Results for 'evolution, experience, Samuel Butler, Darwinism, Lamarckism, vagueness, vitalism, variation, heredity, metaphysics, metaphorics'

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  1.  39
    Was Samuel Butler Mainly Right About Evolution?Murray Code - 2013 - Cosmos and History 9 (1):73-100.
    Samuel Butler, a contemporary critic of Charles Darwin, proffered an alternative, vitalistic account of evolution. At the same time, he put into question all modern naturalistic treatments of this fundamental idea which presuppose that evolution is mainly a scientific problem. On the contrary, Butler in effect insists, this extremely vague idea calls for not an `explanation' but rather a fairly comprehensive, plausible story that helps elucidate an inherently complex idea. Butler can thus be read as outlining an anthropomorphic (...) that evokes a living Cosmos wherein it might be possible to do justice to the problem which Darwin left unresolved---the problem of heredity. In this picture of the Cosmos Butler links the fundamental notion of organization not to the allegedly universal and immutable `laws of nature,' as the moderns would have it, but rather to dynamically evolving relationships between only more or less stable habits. The variations in extant habits that emergence elicits are moreover the products of quasi-intelligent responses to new challenges from the environment. For Butler follows Lamarck in holding that all organisms possess powers capable of responding to felt needs and/or desires to make alterations in the habits (or instincts) that characterize their modes of existence. He thus in the end effectively bequeaths to his readers a challenge to extend and amplify, if possible, his outline of a promising metaphysical imaginary that can take into account some highly unorthodox conjectures. Normal 0 false false false EN-AU X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";}. (shrink)
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  2.  4
    Was Samuel Butler Mainly Right About Evolution? Part I.Murray Code - 2013 - Cosmos and History : The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 9 (1):73-100.
    Samuel Butler, a contemporary critic of Charles Darwin, proffered an alternative, vitalistic account of evolution. At the same time, he put into question all modern naturalistic treatments of this fundamental idea which presuppose that evolution is mainly a scientific problem. On the contrary, Butler in effect insists, this extremely vague idea calls for not an `explanation' but rather a fairly comprehensive, plausible story that helps elucidate an inherently complex idea. Butler can thus be read as outlining an anthropomorphic (...) that evokes a living Cosmos wherein it might be possible to do justice to the problem which Darwin left unresolved---the problem of heredity. In this picture of the Cosmos Butler links the fundamental notion of organization not to the allegedly universal and immutable `laws of nature,' as the moderns would have it, but rather to dynamically evolving relationships between only more or less stable habits. The variations in extant habits that emergence elicits are moreover the products of quasi-intelligent responses to new challenges from the environment. For Butler follows Lamarck in holding that all organisms possess powers capable of responding to felt needs and/or desires to make alterations in the habits that characterize their modes of existence. He thus in the end effectively bequeaths to his readers a challenge to extend and amplify, if possible, his outline of a promising metaphysical imaginary that can take into account some highly unorthodox conjectures. (shrink)
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  3.  21
    How Right Was Samuel Butler About Evolution? Part II: Why Evolution is Really a Problem for the Humanities.Murray Code - 2014 - Cosmos and History 10 (2):92-120.
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  4.  12
    Making Heredity Matter: Samuel Butler’s Idea of Unconscious Memory.Cristiano Turbil - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (1):7-29.
    Butler’s idea of evolution was developed over the publication of four books, several articles and essays between 1863 and 1890. These publications, although never achieving the success expected by Butler, proposed a psychological elaboration of evolution, called ‘unconscious memory’. This was strongly in contrast with the materialistic approach suggested by Darwin’s natural selection. Starting with a historical introduction, this paper aspires to ascertain the logic, meaning and significance of Butler’s idea of ‘unconscious memory’ in the post-Darwinian physiological and psychological Pan-European (...)
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  5. Précis of Evolution in Four Dimensions.Eva Jablonka & Marion J. Lamb - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (4):353-365.
    In his theory of evolution, Darwin recognized that the conditions of life play a role in the generation of hereditary variations, as well as in their selection. However, as evolutionary theory was developed further, heredity became identified with genetics, and variation was seen in terms of combinations of randomly generated gene mutations. We argue that this view is now changing, because it is clear that a notion of hereditary variation that is based solely on randomly varying genes that are unaffected (...)
