Results for 'expert performance'

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  1.  5
    Applying Aspects of the Expert Performance Approach to Better Understand the Structure of Skill and Mechanisms of Skill Acquisition in Video Games.R. Boot Walter, Sumner Anna, J. Towne Tyler, Rodriguez Paola & K. Anders Ericsson - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):413-436.
    Video games are ideal platforms for the study of skill acquisition for a variety of reasons. However, our understanding of the development of skill and the cognitive representations that support skilled performance can be limited by a focus on game scores. We present an alternative approach to the study of skill acquisition in video games based on the tools of the Expert Performance Approach. Our investigation was motivated by a detailed analysis of the behaviors responsible for the (...)
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  2.  1
    Applying Aspects of the Expert Performance Approach to Better Understand the Structure of Skill and Mechanisms of Skill Acquisition in Video Games.R. Boot Walter, Sumner Anna, J. Towne Tyler, Rodriguez Paola & K. Anders Ericsson - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4).
    Video games are ideal platforms for the study of skill acquisition for a variety of reasons. However, our understanding of the development of skill and the cognitive representations that support skilled performance can be limited by a focus on game scores. We present an alternative approach to the study of skill acquisition in video games based on the tools of the Expert Performance Approach. Our investigation was motivated by a detailed analysis of the behaviors responsible for the (...)
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  3.  17
    Considering the Role of Cognitive Control in Expert Performance.John Toner, Barbara Gail Montero & Aidan Moran - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (4):1127-1144.
    Dreyfus and Dreyfus’ influential phenomenological analysis of skill acquisition proposes that expert performance is guided by non-cognitive responses which are fast, effortless and apparently intuitive in nature. Although this model has been criticised for over-emphasising the role that intuition plays in facilitating skilled performance, it does recognise that on occasions a form of ‘detached deliberative rationality’ may be used by experts to improve their performance. However, Dreyfus and Dreyfus see no role for calculative problem solving or (...)
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  4.  27
    Basic Capacities Can Be Modified or Circumvented by Deliberate Practice: A Rejection of Talent Accounts of Expert Performance.K. Anders Ericsson - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (3):413-414.
    To make genuine progress toward explicating the relation between innate talent and high levels of ability, we need to consider the differences in structure between most everyday abilities and expert performance. Only in expert performance is it possible to show consistently that individuals can acquire skills to circumvent and modify basic characteristics (talent).
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  5.  12
    Historical Increases in Expert Performance Suggest Large Possibilities for Improvement of Performance Without Implicating Innate Capacities.Andreas C. Lehmann - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (3):419-420.
    Innate talents supposedly limit an individual's highest attainable level of performance and the rate of skill acquisition. However, Howe et al. have not reviewed evidence that the level of expert performance has increased dramatically over the last few centuries. Those increases demonstrate that the highest levels of performance may be less constrained by innate capacities than is commonly believed.
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  6.  14
    Can the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory Be Extended to Account for Individual Differences in Skilled and Expert Performance in Everyday Life?Roy W. Roring, Kiruthiga Nandagopal & K. Anders Ericsson - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (2):168-169.
    Performance on abstract unfamiliar tasks used to measure intelligence has not been found to correlate with individual differences in highly skilled and expert performance. Given that cognitive and neural structures and regions mediating performance change as skill increases, the structures highlighted by parieto-frontal integration theory are unlikely to account for individual differences in skilled cognitive achievement in everyday life.
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  7. To Think or Not To Think: The Apparent Paradox of Expert Skill in Music Performance.Andrew Geeves, Doris J. F. McIlwain, John Sutton & Wayne Christensen - 2013 - Educational Philosophy and Theory (6):1-18.
    Expert skill in music performance involves an apparent paradox. On stage, expert musicians are required accurately to retrieve information that has been encoded over hours of practice. Yet they must also remain open to the demands of the ever-changing situational contingencies with which they are faced during performance. To further explore this apparent paradox and the way in which it is negotiated by expert musicians, this article profiles theories presented by Roger Chaffin, Hubert Dreyfus and (...)
