Results for 'experimental bias'

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  1.  83
    Experimenter Philosophy: The Problem of Experimenter Bias in Experimental Philosophy.Brent Strickland & Aysu Suben - 2012 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (3):457-467.
    It has long been known that scientists have a tendency to conduct experiments in a way that brings about the expected outcome. Here, we provide the first direct demonstration of this type of experimenter bias in experimental philosophy. Opposed to previously discovered types of experimenter bias mediated by face-to-face interactions between experimenters and participants, here we show that experimenters also have a tendency to create stimuli in a way that brings about expected outcomes. We randomly assigned undergraduate (...)
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  2.  8
    Learning Phonology With Substantive Bias: An Experimental and Computational Study of Velar Palatalization.Colin Wilson - 2006 - Cognitive Science 30 (5):945-982.
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  3. Camera Perspective Bias in Videotaped Confessions: Experimental Evidence of its Perceptual Basis.Jennifer J. Ratcliff, G. Daniel Lassiter, Heather C. Schmidt & Celeste J. Snyder - 2006 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 12 (4):197-206.
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  4.  12
    Extended Present Bias: A Direct Experimental Test.Robin Chark, Soo Hong Chew & Songfa Zhong - 2015 - Theory and Decision 79 (1):151-165.
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  5.  5
    The “Street Light Syndrome”, or How Protein Taxonomy Can Bias Experimental Manipulations.Gabriel Markov, Guillaume Lecointre, Barbara Demeneix & Vincent Laudet - 2008 - Bioessays 30 (4):349-357.
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  6.  1
    An Experimental Examination of Catastrophizing-Related Interpretation Bias for Ambiguous Facial Expressions of Pain Using an Incidental Learning Task.Ali Khatibi, Martien G. S. Schrooten, Linda M. G. Vancleef & Johan W. S. Vlaeyen - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  7. A Slugfest of Intuitions: Contextualism and Experimental Design.Nat Hansen - 2013 - Synthese 190 (10):1771-1792.
    This paper considers ways that experimental design can affect judgments about informally presented context shifting experiments. Reasons are given to think that judgments about informal context shifting experiments are affected by an exclusive reliance on binary truth value judgments and by experimenter bias. Exclusive reliance on binary truth value judgments may produce experimental artifacts by obscuring important differences of degree between the phenomena being investigated. Experimenter bias is an effect generated when, for example, experimenters disclose (even (...)
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  8.  54
    Persistent Bias in Expert Judgments About Free Will and Moral Responsibility: A Test of the Expertise Defense.E. Schultz, E. T. Cokely & A. Feltz - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1722-1731.
    Many philosophers appeal to intuitions to support some philosophical views. However, there is reason to be concerned about this practice as scientific evidence has documented systematic bias in philosophically relevant intuitions as a function of seemingly irrelevant features (e.g., personality). One popular defense used to insulate philosophers from these concerns holds that philosophical expertise eliminates the influence of these extraneous factors. Here, we test this assumption. We present data suggesting that verifiable philosophical expertise in the free will debate-as measured (...)
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  9.  42
    Luck Attributions and Cognitive Bias.Steven D. Hales & Jennifer Adrienne Johnson - 2014 - Metaphilosophy 45 (4-5):509-528.
    Philosophers have developed three theories of luck: the probability theory, the modal theory, and the control theory. To help assess these theories, we conducted an empirical investigation of luck attributions. We created eight putative luck scenarios and framed each in either a positive or a negative light. Furthermore, we placed the critical luck event at the beginning, middle, or end of the scenario to see if the location of the event influenced luck attributions. We found that attributions of luckiness were (...)
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  10.  70
    Linguistic Experiments and Ordinary Language Philosophy.Nat Hansen & Emmanuel Chemla - 2015 - Ratio 28 (4):422-445.
    J.L. Austin is regarded as having an especially acute ear for fine distinctions of meaning overlooked by other philosophers. Austin employs an informal experimental approach to gathering evidence in support of these fine distinctions in meaning, an approach that has become a standard technique for investigating meaning in both philosophy and linguistics. In this paper, we subject Austin's methods to formal experimental investigation. His methods produce mixed results: We find support for his most famous distinction, drawn on the (...)