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  6.  28
    Evolution Beyond Biology: Examining the Evolutionary Economics of Nelson and Winter.Eugene Earnshaw - 2011 - Biological Theory 6 (4):301-310.
    Nelson and Winter’s An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change (1982) was the foundational work of what has become the thriving sub-discipline of evolutionary economics. In attempting to develop an alternative to neoclassical economics, the authors looked to borrow basic ideas from biology, in particular a concept of economic “natural selection.” However, the evolutionary models they construct in their seminal work are in many respects quite different from the models of evolutionary biology. There is no reproduction in any usual sense, “mutation” (...)
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  7.  56
    The Case of Paul Kammerer: Evolution and Experimentation in the Early 20th Century. [REVIEW]Sander Gliboff - 2006 - Journal of the History of Biology 39 (3):525 - 563.
    To some, a misguided Lamarckian and a fraud, to others a martyr in the fight against Darwinism, the Viennese zoologist Paul Kammerer (1880-1926) remains one of the most controversial scientists of the early 20th century. Here his work is reconsidered in light of turn-of-the-century problems in evolutionary theory and experimental methodology, as seen from Kammerer's perspective in Vienna. Kammerer emerges not as an opponent of Darwinism, but as one would-be modernizer of the 19th-century theory, which had included a role for (...)
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  8. Darwinism Extended: A Survey of How the Idea of Cultural Evolution Evolved.Chris Buskes - 2013 - Philosophia 41 (3):661-691.
    In the past 150 years there have been many attempts to draw parallels between cultural and biological evolution. Most of these attempts were flawed due to lack of knowledge and false ideas about evolution. In recent decades these shortcomings have been cleared away, thus triggering a renewed interest in the subject. This paper offers a critical survey of the main issues and arguments in that discussion. The paper starts with an explication of the Darwinian algorithm of evolution. It is argued (...)
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  9.  16
    Molecular Lamarckism: On the Evolution of Human Intelligence.Fredric M. Menger - 2017 - World Futures 73 (2):89-103.
    In modern times, Lamarck's view of evolution, based on inheritance of acquired traits has been superseded by neo-Darwinism, based on random DNA mutations. This article begins with a series of observations suggesting that Lamarckian inheritance is in fact operative throughout Nature. I then launch into a discussion of human intelligence that is the most important feature of human evolution that cannot be easily explained by mutational selection. Thus, we are smarter than demanded by our evolutionary experience as hunter-gatherers. The difficulty (...)
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  10.  10
    Freud’s Lamarckism’ and the Politics of Racial Science.Eliza Slavet - 2008 - Journal of the History of Biology 41 (1):37 - 80.
    This article re-contextualizes Sigmund Freud's interest in the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics in terms of the socio-political connotations of Lamarckism and Darwinism in the 1930s and 1950s. Many scholars have speculated as to why Freud continued to insist on a supposedly outmoded theory of evolution in the 1930s even as he was aware that it was no longer tenable. While Freud's initial interest in the inheritance of phylogenetic memory was not necessarily politically motivated, his refusal to abandon (...)
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  11.  9
    Samuel Butler: Sobre a Mente Consciente Na Natureza.Manuel Curado - 2010 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 66 (4):931 - 944.
    Samuel Butler foi um dos primeiros autores a compreender que o evolucionismo de Darwin precisa de ser completado com urna reflexão sobre a evolução das máquinas. Esta comunicação procura mostrar como a reflexão sobre a evolução das máquinas é importante para compreender um aspecto difícil da teona da evolução de Darwin: a evolução da mente senciente. Sāo os seguintes os aspectos a abordar nesta comunicação: a dificuldade em distinguir entre humano e máquina; a consciência surge na natureza a partir (...)
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  12.  11
    Heredity and Eugenics. A Course of Lectures Summarising Recent Advances in Knowledge in Variation, Heredity, and Evolution and its Relation to Plant, Animal, and Human Improvement and Welfare.L. Doncaster - 1913 - The Eugenics Review 4 (4):398.