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  8.  2
    The Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition of Expert Performance.K. Anders Ericsson, Ralf T. Krampe & Clemens Tesch-Römer - 1993 - Psychological Review 100 (3):363-406.
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  9. A Proposed Integration of the Expert Performance and Individual Differences Approaches to the Study of Elite Performance.Scott Barry Kaufman - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  10. Expert Performance in SCRABBLE: Implications for the Study of the Structure and Acquisition of Complex Skills.Michael Tuffiash, Roy W. Roring & K. Anders Ericsson - 2007 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 13 (3):124-134.
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  11. Capturing Naturally Occurring Superior Performance in the Laboratory: Translational Research on Expert Performance.K. Anders Ericsson & A. Mark Williams - 2007 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 13 (3):115-123.
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  12.  8
    Distributed Cognition in Sports Teams: Explaining Successful and Expert Performance.Kellie Williamson & Rochelle Cox - 2014 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 46 (6):1-15.
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  13. Efficient Use of Working Memory Capacity Contributes to Expert Performance.Rm Hamm & C. Abernathy - 1992 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 30 (6):474-474.
     
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  14.  1
    High-Level Enactive and Embodied Cognition in Expert Sport Performance.Kevin Krein & Jesús Ilundáin-Agurruza - 2017 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 11 (3):370-384.
    Mental representation has long been central to standard accounts of action and cognition generally, and in the context of sport. We argue for an enactive and embodied account that rejects the idea that representation is necessary for cognition, and posit instead that cognition arises, or is enacted, in certain types of interactions between organisms and their environment. More specifically, we argue that enactive theories explain some kinds of high-level cognition, those that underlie some of the best performances in sport and (...)
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  15.  5
    Performance of Expert Abacus Operators.Giyoo Hatano, Yoshio Miyake & Martin G. Binks - 1977 - Cognition 5 (1):47-55.
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  16.  8
    Performance on the Emotional Stroop Task in Groups of Anxious, Expert, and Control Subjects: A Comparison of Computer and Card Presentation Formats.Tim Dalgleish - 1995 - Cognition and Emotion 9 (4):341-362.
  17.  1
    Systemizers Are Better Code-Breakers: Self-Reported Systemizing Predicts Code-Breaking Performance in Expert Hackers and Naïve Participants.India Harvey, Samuela Bolgan, Daniel Mosca, Colin McLean & Elena Rusconi - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  18.  2
    Determining Differences in User Performance Between Expert and Novice Primary Care Doctors When Using an Electronic Health Record.Martina A. Clarke, Jeffery L. Belden & Min Soon Kim - 2014 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (6):1153-1161.
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  19. Identifying Psychophysiological Indices of Expert Vs. Novice Performance in Deadly Force Judgment and Decision Making.Robin R. Johnson, Bradly T. Stone, Carrie M. Miranda, Bryan Vila, Lois James, Stephen M. James, Roberto F. Rubio & Chris Berka - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  20.  13
    Arguments From Expert Opinion and Persistent Bias.Moti Mizrahi - forthcoming - Argumentation:1-21.
    Accounts of arguments from expert opinion take it for granted that expert judgments count as (defeasible) evidence for propositions, and so an argument that proceeds from premises about what an expert judges to a conclusion that the expert is probably right is a strong argument. In Mizrahi (2013), I consider a potential justification for this assumption, namely, that expert judgments are significantly more likely to be true than novice judgments, and find it wanting because of (...)
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  21. Intuition Fail: Philosophical Activity and the Limits of Expertise.Wesley Buckwalter - 2014 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 89 (2):378-410.
    Experimental philosophers have empirically challenged the connection between intuition and philosophical expertise. This paper reviews these challenges alongside other research findings in cognitive science on expert performance and argues for three claims. First, evidence taken to challenge philosophical expertise may also be explained by the well-researched failures and limitations of genuine expertise. Second, studying the failures and limitations of experts across many fields provides a promising research program upon which to base a new model of philosophical expertise. Third, (...)
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  22.  56
    Why Arguments From Expert Opinion Are Still Weak: A Reply to Seidel.Moti Mizrahi - 2016 - Informal Logic 36 (2):238-252.
