgment about health inequities and puts forward an approach which embeds the pursuit of health equity within the general pursuit of social justice. It defends (...)
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  10.  32
    Obesity, Equity and Choice.Timothy M. Wilkinson - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (5):323-328.
    Obesity is often considered a public health crisis in rich countries that might be alleviated by preventive regulations such as a sugar tax or limiting the density of fast food outlets. This paper evaluates these regulations from the point of view of equity. Obesity is in many countries correlated with socioeconomic status and some believe that preventive regulations would reduce inequity. The puzzle is this: how could policies that reduce the options of the badly off be more equitable? Suppose (...)
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  11. On Equity and Inequity in Thomas Hobbes's Dialogue.Thomas A. Corbin - forthcoming - Wiley: The Southern Journal of Philosophy.
    The Southern Journal of Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  12.  76
    Equity and Population Health: Toward a Broader Bioethics Agenda.Norman Daniels - 2006 - Hastings Center Report 36 (4):22-35.
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  13.  19
    Promoting Equity and Preventing Exploitation in International Research: The Aims, Work, and Output of the TRUST Project.Julie Cook, Kate Chatfield & Doris Schroeder - 2018 - In Zvonimir Koporc (ed.), Ethics and Integrity in Health and Life Sciences Research (Advances in Research Ethics and Integrity, Volume 4). Emerald Publishing Limited. pp. 11-31.
    Achieving equity in international research is one of the pressing concerns of the twenty-first century. In this era of progressive globalization, there are many opportunities for the deliberate or accidental export of unethical research practices from high-income regions to low- and middle-income countries and emerging economies. The export of unethical practices, termed “ethics dumping,” may occur through all forms of research and can affect individuals, communities, countries, animals, and the environment. Ethics dumping may be the result of purposeful exploitation (...)
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  14.  61
    Equity and Excellence in Research Funding.Diana Hicks & J. Sylvan Katz - 2011 - Minerva 49 (2):137-151.
    The tension between equity and excellence is fundamental in science policy. This tension might appear to be resolved through the use of merit-based evaluation as a criterion for research funding. This is not the case. Merit-based decision making alone is insufficient because of inequality aversion, a fundamental tendency of people to avoid extremely unequal distributions. The distribution of performance in science is extremely unequal, and no decision maker with the power to establish a distribution of public money would dare (...)
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  15.  11
    Equity Incentives and Corporate Fraud in China.Lars Helge Hass, Monika Tarsalewska & Feng Zhan - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 138 (4):723-742.
    This paper explores how managers’ and supervisors’ equity incentives impact the likelihood of committing corporate fraud in Chinese-listed firms. Previous research has shown that corporate fraud in China is a widespread phenomenon and has severe consequences for affected firms and executives. However, our understanding of the reasons that fraud is committed in a Chinese setting has been very limited thus far. This is an increasingly important topic, because corporate governance is rapidly changing in China, and it is unclear whether (...)
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  16.  49
    Ethics, Equity and the Economics of Climate Change Paper 1: Science and Philosophy.Nicholas Stern - 2014 - Economics and Philosophy 30 (3):397-444.
    This paper examines a broad range of ethical perspectives and principles relevant to the analysis of issues raised by the science of climate change and explores their implications. A second and companion paper extends this analysis to the contribution of ethics, economics and politics in understanding policy towards climate change. These tasks must start with the science which tells us that this is a problem of risk management on an immense scale. Risks on this scale take us far outside the (...)
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  17.  3
    Promoting Equity with a Multi-Principle Framework to Allocate Scarce ICU Resources.Douglas White & Bernard Lo - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (2):133-135.
    We wholeheartedly agree with Schmidt and colleagues’ efforts to promote equity in intensive care unit triage. We also take issue with their characterisation of the New Jersey allocation framework for ICU beds and ventilators, which is modelled after the multi-principle allocation framework we developed early in the pandemic. They characterise it as a two-criterion allocation framework and claim—without evidence—that it will ‘compound disadvantage for black patients’. However, the NJ triage framework—like the model allocation policy we developed—actually contains four allocation (...)