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  11. Bias and Values in Scientific Research.Torsten Wilholt - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (1):92-101.
    When interests and preferences of researchers or their sponsors cause bias in experimental design, data interpretation or dissemination of research results, we normally think of it as an epistemic shortcoming. But as a result of the debate on science and values, the idea that all ‘extra-scientific’ influences on research could be singled out and separated from pure science is now widely believed to be an illusion. I argue that nonetheless, there are cases in which research is rightfully regarded (...)
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  12. Survey-Driven Romanticism.Simon Cullen - 2010 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (2):275-296.
    Despite well-established results in survey methodology, many experimental philosophers have not asked whether and in what way conclusions about folk intuitions follow from people’s responses to their surveys. Rather, they appear to have proceeded on the assumption that intuitions can be simply read off from survey responses. Survey research, however, is fraught with difficulties. I review some of the relevant literature—particularly focusing on the conversational pragmatic aspects of survey research—and consider its application to common experimental philosophy surveys. I (...)
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  13.  63
    Assumptions of Subjective Measures of Unconscious Mental States: Higher Order Thoughts and Bias.Zoltán Dienes - 2004 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 11 (9):25-45.
    This paper considers two subjective measures of the existence of unconscious mental states - the guessing criterion, and the zero correlation criterion - and considers the assumptions underlying their application in experimental paradigms. Using higher order thought theory the impact of different types of biases on the zero correlation and guessing criteria are considered. It is argued that subjective measures of consciousness can be biased in various specified ways, some of which involve the relation between first order states and (...)
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  14.  58
    Incremental Vs. Symmetric Accounts of Presupposition Projection: An Experimental Approach.Emmanuel Chemla & Philippe Schlenker - 2012 - Natural Language Semantics 20 (2):177-226.
    The presupposition triggered by an expression E is generally satisfied by information that comes before rather than after E in the sentence or discourse. In Heim’s classic theory (1983), this left-right asymmetry is encoded in the lexical semantics of dynamic connectives and operators. But several recent analyses offer a more nuanced approach, in which presupposition satisfaction has two separate components: a general principle (which varies from theory to theory) specifies under what conditions a presupposition triggered by an expression E is (...)
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  15.  3
    The Role of Surface Similarity in Analogical Retrieval: Bridging the Gap Between the Naturalistic and the Experimental Traditions.Máximo Trench & Ricardo A. Minervino - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (6):1292-1319.
    Blanchette and Dunbar have claimed that when participants are allowed to draw on their own source analogs in the service of analogical argumentation, retrieval is less constrained by surface similarity than traditional experiments suggest. In two studies, we adapted this production paradigm to control for the potentially distorting effects of analogy fabrication and uneven availability of close and distant sources in memory. Experiment 1 assessed whether participants were reminded of central episodes from popular movies while generating analogies for superficially similar (...)
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  16.  43
    Risk Aversion Elicitation: Reconciling Tractability and Bias Minimization. [REVIEW]Mohammed Abdellaoui, Ahmed Driouchi & Olivier L'Haridon - 2011 - Theory and Decision 71 (1):63-80.
    Risk attitude is known to be a key determinant of various economic and financial choices. Behavioral studies that aim to evaluate the role of risk attitudes in contexts of this type, therefore, require tools for measuring individual risk tolerance. Recent developments in decision theory provide such tools. However, the methods available can be time consuming. As a result, some practitioners might have an incentive to prefer “fast and frugal” methods to clean but more costly methods. In this article, we focus (...)
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  17.  25
    Information Aggregation and Manipulation in an Experimental Market.Robin Hanson - unknown
    Prediction markets are increasingly being considered as methods for gathering, summarizing and aggregating diffuse information by governments and businesses alike. Critics worry that these markets are susceptible to price manipulation by agents who wish to distort decision making. We study the effect of manipulators on an experimental market, and find that manipulators are unable to distort price accuracy. Subjects without manipulation incentives compensate for the bias in offers from manipulators by setting a different threshold at which they are (...)