    In this paper, I reply to Seidel’s objections against my argument from expert performance to the effect that arguments from expert opinion are weak arguments. I clarify what Seidel takes to be unclear points in my argument and show that it withstands Seidel’s objections.
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  23. Expanding Expertise: Investigating a Musician’s Experience of Music Performance.Andrew Geeves, Doris Mcllwain, John Sutton & Wayne Christensen - 2010 - ASCS09: Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the Australasian Society for Cognitive Science:106-113.
    Seeking to expand on previous theories, this paper explores the AIR (Applying Intelligence to the Reflexes) approach to expert performance previously outlined by Geeves, Christensen, Sutton and McIlwain (2008). Data gathered from a semi-structured interview investigating the performance experience of Jeremy Kelshaw (JK), a professional musician, is explored. Although JK’s experience of music performance contains inherently uncertain elements, his phenomenological description of an ideal performance is tied to notions of vibe, connection and environment. The dynamic (...)
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  24.  18
    Channeling Knowledge: Expert Systems as Communications Media. [REVIEW]Randall Whitaker & Olov Östberg - 1988 - AI and Society 2 (3):197-208.
    Expert Systems (ES) are as yet imperfectly defined. Their two consistently cited characteristics are domain knowledge and expert-level performance. We propose that current structural definitions are inadequate and suggest a view of ES as communication channels. We proceed to explore the factors influencing applicability of ES technology to an enterprise and the impacts that could be expected. A consequence of this view is the idea of incremental information loss on the path from the expert to the (...)
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  25.  4
    The Contribution of a Community Event to Expert Work: An Activity Theoretical Perspective.Alanah Kazlauskas & Kathryn Crawford - 2004 - Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 6 (2):63-74.
    Becoming an expert in any knowledge domain takes time and a great deal of learning, both theoretical and experiential. The individual’s knowledge is often supplemented through knowledge exchanges with other experts. Such exchanges are facilitated by events such as conferences or meetings. For two years we have been investigating the high profile work of scientists who work in the accredited anti-doping laboratories that are located in various countries around the world. These scientists work to curb doping in sport by (...)
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  26.  11
    Being-in-the-Flow: Expert Coping as Beyond Both Thought and Automaticity.Joshua A. Bergamin - 2017 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 16 (3):403-424.
    Hubert Dreyfus argues that explicit thought disrupts smooth coping at both the level of everyday tasks and of highly-refined skills. However, Barbara Montero criticises Dreyfus for extending what she calls the ‘principle of automaticity’ from our everyday actions to those of trained experts. In this paper, I defend Dreyfus’ account while refining his phenomenology. I examine the phenomenology of what I call ‘esoteric’ expertise to argue that the explicit thought Montero invokes belongs rather to ‘gaps’ between or above moments of (...)
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  27.  2
    Why Arguments From Expert Opinion Are Still Weak: A Reply to Seidel.Moti Mizrahi - 2016 - Informal Logic 36 (2):238-252.
    In this paper, I reply to Seidel’s objections against my argument from expert performance to the effect that arguments from expert opinion are weak arguments. I clarify what Seidel takes to be unclear points in my argument and show that it withstands Seidel’s objections.
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  28.  3
    Putting Plural Self-Awareness Into Practice: The Phenomenology of Expert Musicianship.Alessandro Salice, Simon Høffding & Shaun Gallagher - forthcoming - Topoi:1-13.
    Based on a qualitative study about expert musicianship, this paper distinguishes three ways of interacting by putting them in relation to the sense of agency. Following Pacherie, it highlights that the phenomenology of shared agency undergoes a drastic transformation when musicians establish a sense of we-agency. In particular, the musicians conceive of the performance as one single action towards which they experience an epistemic privileged access. The implications of these results for a theory of collective intentionality are discussed (...)
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  29.  10
    Promoting Teachers' Moral Reasoning and Collaborative Inquiry Performance: A Developmental Role-Taking and Guided Inquiry Study.Alan J. Reiman & Sandra Deangelis Peace - 2002 - Journal of Moral Education 31 (1):51-66.
