Results for 'evolutionary ethics'

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  1.  77
    Evolutionary Ethics.Michael Klenk - 2019 - Introduction to Philosophy: Ethics.
    This chapter first introduces naturalistic approaches to ethics more generally and distinguishes methodological ethical naturalism (the focus of this chapter), from metaphysical ethical naturalism. The second part then discusses evolutionary ethics as a specific variant of methodological ethical naturalism. After introducing the concepts of evolutionary theory that are relevant for evolutionary ethics, I will sketch the history of evolutionary ethics, which offers an interesting lesson about why it became a controversial topic, and (...)
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  2. Evolution, Society, and Ethics: Social Darwinism Versus Evolutionary Ethics.Christine Clavien - forthcoming - In Thomas Heams (ed.), Handbook of Evolutionary Biology (provis. Title). Springer.
    Evolutionary ethics (EE) is a branch of philosophy that arouses both fascination and deep suspicion. It claims that Darwinian mechanisms and evolutionary data on animal sociality are relevant to ethical reflection. This field of study is often misunderstood and rarely fails to conjure up images of Social Darwinism as a vector for nasty ideologies and policies. However, it is worth resisting the temptation to reduce EE to Social Darwinism and developing an objective analysis of whether it is (...)
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  3. Evolutionary Ethics in the Light of Extended Synthesis.Adrianna Wozniak & Stefan Konstanczak - 2013 - Ethics and Bioethics (in Central Europe) 3 (1-2):21-30.
    The program of Evolutionary Ethics (EE) is based on the assumption that our moral features constitute adaptations and as such are to be explained in terms of the evolutionary process of natural selection. However, the fundamental assumption of EE was seriously put into question: the level of analysis relevant for moral features is essentially ontogeny and culture, while the explanation using natural selection applies to the level of phylogeny and genes (Sober, 1995; Ayala, 1995; Okasha, 2009). To (...)
     
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  4. Evolutionary Ethics: Its Origins and Contemporary Face.Paul Thompson - 1999 - Zygon 34 (3):473-484.
    The development of modern evolutionary ethics began shortly after the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection. Early discussions were plagued by several problems. First, evolutionary ethical explanations were dependent on group-selection accounts of social behavior (especially the explanation of altruism). Second, they seem to violate the philosophical principle that “ought” statements cannot be derived from “is” statements alone (values cannot be derivedfrom facts alone). Third, evolutionary ethics appeared to be (...)
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  5.  72
    Dutch Objections to Evolutionary Ethics.Robert J. Richards - 1989 - Biology and Philosophy 4 (3):331-343.
    While strolling the streets of Amsterdam, Sidney Smith, the renowned editor of the Edinburgh Review, called the attention of his companion to two Dutch housewives who were leaning out of their windows and arguing with one another across the narrow alley that separated their houses. Smith remarked to his companion that the two women would never agree. His friend thought the seasoned editor had in mind the stubborn Dutch character. No, said Smith. Rather it was because they were arguing from (...)
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  6.  42
    Evolutionary Ethics: An Irresistible Temptation: Some Reflections on Paul Farber‘s The Temptation of Evolutionary Ethics[REVIEW]William A. Rottschaefer - 1997 - Biology and Philosophy 12 (3):369-384.
    In his recent The Temptation of Evolutionary Ethics, Paul Farber has given a negative assessment of the last one hundred years of attempts in Anglo-American philosophy, beginning with Darwin, to develop an evolutionary ethics. Farber identifies some version of the naturalistic fallacy as one of the central sources for the failures of evolutionary ethics. For this reason, and others, Farber urges that though it has its attraction, evolutionary ethics is a temptation to (...)
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  7.  29
    Semantic and Structural Problems in Evolutionary Ethics.K. G. Ferguson - 2001 - Biology and Philosophy 16 (1):69-84.
    In ''''A Defense of Evolutionary Ethics'''' (1986), Robert J. Richardsendeavors to explain how moral ''oughts'' can be derived from thescience of evolutionary biology without committing the dreadednaturalistic fallacy. First, Richards assumes that ''ought'' as usedin ethical discourse bears the same meaning as ''ought'' used anywherein science, indicating merely that certain results or behaviors arepredicted based on prior structured contexts. To this extent, themoral behavior of animals, what they ''ought'' to do, could arguablybe predicted by evolutionary biology (...)