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  18.  48
    Equity in Health Care From a Communitarian Standpoint.Megan Black & Gavin Mooney - 2002 - Health Care Analysis 10 (2):193-208.
    Equity in health and health care is animportant issue. It has been proposed that thepursuit of equity in health care is beinghampered by the dominance of individualism inhealth care practices. This paper explores theway in which communitarian ideals and practicesmight lend themselves to the pursuit of equity.Communitarians acknowledge, respect and fosterthe bonds that unite and identify communities.The paper argues that, to achieve equity inhealth care, these bonds need to be recognisedand harnessed rather than ignored. The notionof (...)
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  19.  40
    ‘Health Equity Through Action on the Social Determinants of Health’: Taking Up the Challenge in Nursing.Linda Reutter & Kaysi Eastlick Kushner - 2010 - Nursing Inquiry 17 (3):269-280.
  20.  43
    Equity in Public Health Ethics: The Case of Menu Labelling Policy at the Local Level.Catherine L. Mah & Carol Timmings - 2015 - Public Health Ethics 8 (1):85-89.
    Menu labelling is a public health policy intervention that applies principles of nutrition labelling to the eating out environment. While menu labelling has received a good deal of attention with regard to its effectiveness in shaping food choices for obesity prevention, its premises have not yet been fully explored in terms of its broader applications to social equity and population health. In the following case, we focus on the example of menu labelling within the context of food policy at (...)
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  21.  28
    Evaluating Equity Critiques in Food Policy: The Case of Sugar‐Sweetened Beverages.Anne Barnhill & Katherine F. King - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (1):301-309.
    Many anti-obesity policies face a variety of ethical objections. We consider one kind of anti-obesity policy — modifications to food assistance programs meant to improve participants' diet — and one kind of criticism of these policies, that they are inequitable. We take as our example the recent, unsuccessful effort by New York State to exclude sweetened beverages from the items eligible for purchase in New York City with Supplemental Nutrition Support Program assistance. We distinguish two equity-based ethical objections that (...)
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  22.  23
    Does Religion Matter to Equity Pricing?Sadok El Ghoul, Omrane Guedhami, Yang Ni, Jeffrey Pittman & Samir Saadi - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 111 (4):491-518.
    For a sample comprising 36,105 U.S. firm-year observations from 1985 to 2008, we find that firms located in more religious counties enjoy cheaper equity financing costs. This result is robust to a battery of sensitivity tests, including alternative assumptions and model specifications, additional controls for noise in analyst forecasts, and various approaches to addressing endogeneity. In another set of tests, we find that the equity pricing role that religion plays comes predominantly from Mainline Protestants. We also document that (...)
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  23.  5
    Does Equity Ownership Matter for Corporate Social Responsibility? A Literature Review of Theories and Recent Empirical Findings.Dodo zu Knyphausen-Aufseß & Christian Faller - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 150 (1):15-40.
    Based on the concept of shareholder primacy, many scholars have argued that it is more important for businesses to earn profits for their shareholders than to provide benefits to society at large. Corporate social responsibility is often regarded as an investment that comes at the expense of shareholders. In contrast, research analyzing the connections between the equity ownership structure of a company and its level of CSR engagement suggests that CSR offers benefits to shareholders that go beyond direct financial (...)
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  24.  18
    Equity - Some Theory and its Policy Implications.A. J. Culyer - 2001 - Journal of Medical Ethics 27 (4):275-283.
    This essay seeks to characterise the essential features of an equitable health care system in terms of the classical Aristotelian concepts of horizontal and vertical equity, the common language of “need” and the economic notion of cost-effectiveness as a prelude to identifying some of the more important issues of value that policy-makers will have to decide for themselves; the characteristics of health that can cause policy to be ineffective ; the information base that is required to support a policy (...)