    A study of experienced teachers is used to illustrate a developmental methodology for promoting technical performance dimensions and moral and conceptual reasoning based on Sprinthall's and Thies-Sprinthall's (1983) principles of new social role-taking and guided inquiry. Called the learning-teaching framework (LTF), the theoretical and applied approach embeds new role-taking, guided inquiry, balance, support and challenge, continuity and instructional coaching in educational programming across the teacher professional development career span. The study was a 7-month quasi-experimental intervention of expert teachers (...)
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  30.  10
    Citizens' Satisfaction with Government Performance in Six Asian-Pacific Giants.Zhengxu Wang - 2010 - Japanese Journal of Political Science 11 (1):51-75.
    Assessment of the quality of governance has so far relied on socioeconomic statistics and expert opinions, while largely neglecting citizens satisfaction with their government in six Asian-Pacific countries: America, Australia, China, India, Japan, and Russia. I found citizen satisfaction with the public services they receive, such as education, healthcare, and public safety, matters most in their assessment of government performance. Individual satisfaction with income, job, and housing also matters. The respondent will disapprove government performance if he or (...)
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  31.  9
    The Effects of “Going Private” on Corporate Financial and Corporate Social Performance.Marguerite Schneider & Alix Valenti - 2008 - Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 19:236-245.
    The newly private corporation challenges scholars to re-examine corporate social responsibility under a markedly different governance system. We theorize regarding the implications of public corporations going private through use of private equity. The new governance system includes few owners and an expert, involved board of directors; combined with a greatly reduced public presence, public-to-private firms are proposed to place greater emphasis on financial performance and lesser emphasis on social performance. Several variables are proposed to moderate the lesser (...)
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  32. What Has the Study of Digital Games Contributed to the Science of Expert Behavior?Neil Charness - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):510-521.
    I review the historical context for modeling skilled performance in games. Using Newell's concept of time bands for explaining cognitive behavior, I categorize the current papers in terms of time scales, type of data, and analysis methodologies. I discuss strengths and weaknesses of these approaches for describing skill acquisition and why the study of digital games can address the challenges of replication and generalizability. Cognitive science needs to pay closer attention to population representativeness to enhance generalizability of findings, and (...)
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  33. Europudding or Europaradise? A Performance Evaluation of the Eurimages Co-Production Film Fund, Twenty Years After its Inception.Sophie De Vinck - 2009 - Communications - the European Journal of Communication Research 34 (3):257-285.
    This article focuses on Eurimages, the Council of Europe fund for the co-production, distribution and exhibition of European films. The core investigation of this paper relates to the benefits this public fund has had for the European film sector. Reflecting on the fund's twenty-year existence, what output has been realized, both in economic and cultural terms? Turning to the future, what are the fund's prospects now that the sector is facing the technological challenge of digitization? In order to evaluate the (...)
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  34. Modernising School Governance: Corporate Planning and Expert Handling in State Education.Andrew Wilkins - 2016 - Routledge.
    __Modernising School Governance__ examines the impact of recent market-based reforms on the role of governors in the English state education system. A focus of the book concerns how government and non-government demands for ‘strong governance’ have been translated to mean improved performance management of senior school leaders and greater monitoring and disciplining of governors. This book addresses fundamental questions about the neoliberal logic underpinning these reforms and how governors are being trained and responsibilised in new ways to enhance the (...)
     
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  35. Philosophical and Psychological Accounts of Expertise and Experts.Matt Stichter - 2015 - Humana.Mente - Journal of Philosophical Studies 28:105-128.
    There are many philosophical problems surrounding experts, given the power and status accorded to them in society. We think that what makes someone an expert is having expertise in some skill domain. But what does expertise consist in, and how closely related is expertise to the notion of an expert? Although most of us have acquired several practical skills, few of us have achieved the level of expertise with regard to those skills. So we can be easily misled (...)
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  36.  8
    Volume 45, No. 1–August 1998 MC Sánchez/Rational Choice on Non-Finite Sets by Means of Expansion-Contraction Axioms 1–17 L. Sapir/The Optimality of the Expert and Majority Rules Under Exponentially Distributed Competence 19–35. [REVIEW]P. D. Thistle & Economic Performance Social Structure - 1998 - Theory and Decision 45 (2):303-304.
