Results for 'evolution'

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  1. Editorial offices: The eugenics society■ 69 eccleston square■ london• swi• Victoria 2091.Society'S. Evolution - 1964 - The Eugenics Review 56:1.
     
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  2. Population, Des maladies dites «de civilisation», etc. Ne pourront PAS.Tendances Êvolutives des Systèmes Éducatifs - 1975 - Paideia 4:31.
     
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  3.  30
    Evolution without naturalism.Elliott Sober - 2013 - In L. Kvanvig Jonathan (ed.), Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion. Oxford University Press. pp. 187-221.
    God and numbers provide two challenges to metaphysical naturalism–the former if God exists and is a supernatural being, the latter if numbers exist and mathematical Platonism is true. Evolutionary theory is often described as having a commitment to naturalism, but this is doubly wrong. The theory is neutral on the question of whether God exists and mathematical evolutionary theory entails that numbers exist. The chapter develops the point about theistic neutrality by considering what evolutionary biologists mean when they say that (...)
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  4.  27
    The Evolution of Moral Progress. A Biocultural Theory.Allan Buchanan & Russel Powell - 2019 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 73 (1):161-164.
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  5. L'Évolution Créatrice.Henri Bergson - 1912 - International Journal of Ethics 22 (4):462-467.
     
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  6. Development, evolution, and adaptation.Kim Sterelny - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):387.
    In this paper I develop three conceptions of the relationship between evolutionary and developmental biology. I further argue that: (a) the choice between them largely turns on as yet unresolved empirical considerations; (b) none of these conceptions demand a fundamental conceptual reevaluation of evolutionary biology; and (c) while developmental systems theorists have constructed an important and innovative alternative to the standard view of the genotype/phenotype relations, in considering the general issue of the relationship between evolutionary and developmental biology, we can (...)
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  7.  15
    The Evolution of Color Vision without Colors.Richard J. Hall - 1996 - Philosophy of Science 63 (S3):S125-S133.
    The standard adaptationist explanation of the presence of a sensory mechanism in an organism—that it detects properties useful to the organism—cannot be given for color vision. This is because colors do not exist. After arguing for this latter claim, I consider, but reject, nonadaptationist explanations. I conclude by proposing an explanation of how color vision could have adaptive value even though it does not detect properties in the environment.
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  8.  53
    Toward a science of other minds: Escaping the argument by analogy.Cognitive Evolution Group, Since Darwin, D. J. Povinelli, J. M. Bering & S. Giambrone - 2000 - Cognitive Science 24 (3):509-541.
    Since Darwin, the idea of psychological continuity between humans and other animals has dominated theory and research in investigating the minds of other species. Indeed, the field of comparative psychology was founded on two assumptions. First, it was assumed that introspection could provide humans with reliable knowledge about the causal connection between specific mental states and specific behaviors. Second, it was assumed that in those cases in which other species exhibited behaviors similar to our own, similar psychological causes were at (...)
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  9.  14
    Discussion. Evolution, Wisconsin style: selection and the explanation of individual traits.M. Matthen - 1999 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (1):143-150.
    natural selection may show why all (most, some) humans have an opposable thumb, but cannot show why any particular human has one, Karen Neander ([1995a], [1995b]) argues that this is false because natural selection is 'cumulative'. It is argued here, on grounds independent of its cumulativity, that selection can explain the characteristics of individual organisms subsequent to the event. The difference of opinion between Sober and his critics turns on an ontological dispute about how organisms are identified and individuated. The (...)
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  10. L'Évolution Créatrice.Henri Bergson - 1908 - Mind 17 (67):402-408.
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  11.  22
    Die biosoziale evolution.Nicolás Kusnezov - 1957 - Acta Biotheoretica 12 (2):59-70.
    The term biosocial evolution refers to mutual relations between different organisms and specially to functional systems composed of individuals belonging to a species , or to two or more different species .The main features of the biosocial evolutioni.e. historical development of the functional systems of biosocial order are: 1. functional differentiation of the individual components of corresponding systems, 2. coordination of the differentiated functions and as a result, 3. the intergration of this systems as functional wholes.The tropical rain forest (...)
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  12.  14
    The evolution of research participant as partner: the seminal contributions of Bob Veatch.Christine Grady - 2022 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 43 (4):267-276.