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  18.  4
    Further Problematizing the Potential for a More Unified Experimental, Scientific Psychology: A Comment on Mandler.Jason R. Goertzen - 2011 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 31 (4):247-249.
    In response to Mandler , I argue in this comment that a more unified psychology generally, and a more unified experimental, scientific psychology specifically, are more difficult to obtain than he suggests. Furthermore, I contend that Mandler does not sufficiently maintain a clear distinction between disciplinary psychology generally, and experimental, scientific psychology, specifically in his discussions of broaching greater unity. This distinction is particularly important, as how it is treated has serious implications for the many specializations and schools (...)
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  19.  51
    Deductive Reasoning and Matching-Bias Inhibition Training: Evidence From a Debiasing Paradigm.Sylvain Moutier, Nathalie Angeard & Olivier Houde - 2002 - Thinking and Reasoning 8 (3):205 – 224.
    Using the matching bias example, the aim of the present studies was to show that adults' reasoning biases are due to faulty executive inhibition programming. In the first study, the subjects were trained on Wason's classical card selection task; half were given training in how to inhibit the perceptual matching bias (experimental group) and half in logic without the inhibition component (control group). On the pre- and post-tests, their performance was assessed on the Evans conditional rule falsification (...)
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  20.  29
    Ihde's Instrumental Realism and the Marxist Account of Technology in Experimental Science.Val Dusek - 2008 - Techne 12 (2):105-109.
    Edgar Zilsel offers a Marxist account of the rise of experimental science avoiding both crude determinism and the anti-scientific bias of much “Western Marxism.” This account supplements Don Ihde’s instrumental realism with a social account of the systematic extension of perception by instrumentation. The social contact of non-literate craftspeople with purely intellectual scholars forged the social basis of what became technoscience.
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  21.  6
    Ihde’s Instrumental Realism and the Marxist Account of Technology in Experimental Science.Val Dusek - 2008 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 12 (2):105-109.
    Edgar Zilsel offers a Marxist account of the rise of experimental science avoiding both crude determinism and the anti-scientific bias of much “Western Marxism.” This account supplements Don Ihde’s instrumental realism with a social account of the systematic extension of perception by instrumentation. The social contact of non-literate craftspeople with purely intellectual scholars forged the social basis of what became technoscience.
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  22.  1
    Memory Bias Training by Means of the Emotional Short-Term Memory Task.Aleksandra Gronostaj, Agata Blaut & Borysław Paulewicz - 2015 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 46 (1):122-126.
    According to major cognitive theories of emotional disorders cognitive biases are partly responsible for their onset and maintenance. The direct test of this assumption is possible only if experimental method capable of altering a given form of cognitive bias is available. The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a novel implicit memory bias training procedure based on the emotional version of the classical Sternberg’s short-term memory task with negative, neutral and positive words. 108 (...)
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  23.  15
    An Experimental Test of Rubinstein's Bargaining Model.Ken Binmore & Joseph Swierzbinski - unknown
    This paper offers an experimental test of a version of Rubinstein’s bargaining model in which the players’ discount factors are unequal. We find that learning, rationality, and fairness are all significant in determining the outcome. In particular, we find that a model of myopic optimization over time predicts the sign of deviations in the opening proposal from the final undiscounted agreement in the previous period rather well. To explain the amplitude of the deviations, we then successfully fit a perturbed (...)
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  24.  8
    Causal Inference in the Presence of Latent Variables and Selection Bias.Peter Spirtes, Christopher Meek & Thomas Richardson - unknown
    Whenever the use of non-experimental data for discovering causal relations or predicting the outcomes of experiments or interventions is contemplated, two difficulties are routinely faced. One is the problem of latent variables, or confounders: factors influencing two or more measured variables may not themselves have been measured or recorded. The other is the problem of sample selection bias: values of the variables or features under study may themselves influence whether a unit is included in the data sample.
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  25. Bias and Learning in Temporal Binding: Intervals Between Actions and Outcomes Are Compressed by Prior Bias.Andre M. Cravo, Hamilton Haddad, Peter Me Claessens & Marcus Vc Baldo - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (4):1174-1180.