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  13.  14
    Recent Progress in the Study of Variation, Heredity, and Evolution.Walter Garstang - 1909 - The Eugenics Review 1 (3):210.
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  14.  5
    William Keith Brooks and the Naturalist’s Defense of Darwinism in the Late-Nineteenth Century.Richard Nash - 2015 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 37 (2):158-179.
    William Keith Brooks was an American zoologist at Johns Hopkins University from 1876 until his death in 1908. Over the course of his career, Brooks staunchly defended Darwinism, arguing for the centrality of natural selection in evolutionary theory at a time when alternative theories, such as neo-Lamarckism, grew prominent in American biology. In his book The Law of Heredity, Brooks addressed problems raised by Darwin’s theory of pangenesis. In modifying and developing Darwin’s pangenesis, Brooks proposed a new theory of heredity (...)
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  15.  29
    Evolution in Four Dimensions: Genetic, Epigenetic, Behavioral, and Symbolic Variation in the History of Life.Eva Jablonka, Marion J. Lamb & Anna Zeligowski - 2005 - Bradford.
    Ideas about heredity and evolution are undergoing a revolutionary change. New findings in molecular biology challenge the gene-centered version of Darwinian theory according to which adaptation occurs only through natural selection of chance DNA variations. In Evolution in Four Dimensions, Eva Jablonka and Marion Lamb argue that there is more to heredity than genes. They trace four "dimensions" in evolution -- four inheritance systems that play a role in evolution: genetic, epigenetic, behavioral, and symbolic. These systems, they argue, can all (...)
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  16. Evolution, Old & New.Samuel Butler - 1924 - New York: American Mathematical Society.
     
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  17. The Evolution of Vagueness.Cailin O'Connor - 2013 - Erkenntnis (S4):1-21.
    Vague predicates, those that exhibit borderline cases, pose a persistent problem for philosophers and logicians. Although they are ubiquitous in natural language, when used in a logical context, vague predicates lead to contradiction. This paper will address a question that is intimately related to this problem. Given their inherent imprecision, why do vague predicates arise in the first place? I discuss a variation of the signaling game where the state space is treated as contiguous, i.e., endowed with a metric that (...)
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  18.  69
    Lamarckism and Epigenetic Inheritance: A Clarification.Laurent Loison - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (3-4):29.
    Since the 1990s, the terms “Lamarckism” and “Lamarckian” have seen a significant resurgence in biological publications. The discovery of new molecular mechanisms have been interpreted as evidence supporting the reality and efficiency of the inheritance of acquired characters, and thus the revival of Lamarckism. The present paper aims at giving a critical evaluation of such interpretations. I argue that two types of arguments allow to draw a clear distinction between the genuine Lamarckian concept of inheritance of acquired characters and transgenerational (...)
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  19.  10
    Book Reviews : Between Experience and Metaphysics: Philosophical Problems of the Evolution of Science. By Stefan Amsterdamski. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Volume 35. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publ. Co. $22.00. [REVIEW]Christopher Prendergast - 1977 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 7 (4):410-412.
  20.  11
    Testing the “(Neo-)Darwinian” Principles Against Reticulate Evolution: How Variation, Adaptation, Heredity and Fitness, Constraints and Affordances, Speciation, and Extinction Surpass Organisms and Species.Nathalie Gontier - 2020 - Information 11 (7):352.
    Variation, adaptation, heredity and fitness, constraints and affordances, speciation, and extinction form the building blocks of the (Neo-)Darwinian research program, and several of these have been called “Darwinian principles.” Here, we suggest that caution should be taken in calling these principles Darwinian because of the important role played by reticulate evolutionary mechanisms and processes in also bringing about these phenomena. Reticulate mechanisms and processes include symbiosis, symbiogenesis, lateral gene transfer, infective heredity mediated by genetic and organismal mobility, and hybridization. Because (...)
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  21. Darwin in the Twenty-First Century.Phillip R. Sloan, Gerald McKenny & Kathleen Eggleson (eds.) - 2015 - University of Notre Dame Press.