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  25.  11
    Does Equity Ownership Matter for Corporate Social Responsibility? A Literature Review of Theories and Recent Empirical Findings.Christian M. Faller & Dodo zu Knyphausen-Aufseß - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 150 (1):15-40.
    Based on the concept of shareholder primacy, many scholars have argued that it is more important for businesses to earn profits for their shareholders than to provide benefits to society at large. Corporate social responsibility is often regarded as an investment that comes at the expense of shareholders. In contrast, research analyzing the connections between the equity ownership structure of a company and its level of CSR engagement suggests that CSR offers benefits to shareholders that go beyond direct financial (...)
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  26.  18
    Equity and Preventive Regulations.Elizabeth Fenton - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (5):329-330.
    In ‘Obesity, equity and choice’, Timothy Wilkinson argues that preventive regulations to address obesity, such as taxes on sugary drinks, are at worst inequitable and at best fail to increase or improve equity. He concludes that we do not yet have good reasons to adopt them. I argue that equity considerations are not as problematic for preventive regulations as Wilkinson suggests.
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  27.  5
    Equity, Participation, and Power: Achieving Health Justice Through Deep Democracy.Ben Palmquist - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (3):393-410.
    This article explores how health governance has evolved into an enormously complicated—and inequitable and exclusionary—system of privatized, fragmented bureaucracy, and argues for addressing these deficiencies and promoting health justice by radically deepening democratic participation to rebalance decision-making power. It presents a framework for promoting four primary outcomes from health governance: universality, equity, democratic control, and accountability, which together define health justice through deep democracy. It highlights five mechanisms that hold potential to bring this empowered participatory mode of governance into (...)
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  28.  8
    Incentives, Equity and the Able Chooser Problem.Kalle Grill - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (3):157-161.
    Health incentive schemes aim to produce healthier behaviors in target populations. They may do so both by making incentivized options more salient and by making them less costly. Changes in costs only result in healthier behavior if the individual rationally assesses the cost change and acts accordingly. Not all people do this well. Those that fail to respond rationally to incentives will typically include those who are least able to make prudent choices more generally. This group will typically include the (...)
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  29. Equity and Mercy.Martha C. Nussbaum - 1993 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 22 (2):83-125.
  30.  69
    Equity and Nuclear Waste Disposal.Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 1994 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7 (2):133-156.
    Following the recommendations of the US National Academy of Sciences and the mandates of the 1987 Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act, the US Department of Energy has proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site of the world's first permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste. The main justification for permanent disposal (as opposed to above-ground storage) is that it guarantees safety by means of waste isolation. This essay argues, however, that considerations of equity (safer for whom?) undercut the safety rationale. (...)
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  31. Health Equity and Social Justice.Fabienne Peter - 2006 - In Sudhir Anand, Fabienne Peter & Amartya Sen (eds.), Public Health, Ethics, and Equity. Oxford University Press.
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  32.  42
    Vertical Equity in Health Care Resource Allocation.Gavin Mooney - 2000 - Health Care Analysis 8 (3):203-215.
    This paper introduces this mini-series on vertical equity in health care. It reflects on the fact that by and large equity policies in health care have failed and that there is a need for positive discriminationto promote equity better in future. This positive discrimination is examined under the heading of`vertical equity'. The paper considers Varian's notion of 'envy' as a basis for equity in health care but concludes that this is not a helpful route to (...)
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  33.  97
    Need, Equity, and Accountability – Evidence on Third-Party Distributive Decisions From an Online Experiment.Alexander Max Bauer, Frauke Meyer, Jan Romann, Mark Siebel & Stefan Traub - manuscript
    We report the results of a vignette experiment with a quota sample of the German population in which we analyze the interplay between need, equity, and accountability in third-party distributive decisions. We asked subjects to divide firewood between two hypothetical persons who either differ in their need for heat or in their productivity in terms of their ability to chop wood. The experiment systematically varies the persons’ accountability for their neediness as well as for their productivity. We find that (...)