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  8.  89
    An Introduction to Evolutionary Ethics.Scott M. James - 2010 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    Offering the first general introductory text to this subject, the timely _Introduction to_ _Evolutionary Ethics_ reflects the most up-to-date research and current issues being debated in both psychology and philosophy. The book presents students to the areas of cognitive psychology, normative ethics, and metaethics. The first general introduction to evolutionary ethics Provides a comprehensive survey of work in three distinct areas of research: cognitive psychology, normative ethics, and metaethics Presents the most up-to-date research available in both (...)
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  9.  10
    Evolutionary Ethics.Matthew Nitecki & Doris Nitecki (eds.) - 1993 - SUNY Press.
    This volume analyzes the biological and philosophical disagreements in evolutionary ethics and points out difficulties with the interpretations. The book is divided into four sections. The first is an historical introduction to the origin of evolutionary ethics, showing how different evolutionary ethics was a hundred years ago, and how distant Huxley is from most of us now. The second section argues for a sociobiological interpretation of evolutionary ethics. The third section presents the (...)
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  10.  38
    Evolutionary Ethics and Contemporary Biology.Giovanni Boniolo & Gabriele De Anna (eds.) - 2006 - Cambridge University Press.
    How can the discoveries made in the biological sciences play a role in a discussion on the foundation of ethics? This book responds to this question by examining how evolutionism can explain and justify the existence of ethical normativity and the emergence of particular moral systems. Written by a team of philosophers and scientists, the essays collected in this volume deal with the limits of evolutionary explanations, the justifications of ethics, and methodological issues concerning evolutionary accounts (...)
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  11. Issues in Evolutionary Ethics.Paul Thompson (ed.) - 1995 - State University of New York Press.
    This book explores historical and current discussions of the relevance of evolutionary theory to ethics. The historical section conveys the intellectual struggle that took place within the framework of Darwinism from its inception up to the work of G. C. Williams, W. D. Hamilton, R. D. Alexander, A. L. Trivers, E. O. Wilson, R. Dawkins, and others. The contemporary section discusses ethics within the framework of evolutionary theory as enriched by the works of biologists such as (...)
     
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  12.  48
    Parting with Illusions in Evolutionary Ethics.David C. Lahti - 2003 - Biology and Philosophy 18 (5):639-651.
    I offer a critical analysis of a view that has become a dominant aspect of recent thought on the relationship between evolution and morality, and propose an alternative. An ingredient in Michael Ruse's 'error theory' (Ruse 1995) is that belief in moral (prescriptive, universal, and nonsubjective) guidelines arose in humans because such belief results in the performance of adaptive cooperative behaviors. This statement relies on two particular connections: between ostensible and intentional types of altruism, and between intentional altruism and morality. (...)
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  13.  33
    Evolutionary Ethics: Its Origin and Contemporary Face.Not By Me - 1999 - Zygon 34 (3):473-484.
  14.  7
    Evolutionary Ethics: Its Origin and Contemporary Face.Thompson Paul - 1999 - Zygon 34 (3):473-484.
  15. Evolutionary Ethics.Antony Flew - 1967 - New York: St. Martin's Press.
  16. Xi Fang Jin Hua Lun Li Xue: Jin Hua Lun Yun Yong Yu Lun Li Xue de Chang Shi = Evolutionary Ethics in the West.Yuanzhao Shu - 2006 - Hunan Shi Fan da Xue Chu Ban She.
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  17.  56
    A Defense of Evolutionary Ethics.Robert Richards - 1986 - Biology and Philosophy 1 (3):265-293.
    From Charles Darwin to Edward Wilson, evolutionary biologists have attempted to construct systems of evolutionary ethics. These attempts have been roundly criticized, most often for having committed the naturalistic fallacy. In this essay, I review the history of previous efforts at formulating an evolutionary ethics, focusing on the proposals of Darwin and Wilson. I then advance and defend a proposal of my own. In the last part of the essay, I try to demonstrate that my (...)