    Preface Phillip R. Sloan, Gerald McKenny, Kathleen Eggleson pp. xiii-xviii In November of 2009, the University of Notre Dame hosted the conference “Darwin in the Twenty-First Century: Nature, Humanity, and God.‘ Sponsored primarily by the John J. Reilly Center for Science, Technology, and Values at Notre Dame, and the Science, Theology, and the Ontological Quest project within the Vatican Pontifical... 1. Introduction: Restructuring an Interdisciplinary Dialogue Phillip R. Sloan pp. 1-32 Almost exactly fifty years before the Notre Dame conference, the (...)
     
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  22.  4
    The Appearance of Lamarckism in the Evolution of Culture.John Wilkins - 2001 - In J. Laurent & J. Nightingale (eds.), Darwinism and Evolutionary Economics. Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar. pp. 160-183.
  23.  21
    The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication.Charles Darwin - 1868 - Johns Hopkins University Press.
    The publication of Darwin's On the Origin of Species in 1859 ignited a public storm he neither wanted nor enjoyed. Having offered his book as a contribution to science, Darwin discovered to his dismay that it was received as an affront by many scientists and as a sacrilege by clergy and Christian citizens. To answer the criticism that his theory was a theory only, and a wild one at that, he published two volumes in 1868 to demonstrate that evolution was (...)
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  24.  35
    The Metaphysics of Evolution.David L. Hull - 1989 - State University of New York Press.
    Extreme variation in the meaning of the term “species” throughout the history of biology has often frustrated attempts of historians, philosophers and biologists to communicate with one another about the transition in biological thinking from the static species concept to the modern notion of evolving species. The most important change which has underlain all the other fluctuations in the meaning of the word “species” is the change from it denoting such metaphysical entities as essences, Forms or Natures to denoting classes (...)
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  25.  26
    The Metaphysics of Evolution.David L. Hull - 1967 - British Journal for the History of Science 3 (4):309-337.
    Extreme variation in the meaning of the term “species” throughout the history of biology has often frustrated attempts of historians, philosophers and biologists to communicate with one another about the transition in biological thinking from the static species concept to the modern notion of evolving species. The most important change which has underlain all the other fluctuations in the meaning of the word “species” is the change from it denoting such metaphysical entities as essences, Forms or Natures to denoting classes (...)
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  26. Between Experience and Metaphysics: Philosophical Problems of the Evolution of Science.Stefan Amsterdamski - 1975 - D. Reidel Pub. Co..
     
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  27.  18
    "Between Experience and Metaphysics: Philosophical Problems of the Evolution of Science," by Stefan Amsterdamski, Trans. P. Michalowski.Richard J. Blackwell - 1977 - Modern Schoolman 54 (2):202-202.
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  28.  8
    Between Social and Biological Heredity: Cope and Baldwin on Evolution, Inheritance, and Mind.David Ceccarelli - 2019 - Journal of the History of Biology 52 (1):161-194.
    In the years of the post-Darwinian debate, many American naturalists invoked the name of Lamarck to signal their belief in a purposive and anti-Darwinian view of evolution. Yet Weismann’s theory of germ-plasm continuity undermined the shared tenet of the neo-Lamarckian theories as well as the idea of the interchangeability between biological and social heredity. Edward Drinker Cope, the leader of the so-called “American School,” defended his neo-Lamarckian philosophy against every attempt to redefine the relationship between behavior, development, and heredity beyond (...)
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  29.  20
    The Economic Concept of Evolution: Self-Organization or Universal Darwinism?Sylvie Geisendorf - 2009 - Journal of Economic Methodology 16 (4):377-391.
    Somewhat surprisingly, evolutionary economists are far from agreeing upon the economic concept of evolution. The debate revolves around the question whether the mechanisms of variation, selection and retention are general principles of evolutionary processes, also valid in economics, or if economic evolution can be described by self-organization. The paper argues that self-organization is a useful concept, but has not yet fulfilled the aspiration to describe economic evolution as an endogenous process. In self-organization models important aspects, like novelty generation or the (...)
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  30.  16
    Quantum Deep Learning Triuniverse.Angus McCoss - 2016 - Journal of Quantum Information Science 6 (4).