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  34.  13
    Gender Equity and Corporate Social Responsibility in a Post-Feminist Era.Lindsay J. Thompson - 2008 - Business Ethics: A European Review 17 (1):87-106.
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  35.  27
    Equity in Nursing Care: A Grounded Theory Study.Zahra Rooddehghan, Zohreh ParsaYekta & Alireza N. Nasrabadi - 2019 - Nursing Ethics 26 (2):598-610.
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  36.  94
    Equity Versus Efficiency: The Elusive Trade-Off.Julian Le Grand - 1990 - Ethics 100 (3):554-.
  37. Public Health, Ethics, and Equity.Sudhir Anand (ed.) - 2004 - Oxford University Press UK.
    In the last fifty years, average overall health status has increased more or less in parallel with a much celebrated decline in mortality, attributed mostly to poverty reduction, sanitation, nutrition, housing, immunization, and improved medical care. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that these achievements were not equally distributed. In most countries, while some social groups have benefited significantly, the situation of others has stagnated or may even have worsened.If health is a prerequisite to a person functioning as an agent, (...)
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  38.  18
    Gender Equity and Corporate Social Responsibility in a Post-Feminist Era.Lindsay J. Thompson - 2008 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 17 (1):87–106.
  39.  31
    Does Ethical Image Build Equity in Corporate Services Brands? The Influence of Customer Perceived Ethicality on Affect, Perceived Quality, and Equity.Vicenta Sierra, Oriol Iglesias, Stefan Markovic & Jatinder Jit Singh - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 144 (3):661-676.
    In the current socioeconomic environment, brands increasingly need to portray societal and ethical commitments at a corporate level, in order to remain competitive and improve their reputation. However, studies that relate business ethics to corporate brands are either purely conceptual or have been empirically conducted in relation to the field of products/goods. This is surprising because corporate brands are even more relevant in the services sector, due to the different nature of services, and the subsequent need to provide a consistent (...)
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  40. Brand Equity Planning with Structuralist Rhetorical Semiotics.George Rossolatos - 2014 - Kassel: Kassel University Press.
    Brand Equity Planning with Structuralist Rhetorical Semiotics furnishes an innovative conceptual model and methodology for brand equity planning, with view to addressing a crucial gap in the marketing and semiotic literatures concerning how advertising multimodal textual elements may be transformed into brand associations, with an emphasis on rhetorical relata as modes of connectivity between a brand’s surface and depth grammar. The scope of this project is inter-disciplinary, spanning research areas such as brand equity, structuralist semiotics, textual semiotics, (...)
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  41.  14
    Revisiting the Equity Debate in COVID-19: ICU is No Panacea.Angela Ballantyne, Wendy A. Rogers, Vikki Entwistle & Cindy Towns - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (10):641-645.
    Throughout March and April 2020, debate raged about how best to allocate limited intensive care unit resources in the face of a growing COVID-19 pandemic. The debate was dominated by utility-based arguments for saving the most lives or life-years. These arguments were tempered by equity-based concerns that triage based solely on prognosis would exacerbate existing health inequities, leaving disadvantaged patients worse off. Central to this debate was the assumption that ICU admission is a valuable but scarce resource in the (...)
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  42.  11
    Equity and Conscience.Mike Macnair - 2007 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 27 (4):659-681.
    This article argues that the peculiarly ‘common law tradition’ separation of common law and equity had at its origins a principled basis in the concept of ‘conscience’. But ‘conscience’ here did not mean primarily either the modern lay idea, or the ‘conscience’ of Christopher St German's exposition. Rather, it referred to the judge's, and the defendant's, private knowledge of facts which could not be proved at common law because of medieval common law conceptions of documentary evidence and of trial (...)
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  43.  41
    Gender Equity, Organizational Transformation and Challenger.Mark Maier - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (9):943-962.