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  18.  13
    Contract Ethics: Evolutionary Biology and the Moral Sentiments.Howard Kahane - 1995 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Recent theorists have suggested that human altruism toward non-family members evolved because of the tremendous benefits of reciprocity. Developing further the notion that evolutionary theory can help to explain moral sentiments, Howard Kahane proposes that a sense of fair play is essential to ethics and argues that moral obligation, too narrowly construed, prevents us from living rationally. He brings his account of fair play to bear on the ethics of various domains of social life including friendship, taxes, (...)
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  19.  46
    Methodological Problems in Evolutionary Biology. XII. Against Evolutionary Ethics.Wim J. van der Steen - 1999 - Acta Biotheoretica 47 (1):41-57.
    Evolutionary ethics has recently become popular again. Some of its representatives elaborate new attempts to derive ethics from evolutionary biology. The attempts, like previous ones, fail because they commit the naturalistic fallacy. Premises from evolutionary biology together with normative premises also do not justify ethical principles. Other representatives argue that evolutionary considerations imply that ethics cannot be justified at all. Their arguments presuppose an unacceptable form of foundationalism. In principle, evolutionary biology might (...)
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  20.  19
    Evolutionary Ethics: A Crack in the Foundation of Ethics?John Mizzoni - 1998 - Theoretical Ethics.
    Michael Ruse has argued that evolutionary ethics discredits the objectivity and foundations of ethics. Ruse must employ dubitable assumptions, however, to reach his conclusion. We can trace these assumptions to G. E. Moore. Also, part of Ruse’s case against the foundations of ethics can support the objectivity and foundations of ethics. Cooperative activity geared toward human flourishing helps point the way to a naturalistic moral realism and not exclusively to ethical skepticism as Ruse supposes.
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  21.  4
    The Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Ethics.Michael Ruse & Robert J. Richards (eds.) - 2017 - Cambridge University Press.
    Evolutionary ethics - the application of evolutionary ideas to moral thinking and justification - began in the nineteenth century with the work of Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer, but was subsequently criticized as an example of the naturalistic fallacy. In recent decades, however, evolutionary ethics has found new support among both the Darwinian and the Spencerian traditions. This accessible volume looks at the history of thought about evolutionary ethics as well as current debates (...)
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  22.  38
    Evolutionary Ethics and the Search for Predecessors: Kant, Hume, and All the Way Back to Aristotle?Michael Ruse - 1990 - Social Philosophy and Policy 8 (1):59.
    Hopes of applying the findings and speculations of evolutionary theorizing to the problems of ethics have yielded a program with a bad reputation. At the level of norms – substantival ethics – it has been a platform for some of the more grotesque socio-politico-economic suggestions of our times. At the level of justification – metaethics – it has opened the way to some of the more blatant fallacies in the undergraduate textbook. Recently, however, a number of people, (...)
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  23.  40
    Recent Trends in Evolutionary Ethics: Greenbeards!Joseph Heath & Catherine Rioux - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (1-2):16.
    In recent years, there has been growing awareness among evolutionary ethicists that systems of cooperation based upon “weak” reciprocity mechanisms lack scalability, and are therefore inadequate to explain human ultrasociality. This has produced a shift toward models that strengthen the cooperative mechanism, by adding various forms of commitment or punishment. Unfortunately, the most prominent versions of this hypothesis wind up positing a discredited mechanism as the basis of human ultrasociality, viz. a “greenbeard.” This paper begins by explaining what a (...)
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  24.  25
    The New Evolutionary Ethics.Michael Ruse - 1993 - In Matthew Nitecki & Doris Nitecki (eds.), Evolutionary Ethics. Suny Press. pp. 133-162.
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  25.  6
    How Ethical is Evolutionary Ethics?Alan Gewirth - 1993 - In Matthew Nitecki & Doris Nitecki (eds.), Evolutionary Ethics. Suny Press. pp. 241--256.
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  26. The Temptations of Evolutionary Ethics.Paul Lawrence Farber - 1994 - University of California Press.
    Evolutionary theory tells us about our biological past; can it also guide us to a moral future? Paul Farber's compelling book describes a century-old philosophical hope held by many biologists, anthropologists, psychologists, and social thinkers: that universal ethical and social imperatives are built into human nature and can be discovered through knowledge of evolutionary theory. Farber describes three upsurges of enthusiasm for evolutionary ethics. The first came in the early years of mid-nineteenth century evolutionary theories; (...)