    An original quantum foundations concept of a deep learning computational Universe is introduced. The fundamental information of the Universe (or Triuniverse)is postulated to evolve about itself in a Red, Green and Blue (RGB) tricoloured stable self-mutuality in three information processing loops. The colour is a non-optical information label. The information processing loops form a feedback-reinforced deep learning macrocycle with trefoil knot topology. Fundamental information processing is driven by ψ-Epistemic Drive, the Natural appetite for information selected for advantageous knowledge. From its (...)
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  31. The Evolution of Vagueness.Cailin O’Connor - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (Suppl 4):707-727.
    Vague predicates, those that exhibit borderline cases, pose a persistent problem for philosophers and logicians. Although they are ubiquitous in natural language, when used in a logical context, vague predicates lead to contradiction. This paper will address a question that is intimately related to this problem. Given their inherent imprecision, why do vague predicates arise in the first place? I discuss a variation of the signaling game where the state space is treated as contiguous, i.e., endowed with a metric that (...)
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  32. Darwinism and Mechanism: Metaphor in Science.Michael Ruse - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 36 (2):285-302.
    There are two main senses of ‘mechanism’, both deriving from the metaphor of nature as a machine. One sense refers to contrivance or design, as in ‘the plant’s mechanism of attracting butterflies’. The other sense refers to cause or law process, as in ‘the mechanism of heredity’. In his work on evolution, Charles Darwin showed that organisms are produced by a mechanism in the second sense, although he never used this language. He also discussed contrivance, where he did use the (...)
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  33.  66
    Universal Darwinism and Evolutionary Social Science.Richard R. Nelson - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (1):73-94.
    Save for Anthropologists, few social scientists have been among the participants in the discussions about the appropriate structure of a ‘Universal Darwinism’. Yet evolutionary theorizing about cultural, social, and economic phenomena has a long tradition, going back well before Darwin. And over the past quarter century significant literatures have grown up concerned with the processes of change operating on science, technology, business organization and practice, and economic change more broadly, that are explicitly evolutionary in theoretical orientation. In each of these (...)
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  34.  36
    Sources of Wilhelm Johannsen’s Genotype Theory.Nils Roll-Hansen - 2009 - Journal of the History of Biology 42 (3):457-493.
    This paper describes the historical background and early formation of Wilhelm Johannsen's distinction between genotype and phenotype. It is argued that contrary to a widely accepted interpretation his concepts referred primarily to properties of individual organisms and not to statistical averages. Johannsen's concept of genotype was derived from the idea of species in the tradition of biological systematics from Linnaeus to de Vries: An individual belonged to a group - species, subspecies, elementary species - by representing a certain underlying type. (...)
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  35. The Cognitive Gap, Neural Darwinism & Linguistic Dualism —Russell, Husserl, Heidegger & Quine.Hermann G. W. Burchard - 2014 - Open Journal of Philosophy 4 (3):244-264.
    Guided by key insights of the four great philosophers mentioned in the title, here, in review of and expanding on our earlier work (Burchard, 2005, 2011), we present an exposition of the role played by language, & in the broader sense, λογοζ, the Logos, in how the CNS, the brain, is running the human being. Evolution by neural Darwinism has been forcing the linguistic nature of mind, enabling it to overcome & exploit the cognitive gap between an animal and its (...)
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  36. Content, Computation, and Individuation.Keith Butler - 1998 - Synthese 114 (2):277-92.
    The role of content in computational accounts of cognition is a matter of some controversy. An early prominent view held that the explanatory relevance of content consists in its supervenience on the the formal properties of computational states (see, e.g., Fodor 1980). For reasons that derive from the familiar Twin Earth thought experiments, it is usually thought that if content is to supervene on formal properties, it must be narrow; that is, it must not be the sort of content that (...)
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  37.  16
    Karl Beurlen , Nature Mysticism, and Aryan Paleontology.Olivier Rieppel - 2012 - Journal of the History of Biology 45 (2):253-299.