    Well before patient-centered or patient-controlled research became trendy, and earlier than calls to preferentially refer to research subjects as participants, Bob Veatch wrote “The Patient as Partner” Veatch presciently argued that research patients should not be thought of as passive subjects nor material from which to obtain data, but rather as partners in discovery. In this manuscript, I will explore Veatch’s conception of patient as partner in research and how that idea has evolved and been implemented over time and consider (...)
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  13.  21
    Evolution of Students’ Varied Conceptualizations About Socially Responsible Engineering: A Four Year Longitudinal Study.Greg Rulifson & Angela R. Bielefeldt - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (3):939-974.
    Engineers should learn how to act on their responsibility to society during their education. At present, however, it is unknown what students think about the meaning of socially responsible engineering. This paper synthesizes 4 years of longitudinal interviews with engineering students as they progressed through college. The interviews revolved broadly around how students saw the connections between engineering and social responsibility, and what influenced these ideas. Using the Weidman Input–Environment–Output model as a framework, this research found that influences included required (...)
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  14.  56
    Consciousness, evolution, and spiritual growth: A critique and model.Allan Combs & Stanley Krippner - 1999 - World Futures 53 (3):193-212.
  15.  25
    The Evolution of the Term "Mixed Mathematics".Gary I. Brown - 1991 - Journal of the History of Ideas 52 (1):81-102.
  16.  40
    Tempo and Mode in Evolution: Punctuated Equilibria and the Modern Synthetic Theory.Paul Thompson - 1983 - Philosophy of Science 50 (3):432 - 452.
    Several paleontologists have recently challenged the explanatory adequacy of the modern synthetic theory of evolution. Their position is that, contrary to the prevailing view that evolutionary change is gradual, the fossil record manifests long periods of species stasis (equilibrium) punctuated by periods of rapid species formation. And, they argue, this punctuated equilibria pattern challenges the gradualist, adaptationist and extrapolationist assumptions of the modern synthetic theory of evolution and supports a hierarchical, non-extrapolationist (non-reductionist) view of evolution. In this (...)
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  17.  27
    The Evolution of William Rowan Hamilton's Views of Algebra as the Science of Pure Time.John Hendry - 1984 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 15 (1):63.
  18.  7
    The evolution of hemostatic mechanisms.Oscar D. Ratnoff - 1987 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 31 (1):4.
  19.  6
    The Evolution of Cooperative Strategies for Asymmetric Social Interactions.J. Rieskamp & P. M. Todd - 2006 - Theory and Decision 60 (1):69-111.
    How can cooperation be achieved between self-interested individuals in commonly-occurring asymmetric interactions where agents have different positions? Should agents use the same strategies that are appropriate for symmetric social situations? We explore these questions through the asymmetric interaction captured in the indefinitely repeated investment game (IG). In every period of this game, the first player decides how much of an endowment he wants to invest, then this amount is tripled and passed to the second player, who finally decides how much (...)
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  20.  37
    Lamarck, evolution, and the politics of science.Richard W. Burkhardt - 1970 - Journal of the History of Biology 3 (2):275-298.
  21. Against "Revolution" and "Evolution".Jonathan Hodge - 2005 - Journal of the History of Biology 38 (1):101 - 121.
    Those standard historiographic themes of "evolution" and "revolution" need replacing. They perpetuate mid-Victorian scientists' history of science. Historians' history of science does well to take in the long run from the Greek and Hebrew heritages on, and to work at avoiding misleading anachronism and teleology. As an alternative to the usual "evo-revo" themes, a historiography of origins and species, of cosmologies (including microcosmogonies and macrocosmogonies) and ontologies, is developed here. The advantages of such a historiography are illustrated by looking (...)
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  22.  5
    II.—Evolution and Contingency.J. C. McKerrow - 1927 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 27 (1):21-40.
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  23.  23
    The Evolution of Playfulness, Play and Play-Like Phenomena in Relation to Sexual Selection.Yago Luksevicius Moraes, Jaroslava Varella Valentova & Marco Antonio Correa Varella - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    By conceptualizing Sexual Selection, Darwin showed a way to analyze intra-specific individual differences within an evolutionary perspective. Interestingly, Sexual Selection is often used to investigate the origins of sports, arts, humor, religion and other phenomena that, in several languages, are simply called “play.” Despite their manifested differences, these phenomena rely on shared psychological processes, including playfulness. Further, in such behaviors there is usually considerable individual variability, including sex differences, and positive relationship with mating success. However, Sexual Selection is rarely applied (...)
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  24.  7
    L’Evolution des pôles de la communication: L’idée de publicité à travers l’histoire de l’affiche.Geneviève Cornu - 1987 - Semiotica 63 (3-4):269-298.
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  25.  10
    Dynamic evolution: a study of the causes of evolution and degeneracy.L. Doncaster - 1915 - The Eugenics Review 7 (2):137.
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  26. Evolution in Christian ethics.Percy Gardner - 1918 - London,: Williams & Norgate.
     