    The concept of the "unlevel playing field" is critiqued for its tendency to take the prevailing masculinist managerial paradigm for granted. Rather than assume that both men and women should assimilate to corporate masculinity, feminist alternatives are suggested. The pervasiveness of the masculine ethic and the "myth of meritocracy" in organizations are reviewed, with the space shuttle Challenger disaster serving as a focal point to demonstrate the dysfunctionality of masculine management and the rationale for feminist-based organizational transformation to promote not (...)
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  44.  31
    Equity and Need When Waiting for Total Hip Replacement Surgery.Ray Fitzpatrick, Josephine M. Norquist, Barnaby C. Reeves, Richard W. Morris, David W. Murray & Paul J. Gregg - 2004 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 10 (1):3-9.
  45.  4
    Intergenerational Equity and Sustainability.John Roemer & Kotaro Suzumura (eds.) - 2007 - Palgrave Publishers.
    This book takes a unique and compreheisve look at intergenerational equity and sustainability.
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  46.  17
    Access, Equity and the Role of Rights in Health Care.Chris Newdick & Sarah Derrett - 2006 - Health Care Analysis 14 (3):157-168.
    Modern health care rhetoric promotes choice and individual patient rights as dominant values. Yet we also accept that in any regime constrained by finite resources, difficult choices between patients are inevitable. How can we balance rights to liberty, on the one hand, with equity in the allocation of scarce resources on the other? For example, the duty of health authorities to allocate resources is a duty owed to the community as a whole, rather than to specific individuals. Macro-duties of (...)
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  47.  51
    Ethics, Equity, and Social Justice in the New Economic Order: Using Financial Information for Keeping Social Score.Appa Rao Korukonda & Chenchu Ramaiah T. Bathala - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 54 (1):1-15.
    In the present world order unbridled forces of free market capitalism are frequently cited for much of the social injustice, inequity, and disparity of wealth between the rich and the poor. Although history''s verdict in favor of the free markets could hardly be harsher or clearer, it is clear that after the initial wave of triumph, the free market paradigm has developed some cracks in its façade. What marks the trail of such sustained and pronounced move toward free markets in (...)
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  48.  1
    Advancing Equity and Achievement in America's Diverse Schools: Inclusive Theories, Policies, and Practices.Camille M. Wilson & Sonya Douglass Horsford (eds.) - 2013 - Routledge.
    _Advancing Equity and Achievement in America’s Diverse Schools _illustrates how educators, students, families and community partners can work in strategic ways to build on social, cultural, and ethnic diversity to advance educational equity and achievement. By drawing on the latest data on demographic change, constructions of culture and cultural difference, and the politics of school reform in urban, rural, and suburban school communities, this volume looks toward solutions and strategies for meaningful educational improvement. Contributors consider both the diversity (...)
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  49. “If Equity's In, We're Out”: Scope for Fairness in the Next Global Climate Agreement.Jonathan Pickering, Steve Vanderheiden & Seumas Miller - 2012 - Ethics and International Affairs 26 (4):423-443.
    At the United Nations climate change conference in 2011, parties decided to launch the “Durban Platform” to work towards a new long-term climate agreement. The decision was notable for the absence of any reference to “equity”, a prominent principle in all previous major climate agreements. Wealthy countries resisted the inclusion of equity on the grounds that the term had become too closely yoked to developing countries’ favored conception of equity. This conception, according to wealthy countries, exempts developing (...)
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  50. What is Equity in Education? Reflections From the Capability Approach.Elaine Unterhalter - 2009 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 28 (5):415-424.
    While there is a substantial conceptual literature on equality in education, there has been little clarificatory discussion on the term equity, despite its frequent use in policy and planning documents. The article draws out some different ways in which equity can be understood in education. It distinguishes three forms of equity, looking at the social context when major shifts in the meaning of the term took place in English—the fourteenth century, the sixteenth century and the eighteenth century. (...)
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