    The relatively late acceptance of Darwinism in German biology and paleontology is frequently attributed to a lingering of Lamarckism, a persisting influence of German idealistic Naturphilosophie and Goethean romanticism. These factors are largely held responsible for the vitalism underlying theories of saltational and orthogenetic evolutionary change that characterize the writings of many German paleontologists during the first half of the 20th century. A prominent exponent of that tradition was Karl Beurlen, who is credited with having been the first German paleontologist (...)
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  38.  11
    Freud’s Lamarckism’ and the Politics of Racial Science.Eliza Slavet - 2008 - Journal of the History of Biology 41 (1):37-80.
    This article re-contextualizes Sigmund Freud's interest in the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics in terms of the socio-political connotations of Lamarckism and Darwinism in the 1930s and 1950s. Many scholars have speculated as to why Freud continued to insist on a supposedly outmoded theory of evolution in the 1930s even as he was aware that it was no longer tenable. While Freud's initial interest in the inheritance of phylogenetic memory was not necessarily politically motivated, his refusal to abandon (...)
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  39.  8
    From Haeckelian Monist to Anti-Haeckelian Vitalist: The Transformation of the Icelandic Naturalist Thorvaldur Thoroddsen (1855-1921). [REVIEW]Steindór J. Erlingsson - 2002 - Journal of the History of Biology 35 (3):443 - 470.
    Iceland has not been known as a contributor to the history of science. This small nation in the North-Atlantic has only in recent decades made its mark on international science. But the Icelandic naturalist Thorvaldur Thoroddsen (1855-1921) is an exception to this generalisation, for he was well known at the turn of the 20th century in Europe and America for his research on the geography and geology of Iceland. Though Thoroddsen's contribution to these sciences is of great interest there is (...)
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  40. Reality and Mystical Experience.F. Samuel Brainard - 2000 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    "Reality and Mystical Experience" proposes and demonstrates the use of a new hermeneutical tool for the study of philosophical and religious foundations. The tool, which I call "publicity-presence-awareness terminology," offers a way to examine, understand, and classify different conceptions about the nature of reality in terms of their different approaches to certain shared metaphysical problems. Such an analysis helps, in turn, to clarify the basis for and significance of mystical experience within these traditions. ;The schema proposed here is especially useful (...)
     
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  41.  71
    The Bio-Philosophical “Insufficiency” of Darwinism for Henri Bergson’s Metaphysical Evolutionism.Magda Costa Carvalho - 2012 - Process Studies 41 (1):133-149.
    The main goal of Henri Bergson’s philosophy of nature is to offer a dynamic understanding of living phenomena. It is in this context that we main­tain that the author left us a “bio-philosophy,” that is, an interpretation which, by adopting a positive model of biology as a cognitive paradigm, describes the essential character of living activity as time or duration. Bergson’s posi­tive metaphysics, which brings science to the metaphysical field and provides an inner perspective of the vital principle, consolidated itself (...)
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  42.  41
    Informational Darwinism.Arthur B. Cody - 2000 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 43 (2):167 – 179.
    The Theory of Evolution has, since Darwin, been sustained by contributions from many sciences, most especially from molecular biology. Philosophers, like biologists and the man in the street, have accepted the idea that the contemporary form of evolutionary theory has arrived at a convincing and final structure. As it now stands, natural selection is thought to work through the information-handling mechanism of the DNA molecule. Variation in the genome?s constructive message is achieved through random errors of processing called mutations. How (...)
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  43.  14
    A Auto-Transcendência Cognitiva Do Sujeito Em Bernard Lonergan.Samuel Dimas - 2007 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 63 (4):845 - 876.
    Segundo Bernard Lonergan, a possibilidade de objectivarmos a estrutura imanente do sujeito cognoscente e agente exige um percurso de auto-transcendência cognitiva e de auto-transcendência moral. Esse dinamismo de "auto-apropriação da auto-consciência intelectual e racional começa por uma teoria do conhecimento, estende-se até uma metafísica e uma ética e ascende até uma concepção e uma afirmação de Deus, a qual é confrontada finalmente pelo problema do mal, exigindo a transformação de uma inteligência que confia em si mesma num intellectus quaerens idem". (...)