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  27.  13
    Evolution and Democracy: Talcott Parsons and the Collapse of Eastern European Regimes.Nicos Mouzelis - 1993 - Theory, Culture and Society 10 (1):145-151.
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  28. Surveying Evolution.Nicholas Rasmussen - 1994 - Metascience 5:55-60.
     
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  29. Evolution: Fact? Theory?... or Just a Theory?Ronald Reagan - 1983 - In J. Peter Zetterberg (ed.), Evolution versus Creationism: the public education controversy. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press. pp. 29.
     
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  30. The Evolution of Culture: The Development of Civilization to the Fall of Rome.Leslie A. White - 1960 - Science and Society 24 (4):371-373.
     
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  31.  17
    The evolution of cooperation in hostile environments.William Harms - 2000 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (1-2):1-2.
    Skyrms describes how evolutionary models are helping us understand unselfish or cooperative behaviour in humans and animals. Mechanisms which can stabilize cooperative behaviour are sensitive to population densities, however. This creates the need for agent-based evolutionary models which depict individual interactions, spatial locations, and stochastic effects. One such model suggests that hostile environments may provide conditions conducive to the emergence and stabilization of cooperative behaviour. In particular, simulations show that random extinctions can keep population densities low, provide ongoing colonization opportunities, (...)
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  32.  19
    The Formation and Evolution of Interorganisational Business Networks in Megaprojects: A Case Study of Chinese Skyscrapers.Yujie Lu, Wei Wei, Yongkui Li, Zhilei Wu & Hao Jin - 2020 - Complexity 2020:1-17.
    Megaprojects are implemented by different organisations, such as owners, consultants, and contractors. Gradually, these organisations and their connections can form business networks that influence both the market position of individual organisations and project performance. Previous research on large-scale projects mainly focused on static and homogeneous networks that were constructed by one individual project and/or carried out over one-off collaboration. However, this neglected the consideration of project network diversity, as well as repetitive, dynamic, cross-project coopetition relationship and long-term business networks formed (...)
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  33.  10
    Evolution of the display of high technologies and social networks in the «terminator» universe in 1984-2022.К. В Каспарян, М. В Рутковская & А. С Линец - 2023 - Philosophical Problems of IT and Cyberspace (PhilITandC) 2:33-52.
    The article is devoted to a comprehensive analysis of the transformation of the reflection of computer technologies and network resources in the Terminator cinematic and literary universe created by the American director J. Cameron in the mid 1980s and early 2020s. In this study the authors substantiate the relevance and scientific component of the problem under study. The paper considers the degree of importance of high technologies and social networks in modern public life. The article provides a justification for the (...)
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  34.  6
    Evolution, Creationism, and Fairness: Equal Time in the Biology Classroom?Bryan R. Warnick - 2009 - Philosophy of Education 65:305-313.
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  35. Evolution of mathematical thought.Herbert Meschkowski - 1965 - San Francisco,: Holden-Day.
  36.  10
    L'Evolution Pedagogique en France. I.L'Evolution Pedagogique en France. II.M. L. Hulse, Emile Durkheim & Maurice Halbwachs - 1940 - Philosophical Review 49 (3):372.
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  37.  35
    Taking Evolution Seriously.Maxine Sheets-Johnstone - 1992 - American Philosophical Quarterly 29 (4):343 - 352.
  38. Cultural evolution : integration and scepticism.Tim Lewens - 2012 - In Harold Kincaid (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science. Oxford University Press.
  39.  10
    The Evolution of Trust(worthiness) in the Net.Werner Güth & Hartmut Kliemt - 2004 - Analyse & Kritik 26 (1):203-219.
    The main results of our indirect evolutionary approach to trust in large interactions suggest that trustworthiness must be detectable if good conduct in trust-relationships is to survive. According to theoretical reasoning there is a niche then for an organization offering a (possibly) costly service of keeping track of the conduct of participants on the net. We compare traits of an organizational design as suggested by economic reasoning with those that actually emerged and ask whether institutions like eBay will increasingly have (...)