    It has consistently been shown that agents judge the intervals between their actions and outcomes as compressed in time, an effect named intentional binding. In the present work, we investigated whether this effect is result of prior bias volunteers have about the timing of the consequences of their actions, or if it is due to learning that occurs during the experimental session. Volunteers made temporal estimates of the interval between their action and target onset , or between two (...)
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  26.  8
    Logic and Human Reasoning: An Assessment of the Deduction Paradigm.Jonathan Evans - 2002 - Psychological Bulletin 128 (6):978-996.
    The study of deductive reasoning has been a major paradigm in psychology for approximately the past 40 years. Research has shown that people make many logical errors on such tasks and are strongly influenced by problem content and context. It is argued that this paradigm was developed in a context of logicist thinking that is now outmoded. Few reasoning researchers still believe that logic is an appropriate normative system for most human reasoning, let alone a model for describing the process (...)
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  27.  34
    Beliefs About Overconfidence.Sandra Ludwig & Julia Nafziger - 2011 - Theory and Decision 70 (4):475-500.
    This experiment elicits beliefs about other people’s overconfidence and abilities. We find that most people believe that others are unbiased, and only few think that others are overconfident. There is a remarkable heterogeneity between these groups. Those people who think others are underconfident or unbiased are overconfident themselves. Those who think others are overconfident are underconfident themselves. Despite this heterogeneity, people overestimate on average the abilities of others as they do their own ability. One driving force behind this result is (...)
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  28.  8
    Response Bias Explanation of Conservative Human Inference.Wesley M. DuCharme - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 85 (1):66.
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  29.  12
    Effects of Bias on Processing and Reprocessing of Lexically Ambiguous Sentences.Helen S. Cairns - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (3):337.
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  30.  2
    Perceptual Versus Response Bias in Discrete Choice Reaction Time.Harold L. Hawkins, Gerald B. Thomas & Kenneth B. Drury - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (3):514.
  31.  8
    Attention Bias and the Relation of Perception Lag to Simple Reaction Time.A. J. Sanford - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (3):443.
  32.  5
    Reaction Time as a Function of Perceptual Bias, Response Bias, and Stimulus Discriminability.Howard B. Orenstein - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (1):38.
  33.  6
    Effects of Delay of Knowledge of Results and Subject Response Bias on Extinction of a Simple Motor Skill.James A. Dyal - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (4):559.
  34.  5
    Retrieval Bias and the Response Relative Frequency Effect in Choice Reaction Time.Harold L. Hawkins, Kenneth Snippel, Joelle Pressen, Stephen MacKay & Dennis Todd - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (5):910.
  35.  5
    Relationship Between Word Frequency and Recognition: Perceptual Process or Response Bias?Robert B. Zajonc & B. Nieuwenhuyse - 1964 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 67 (3):276.
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  36.  2
    Sensitivity and Response Bias Effects in the Learning of Familiar and Unfamiliar Associations by Rote or with a Mnemonic.D. Mcnicol & L. A. Ryder - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 90 (1):81.
  37.  3
    Response Bias and Perception.Charles D. Smock & Frederick H. Kanfer - 1961 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (2):158.
  38.  2
    Neutralization of Stimulus Bias in the Rating of Grays.Irwin Pollack - 1965 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (6):564.
  39.  2
    Response Bias in the Recognition of Pictures and Names by Children.Bill Jones - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (6):1214.
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  40.  1
    Detection of a Visual Signal with Low Background Noise: An Experimental Comparison of Two Theories.Raymond H. Hohle - 1965 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (5):459.
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  41.  1
    Perception as a Function of Association Value with Response Bias Controlled.Stephanie Portnoy, Maurice Portnoy & Kurt Salzinger - 1964 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (3):316.
  42.  1
    Trade-Off Bias and Efficiency Effects in Serial Choice Reactions.Richard G. Swensson - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 95 (2):397.