     
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  27.  8
    Birth, Death, and Resurrection of Evolutionary Ethics.Robert J. Richards - 1993 - In Matthew Nitecki & Doris Nitecki (eds.), Evolutionary Ethics. Suny Press. pp. 113--131.
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  28.  90
    The Evolutionary Basis of Religious Ethics.John Teehan - 2006 - Zygon 41 (3):747-774.
  29.  58
    Evolutionary Ethics From Darwin to Moore.Fritz Allhoff - 2003 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 25 (1):51 - 79.
    Evolutionary ethics has a long history, dating all the way back to Charles Darwin.1 Almost immediately after the publication of the Origin, an immense interest arose in the moral implications of Darwinism and whether the truth of Darwinism would undermine traditional ethics. Though the biological thesis was certainly exciting, nobody suspected that the impact of the Origin would be confined to the scientific arena. As one historian wrote, 'whether or not ancient populations of armadillos were transformed into (...)
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  30.  2
    The Problem of the Naturalist Fallacy for Evolutionary Ethics.Karla Chediak & Thomas Hasek - 2006 - Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 2.
    One of the most difficult problems for those who defend evolutionary ethics is the naturalist fallacy. In this article, we examine the solutions proposed by W. Rottschaefer and R. Richards. We believe that these solutions are not good enough to completely eliminate the problem of the naturalist fallacy without compromising the specificity of morality.
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  31.  45
    In the Name of God: The Evolutionary Origins of Religious Ethics and Violence.John Teehan - 2010 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    Religion is one of the most powerful forces running through human history, and although often presented as a force for good, its impact is frequently violent and divisive. This provocative work brings together cutting-edge research from both evolutionary and cognitive psychology to help readers understand the psychological structure of religious morality and the origins of religious violence. Introduces a fundamentally new approach to the analysis of religion in a style accessible to the general reader Applies insights from evolutionary (...)
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  32. The Prospects for Evolutionary Ethics Today.Neil Levy - 2010 - EurAmerica 40 (3):529-571.
    One reason for the widespread resistance to evolutionary accounts of the origins of humanity is the fear that they undermine morality: if morality is based on nothing more than evolved dispositions, it would be shown to be illusory, many people suspect. This view is shared by some philosophers who take their work on the evolutionary origins of morality to undermine moral realism. If they are right, we are faced with an unpalatable choice: to reject morality on scientific grounds, (...)
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  33.  41
    Objectivity and Illusion in Evolutionary Ethics: Comments on Waller.Peter G. Woolcock - 2000 - Biology and Philosophy 15 (1):39-60.
    In this paper I argue that any adequate evolutionary ethical theory needs to account for moral belief as well as for dispositions to behave altruistically. It also needs to be clear whether it is offering us an account of the motivating reasons behind human behaviour or whether it is giving justifying reasons for a particular set of behaviours or, if both, to distinguish them clearly. I also argue that, unless there are some objective moral truths, the evolutionary ethicist (...)
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  34.  24
    Evolutionary Psychology and Business Ethics Research.Sefa Hayibor - 2009 - Business Ethics Quarterly 19 (4):587-616.
    In this article, we describe evolutionary psychology and its potential contribution to business ethics research. After summarizing evolutionary theory and natural selection, we specifically address the use of evolutionary concepts in psychology in order to offer alternative explanations of behavior relevant to business ethics, such as social exchange, cooperation, altruism, and reciprocity. Our position is that individuals, groups, and organizations all are affected by similar natural, evolutionary processes, such that evolutionary psychology is applicable (...)
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  35.  60
    Evolutionary Ethics.Doris Schroeder - 2001 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  36. Evolutionary Ethics.Julian Huxley - 1943 - Oxford University Press.
     
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  37.  27
    The Case Against Evolutionary Ethics Today.Peter G. Woolcock - 1999 - In Michael Ruse & Jane Maienschein (eds.), Biology and the Foundation of Ethics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 276--306.
  38. Darwinian Evolutionary Ethics: Between Patriotism and Sympathy.Peter J. Richerson & Robert Boyd - 2004 - In Phillip Clayton & Jeffrey Schloss (eds.), Evolution and Ethics: Human Morality in Biological and Religious Perspective. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.. pp. 50--77.