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  40.  7
    The evolution of puritanical morality has not always served to strengthen cooperation, but to reinforce male dominance and exclude women.Konrad Szocik - 2023 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 46:e316.
    Puritanical morality regulates a range of seemingly insignificant behaviors, including those involving human sexuality. A sizable portion of the latter particularly burdens women, who are held responsible for the moral conduct of men. In my paper, I show that these norms have not necessarily served to evolve cooperation, but to subjugate and eliminate women from public life.
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  41.  6
    Interlude: Evolution and the Human Sciences.Stephen Toulmin - 2000 - In John Offer (ed.), Herbert Spencer: critical assessments. New York: Routledge. pp. 2--90.
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  42.  18
    The Evolution of the Epistemic Self.Colin Tyler - 1998 - Bradley Studies 4 (2):175-194.
    British Idealists sought to come to terms with, amongst many other things, the existence of knowledge and the development of the evolutionary and geological sciences such as they were expressed in the writings of the likes of Herbert Spencer, George Lewes and William Clifford. Different British Idealists held different attitudes to scientific evolutionary theories. Here, I shall examine the approach of the most profound member of the school — Thomas Hill Green.
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  43.  21
    L’évolution d’Aristote, etude d’histoire de la problématique philosophiqe.D. H. Th Vollenhoven - 1953 - Proceedings of the XIth International Congress of Philosophy 12:86-90.
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  44. The evolution of science.Eduardo Wilner - 2001 - Biology and Philosophy 16 (2):261-271.
  45. The Evolution of the Notion of Ultimate Reality and Meaning in the Thought of Tibor Horvath, SJ.John F. Perry - 2008 - Ultimate Reality and Meaning 31 (2-3):123-131.
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  46.  9
    L'évolution du statut de la connaissance dans le traité du serf-arbitre de Luther.Charles T. Wolfe & Fabrice Stroun - 2003 - Archives de Philosophie 2 (2):279-302.
    By examining the relation between knowledge, faith and will in Luther’s Bondage of the Will, our aim is to show how he delimits a space corresponding to modern « self-consciousness », which he however defines as a space of pure passivity, of heteronomy in relation to the divine Law rather than autonomy of reason or the will. This passivity which is nevertheless a source of spontaneitycorresponds to the condition Luther describes as « simultaneously justified and a sinner ».
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  47.  18
    The evolution of values from instincts.William K. Wright - 1915 - Philosophical Review 24 (2):165-183.
  48.  29
    Evolution and Religion.T. E. Yoch - 1933 - Modern Schoolman 10 (2):45-45.
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  49.  13
    Forgetting Machines: Knowledge Management Evolution in Early Modern Europe.Alberto Cevolini - 2016 - Brill.
    _Forgetting Machines. Knowledge Management Evolution in Early Modern Europe_ investigates the evolution of scholarly practices and the transformation of cognitive habits in the early modern age, focussing on the development of note-taking systems and data storage devices.
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  50. Compositionality and Linguistic Evolution.Simon Kirby & Kenny Smith - 2012 - In Markus Werning, Wolfram Hinzen & Edouard Machery (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Compositionality. Oxford University Press.
    The productivity of language is subserved by two structural properties: language is recursive, which allows the creation of an infinite number of utterances, and language is compositional, which makes the interpretation of novel utterances possible. A potential explanation for the linkage between the functional properties of compositionality and the compositional structure of language is that this fit arose through cultural, rather than biological, evolution. In order to argue that the compositional structure of language is a product of cultural (...), it is assumed that language is compositional, socially learned, and therefore culturally transmitted. A well-established solution to the problem of linkage in biological systems is that of evolution by natural selection: adaptation. Compositionality can be explained as a cultural adaptation by language to the problem of transmission through a learning bottleneck. (shrink)
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