  43.  17
    Introduction to On Folk Epistemology.Mikkel Gerken - 2017 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This is the Introduction to "On Folk Epistemology. How we think and talk about knowledge" -/- In addition to a brief introduction to the main themes of the book, it contains a chapter-by-chapter overview.
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  44.  6
    On Folk Epistemology. How We Think and Talk About Knowledge.Mikkel Gerken - 2017 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    On Folk Epistemology explores how we ascribe knowledge to ourselves and others. Empirical evidence suggests that we do so early and often in thought as well as in talk. Since knowledge ascriptions are central to how we navigate social life, it is important to understand our basis for making them. -/- A central claim of the book is that factors that have nothing to do with knowledge may lead to systematic mistakes in everyday ascriptions of knowledge. These mistakes are explained (...)
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  45. Revisiting Current Causes of Women's Underrepresentation in Science.Carole J. Lee - forthcoming - In Jennifer Saul Michael Brownstein (ed.), Implicit Bias and Philosophy Volume 1: Metaphysics and Epistemology. Oxford University Press.
    On the surface, developing a social psychology of science seems compelling as a way to understand how individual social cognition – in aggregate – contributes towards individual and group behavior within scientific communities (Kitcher, 2002). However, in cases where the functional input-output profile of psychological processes cannot be mapped directly onto the observed behavior of working scientists, it becomes clear that the relationship between psychological claims and normative philosophy of science should be refined. For example, a robust body of social (...)
     
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  46. The Influence of Linguistic Form on Reasoning: The Case of Matching Bias.Jonathan Evans - 1999 - Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A 52 (1):185-216.
    A well-established phenomenon in reasoning research is matching bias : a tendency to select information that matches the lexical content of propositional statements, regardless of the logically critical presence of negations. Previous research suggested, however, that the effect might be restricted to reasoning with conditional statements. This paper reports two experiments in which participants were required to construct or identify true and false cases of propositional rules of several kinds, including universal statements, disjunctions, and negated conjunctions. Matching bias (...)
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  47. On Gender and Philosophical Intuition: Failure of Replication and Other Negative Results.Hamid Seyedsayamdost - 2015 - Philosophical Psychology 28 (5):642-673.
    In their paper titled “Gender and philosophical intuition,” Buckwalter and Stich argue that the intuitions of women and men differ significantly on various types of philosophical questions. Furthermore, men's intuitions, so the authors claim, are more in line with traditionally accepted solutions of classical problems. This inherent bias, so the argument goes, is one of the factors that leads more men than women to pursue degrees and careers in philosophy. These findings have received a considerable amount of attention and (...)
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  48. Motivational Internalism and Folk Intuitions.Gunnar Björnsson, John Eriksson, Caj Strandberg, Ragnar Francén Olinder & Fredrik Björklund - 2015 - Philosophical Psychology 28 (5):715-734.
    Motivational internalism postulates a necessary connection between moral judgments and motivation. In arguing for and against internalism, metaethicists traditionally appeal to intuitions about cases, but crucial cases often yield conflicting intuitions. One way to try to make progress, possibly uncovering theoretical bias and revealing whether people have conceptions of moral judgments required for noncognitivist accounts of moral disagreement, is to investigate non-philosophers' willingness to attribute moral judgments. A pioneering study by Shaun Nichols seemed to undermine internalism, as a large (...)
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  49.  3
    The Nondiscriminating Heart: Lovingkindness Meditation Training Decreases Implicit Intergroup Bias.Yoona Kang, Jeremy R. Gray & John F. Dovidio - 2014 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143 (3):1306-1313.
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  50. On the Cognitive Bases of Knowledge Ascriptions.Mikkel Gerken - 2012 - In Jessica Brown & Mikkel Gerken (eds.), Knowledge Ascriptions. Oxford University Press.
    I develop an epistemic focal bias account of certain patterns of judgments about knowledge ascriptions by integrating it with a general dual process framework of human cognition. According to the focal bias account, judgments about knowledge ascriptions are generally reliable but systematically fallible because the cognitive processes that generate them are affected by what is in focus. I begin by considering some puzzling patters of judgments about knowledge ascriptions and sketch how a basic focal bias account seeks (...)
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