  39.  50
    Morality and Nature: Evolutionary Challenges to Christian Ethics.Johan Tavernier - 2014 - Zygon 49 (1):171-189.
    Christian ethics accentuates in manifold ways the unique character of human nature. Personalists believe that the mind is never reducible to material and physical substance. The human person is presented as the supreme principle, based on arguments referring to free-willed actions, the immateriality of both the divine spirit and the reflexive capacity, intersubjectivity and self-consciousness. But since Darwin, evolutionary biology slowly instructs us that morality roots in dispositions that are programmed by evolution into our nature. Historically, Thomas Huxley, (...)
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  40.  31
    Evolutionary Ethics: Can Values Change.K. C. Calman - 2004 - Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (4):366-370.
    The hypothesis that values change and evolve is examined by this paper. The discussion is based on a series of examples where, over a period of a few decades, new ethical issues have arisen and values have changed. From this analysis it is suggested that there are a series of core values around which most people would agree. These are unlikely to change over long time periods. There are then a series of secondary or derived values around which there is (...)
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  41.  30
    Evolutionary Ethics, Aggression, and Violence: Lessons From Primate Research.Frans B. M. Waal - 2004 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 32 (1):18-23.
  42.  5
    Evolutionary Ethics, Aggression, and Violence: Lessons From Primate Research.Frans B. M. de Waal - 2004 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 32 (1):18-23.
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  43.  18
    Evolutionary Ethics and Moral Theory.Michael Stingl - 1996 - Journal of Value Inquiry 30 (4):531-545.
    This example, like the others, demands further discussion. My conclusion must therefore remain modest: an agent-neutral theory of our moral competence is not biologically implausible. Agent-centered rules like tit-for-tat, prerogatives, special obligations, and duties not to harm others might be best regarded as belonging to the theory of moral performance rather than the theory of moral competence. For biologists who may think otherwise, the general argument of this essay is that any claims to the contrary must be based on more (...)
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  44.  5
    Evolutionary Ethics, Aggression, and Violence: Lessons From Primate Research.Frans B. M. Waal - 2004 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 32 (1):18-23.
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  45.  9
    French Evolutionary Ethics During the Third Republic: Jean de Lanessan.Paul Lawrence Farber - 1999 - In Michael Ruse & Jane Maienschein (eds.), Biology and the Foundation of Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
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  46.  6
    Darwin's Romantic Biology. The Foundation of His Evolutionary Ethics'.Robert Richards - 1999 - In Michael Ruse & Jane Maienschein (eds.), Biology and the Foundation of Ethics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 113--53.
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  47.  19
    Evolutionary Ethics.Ken Binmore - 1998 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 5:277-283.
    Philosophers used to say that all their endeavours were merely a footnote to Plato. In ethics, this is still largely true.
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  48.  36
    Evolutionary Ethics and Biologically Supportable Morality.Michael Byron - 1999 - Proceedings of Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy, PAIDEIA: Philosophy Educating Humanity.
    Consider the paradox of altruism: the existence of truly altruistic behaviors is difficult to reconcile with evolutionary theory if natural selection operates only on individuals, since in that case individuals should be unwilling to sacrifice their own fitness for the sake of others. Evolutionists have frequently turned to the hypothesis of group selection to explain the existence of altruism; but group selection cannot explain the evolution of morality, since morality is a one-group phenomenon and group selection is a many-group (...)
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  49.  13
    Evolution and Ethics: Is an Evolutionary Ethics Possible?Ray E. Spier - 2004 - Global Bioethics 17 (1):9-15.
    Conventional wisdom generally seeks to support the notion that we cannot arrive at ethics by considerations of the state of the world. If we do this we are guilty of committing the ‘Naturalistic Fallacy’. This paper seeks to refute these contentions. I it I note that words are tools that humans use with the intention of promoting their survival. This ties into ethics, which are essentially a subset of the words used to promote human survival through their use (...)
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  50.  10
    Nietzsche's Evolutionary Ethics.R. Small - 2007 - In Gudrun von Tevenar (ed.), Nietzsche and Ethics. Peter Lang.
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