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  37.  22
    Cognitive Transformations and Extended Expertise.Richard Menary & Michael Kirchhoff - 2014 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 46 (6):1-14.
    Expertise is extended by becoming immersed in cultural practices. We look at an example of mathematical expertise in which immersion in cognitive practices results in the transformation of expert performance.
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  38.  36
    Cognition in Skilled Action: Meshed Control and the Varieties of Skill Experience.Wayne Christensen, John Sutton & Doris J. F. McIlwain - 2016 - Mind and Language 31 (1):37-66.
    We present a synthetic theory of skilled action which proposes that cognitive processes make an important contribution to almost all skilled action, contrary to influential views that many skills are performed largely automatically. Cognitive control is focused on strategic aspects of performance, and plays a greater role as difficulty increases. We offer an analysis of various forms of skill experience and show that the theory provides a better explanation for the full set of these experiences than automatic theories. We (...)
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  39.  33
    Intuition Fail: Philosophical Activity and the Limits of Expertise.Wesley Buckwalter - 2016 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 92 (2):378-410.
    Experimental philosophers have empirically challenged the connection between intuition and philosophical expertise. This paper reviews these challenges alongside other research findings in cognitive science on expert performance and argues for three claims. First, evidence taken to challenge philosophical expertise may also be explained by the well-researched failures and limitations of genuine expertise. Second, studying the failures and limitations of experts across many fields provides a promising research program upon which to base a new model of philosophical expertise. Third, (...)
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  40.  1
    The Process of Ethical Decision-Making: Experts Vs Novices.Chris Walmsley, Karolina Staros, Amanda Meyer, Amy Ing, Andrew Evans, Wayne Fuqua, David Hartmann & Thomas Valey - 2015 - Journal of Academic Ethics 13 (1):45-60.
    As one approach to examining the way ethical decisions are made, we asked experts and novices to review a set of scenarios that depict some important ethical tensions in research. The method employed was “protocol analysis,” a talk-aloud technique pioneered by cognitive scientists for the analysis of expert performance. The participants were asked to verbalize their normally unexpressed thought processes as they responded to the scenarios, and to make recommendations for courses of action. We found that experts spent (...)
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  41.  2
    The Process of Ethical Decision-Making: Experts Vs Novices.Thomas Van Valey, David Hartmann, Wayne Fuqua, Andrew Evans, Amy Day Ing, Amanda Meyer, Karolina Staros & Chris Walmsley - 2015 - Journal of Academic Ethics 13 (1):45-60.
    As one approach to examining the way ethical decisions are made, we asked experts and novices to review a set of scenarios that depict some important ethical tensions in research. The method employed was “protocol analysis,” a talk-aloud technique pioneered by cognitive scientists for the analysis of expert performance. The participants were asked to verbalize their normally unexpressed thought processes as they responded to the scenarios, and to make recommendations for courses of action. We found that experts spent (...)
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  42.  52
    Somaesthetics and the Care of the Body.Shaun Gallagher - 2011 - Metaphilosophy 42 (3):305-313.
    Abstract: This article poses a number of questions to Richard Shusterman concerning his concepts of somaesthetics and body consciousness in his book Body Consciousness: A Philosophy of Mindfulness and Somaesthetics. How do the concepts relate to the kind of forgetfulness of the body that can happen in expert performance? What is the nature of somatic reflection, and how is it different from pre-reflective awareness of the body? The article suggests that our immersed involvement and overt orientation toward things, (...)
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  43.  24
    Intuitive Expertise and Perceptual Templates.Michael Harré & Allan Snyder - 2012 - Minds and Machines 22 (3):167-182.
    We provide the first demonstration of an artificial neural network encoding the perceptual templates that form an important component of the high level strategic understanding developed by experts. Experts have a highly refined sense of knowing where to look, what information is important and what information to ignore. The conclusions these experts reach are of a higher quality and typically made in a shorter amount of time than those of non-experts. Understanding the manifestation of such abilities in terms of both (...)