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  44.  67
    Autopoiesis and Darwinism.Jorge M. Escobar - 2012 - Synthese 185 (1):53-72.
    The purpose of this paper is to offer a critical approach to the theory of autopoiesis in order to see how it challenges mainstream Darwinism. In the first part of the paper, I characterize Darwinism from the concepts of natural selection, heredity, reproduction, and evolution. This characterization is absolutely schematic, and I hope not controversial at all, since my aim is to provide a general background for the discussion of the rest of the paper. The second part presents the main (...)
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  45. Cultural Inheritance in Generalized Darwinism.Christian J. Feldbacher-Escamilla & Karim Baraghith - 2020 - Philosophy of Science 87 (2):237-261.
    Generalized Darwinism models cultural development as an evolutionary process, where traits evolve through variation, selection, and inheritance. Inheritance describes either a discrete unit’s transmission or a mixing of traits. In this article, we compare classical models of cultural evolution and generalized population dynamics with respect to blending inheritance. We identify problems of these models and introduce our model, which combines relevant features of both. Blending is implemented as success-based social learning, which can be shown to be an optimal strategy.
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  46.  3
    God, Mind, Evolution, and Quantum Reality Based on Process Metaphysics.Mark Germine - 2016 - Tattva - Journal of Philosophy 8 (2):49-71.
    The genesis of actuality from potentiality, with the apparent role of the observer, is an important and unsolved problem which essentially defines science‟s view of reality in a variety of contexts. Observation then becomes lawful and not emergent. Panentheism is needed to provide a mechanism for order outside of blind efficient causality, in a Universal final causality. Classical physics is over a hundred years out of date, yet scientific models remain mechanistic and deterministic. Deism, a remnant of classical cosmology, is (...)
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  47.  8
    Race Before Darwin: Variation, Adaptation and the Natural History of Man in Post-Enlightenment Edinburgh, 1790–1835.Bill Jenkins - 2020 - British Journal for the History of Science 53 (3):333-350.
    This paper draws on material from the dissertation books of the University of Edinburgh's student societies and surviving lecture notes from the university's professors to shed new light on the debates on human variation, heredity and the origin of races between 1790 and 1835. That Edinburgh was the most important centre of medical education in the English-speaking world in this period makes this a particularly significant context. By around 1800 the fixed natural order of the eighteenth century was giving way (...)
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  48.  13
    A.W. Moore , The Evolution of Modern Metaphysics: Making Sense of Things . Reviewed By.Stephen Leach - 2014 - Philosophy in Review 34 (3-4):129-131.
    Moore argues as follows: (1) "Metaphysics is the most general attempt to make sense of things." (1) (2) "Because of its generality, metaphysics is the one branch of philosophy that is not the philosophy of this or that specific area of human thought or experience. It is 'pure' philosophy." (8) (3) It is "a fundamentally creative exercise." (17) Against Moore, I argue that it is rather philosophy that is the most general attempt to make sense of things. Alternatively, and in (...)
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  49. Conditions for Evolution by Natural Selection.Peter Godfrey-Smith - 2007 - Journal of Philosophy 104 (10):489-516.
    Both biologists and philosophers often make use of simple verbal formulations of necessary and sufficient conditions for evolution by natural selection (ENS). Such summaries go back to Darwin's Origin of Species (especially the "Recapitulation"), but recent ones are more compact.1 Perhaps the most commonly cited formulation is due to Lewontin.2 These summaries tend to have three or four conditions, where the core requirement is a combination of variation, heredity, and fitness differences. The summaries are employed in several ways. First, they (...)
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  50.  89
    From Survivors to Replicators: Evolution by Natural Selection Revisited.Pierrick Bourrat - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (4):517-538.
    For evolution by natural selection to occur it is classically admitted that the three ingredients of variation, difference in fitness and heredity are necessary and sufficient. In this paper, I show using simple individual-based models, that evolution by natural selection can occur in populations of entities in which neither heredity nor reproduction are present. Furthermore, I demonstrate by complexifying these models that both reproduction and heredity are predictable Darwinian products (i.e. complex adaptations) of populations initially lacking these two properties but (...)
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