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  44.  17
    The Tensions Between Education and Development.Howard Gardner - 1991 - Journal of Moral Education 20 (2):113-125.
    Abstract Most scholars, including Lawrence Kohlberg, have maintained that the principles of human development can mesh readily with the goals of the educational system. However, children's intuitive theories and conceptions turn out to be so powerful that they often undermine the overt goals of education. Indeed, there is typically a disjunction between early forms of understanding, the forms that school attempts to inculcate, and the kinds of knowledge required for expert performance in a domain. Though the issue has (...)
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  45. Effortless Attention: A New Perspective in the Cognitive Science of Attention and Action.Brian Bruya (ed.) - 2010 - MIT Press.
    This is the first book to explore the cognitive science of effortless attention and action. Attention and action are generally understood to require effort, and the expectation is that under normal circumstances effort increases to meet rising demand. Sometimes, however, attention and action seem to flow effortlessly despite high demand. Effortless attention and action have been documented across a range of normal activities--from rock climbing to chess playing--and yet fundamental questions about the cognitive science of effortlessness have gone largely unasked. (...)
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  46. Measuring Knowledge Management Maturity at HEI to Enhance Performance-an Empirical Study at Al-Azhar University in Palestine.Samy S. Abu Naser, Mazen J. Al Shobaki & Youssef M. Abu Amuna - 2016 - International Journal of Commerce and Management Research 2 (5):55-62.
    This paper aims to assess knowledge management maturity at HEI to determine the most effecting variables on knowledge management that enhance the total performance of the organization. This study was applied on Al-Azhar University in Gaza strip, Palestine. This paper depends on Asian productivity organization model that used to assess KM maturity. Second dimension assess high performance was developed by the authors. The controlled sample was (364). Several statistical tools were used for data analysis and hypotheses testing, including (...)
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  47. Knowledge Management Maturity in Universities and its Impact on Performance Excellence "Comparative Study".Samy S. Abu Naser, Mazen J. Al Shobaki & Youssef M. Abu Amuna - 2016 - Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research 3.
    The paper assesses Knowledge Management Maturity(KMM) in the universities to determine the impact of knowledge management on performance excellence. This study was applied on Al-Azhar University and Al-Quds Open University in Gaza strip, Palestine. This paper depends on Asian productivity organization model that used to assess KMM. Second dimension which assess performance excellence was developed by the authors. The controlled sample was (610). Several statistical tools were used for data analysis and hypotheses testing, including reliability Correlation using Cronbach’s (...)
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  48.  53
    Corporate Social and Financial Performance: An Investigation in the U.K. Supermarket Industry. [REVIEW]Geoff Moore - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 34 (3-4):299 - 315.
    The comparison of corporate social performance with corporate financial performance has been a popular field of study over the past 25 years. The results, while broadly conclusive of a positive relationship, are not entirely consistent. In addition, most of the previous studies have concentrated on large-scale cross-industry studies and often with a single variable for corporate social performance, in order to produce statistically significant results. This weakens the richness of understanding that might be obtained from a single (...)
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  49. The Link Between Corporate Social and Financial Performance: Evidence From the Banking Industry. [REVIEW]W. Gary Simpson & Theodor Kohers - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 35 (2):97 - 109.
    The purpose of this investigation is to extend earlier research on the relationship between corporate social and financial performance. The unique contribution of the study is the empirical analysis of a sample of companies from the banking industry and the use of Community Reinvestment Act ratings as a social performance measure. The empirical analysis solidly supports the hypothesis that the link between social and financial performance is positive.
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  50. Expert Opinion and Second‐Hand Knowledge.Matthew A. Benton - 2016 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 92 (2):492-508.
    Expert testimony figures in recent debates over how best to understand the norm of assertion and the domain-specific epistemic expectations placed on testifiers. Cases of experts asserting with only isolated second-hand knowledge (Lackey 2011, 2013) have been used to shed light on whether knowledge is sufficient for epistemically permissible assertion. I argue that relying on such cases of expert testimony introduces several problems concerning how we understand expert knowledge, and the sharing of such knowledge through testimony. Refinements (...)
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