Results for 'exploitation'

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  1.  74
    Exploitation: A Primer.Nicholas Vrousalis - 2018 - Philosophy Compass 13 (2):1-14.
    This paper reviews the recent literature on exploitation. It distinguishes between three main species of exploitation theory: teleology-based accounts, respect-based accounts, and freedom-based accounts. It then addresses the implications of each.
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  2. Epistemic Exploitation.Nora Berenstain - 2016 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 3:569-590.
    Epistemic exploitation occurs when privileged persons compel marginalized persons to educate them about the nature of their oppression. I argue that epistemic exploitation is marked by unrecognized, uncompensated, emotionally taxing, coerced epistemic labor. The coercive and exploitative aspects of the phenomenon are exemplified by the unpaid nature of the educational labor and its associated opportunity costs, the double bind that marginalized persons must navigate when faced with the demand to educate, and the need for additional labor created by (...)
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  3. Exploitative Epistemic Trust.Katherine Dormandy - 2020 - In Trust in Epistemology. New York City, New York, Vereinigte Staaten: pp. 241-264.
    Where there is trust, there is also vulnerability, and vulnerability can be exploited. Epistemic trust is no exception. This chapter maps the phenomenon of the exploitation of epistemic trust. I start with a discussion of how trust in general can be exploited; a key observation is that trust incurs vulnerabilities not just for the party doing the trusting, but also for the trustee (after all, trust can be burdensome), so either party can exploit the other. I apply these considerations (...)
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  4.  70
    Wage Exploitation and the Nonworseness Claim: Allowing the Wrong, To Do More Good.David Faraci - 2019 - Business Ethics Quarterly 29 (2):169-188.
    Many believe that employment can be wrongfully exploitative, even if it is consensual and mutually beneficial. At the same time, it may seem third parties should not do anything to preclude or eliminate such arrangements, given these same considerations of consent and benefit. I argue that there are perfectly sensible, intuitive ethical positions that vindicate this ‘Reasonable View’. The view requires such defense because the literature often suggests that there is no theoretical space for it. I respond to arguments for (...)
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  5. Exploitation.Allen W. Wood - 1995 - Social Philosophy and Policy 12 (2):136--158.
    It is commonly thought that exploitation is unjust; some think it is part of the very meaning of the word 'exploitation' that it is unjust. Those who think this will suppose that the just society has to be one in which people do not exploit one another, at least on a large scale. I will argue that exploitation is not unjust by definition, and that a society (such as Our own) might be fundamentally just while nevertheless being (...)
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  6. Exploitation.Alan Wertheimer - 1996 - Princeton University Press.
    In this book, Alan Wertheimer seeks to identify when a transaction or relationship can be properly regarded as exploitative--and not oppressive, manipulative, or morally deficient in some other way--and explores the moral weight of taking ...
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  7. Exploitable Isomorphism and Structural Representation.Nicholas Shea - 2014 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 114 (2pt2):123-144.
    An interesting feature of some sets of representations is that their structure mirrors the structure of the items they represent. Founding an account of representational content on isomorphism, homomorphism or structural resemblance has proven elusive, however, largely because these relations are too liberal when the candidate structure over representational vehicles is unconstrained. Furthermore, in many cases where there is a clear isomorphism, it is not relied on in the way the representations are used. That points to a potential resolution: that (...)
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  8.  45
    Exploitation.Michael Gorr - 1998 - Philosophical Review 107 (2):296.
    Despite its title, Alan Wertheimer’s new book is not another tiresome exploration of Marxist economic theories. Indeed, there is virtually no extended discussion of Marxism at all, since Wertheimer believes that what is unique to that perspective is highly problematic, given that when Marxists simply assert that capitalists do exploit wage laborers they are appealing to “the ordinary notion that one party exploits another when it gets unfair and undeserved benefits from its transactions or relationships with others”. His goal is (...)
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  9. Exploitation: What It is and Why It's Wrong.Ruth J. Sample - 2003 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Exploitation locates what it is we recognize as bad when we judge a situation to be exploitative. Ideal for courses in social and political philosophy, public policy, or political science.
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  10. Exploitation, Vulnerability, and Social Domination.Nicholas Vrousalis - 2013 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 41 (2):131-157.
  11.  33
    Exploitation, Working Poverty, and the Expressive Power of Wages.Ned Dobos - 2019 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 36 (2):333-347.
    The ‘working poor’ are paid below‐subsistence wages for full‐time employment. What, if anything, is wrong with this? The extant philosophical literature offers two kinds of answers. The first says that failing to pay workers enough to live on takes unfair advantage of them; the workers are exploited. The second says that employers who fail to pay living wages default on a duty of care grounded in a special relationship; the workers are neglected. These arguments, though generally sound, provide an incomplete (...)
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  12.  55
    Exploitation and Community Engagement: Can Community Advisory Boards Successfully Assume a Role Minimising Exploitation in International Research?Bridget Pratt, Khin Maung Lwin, Deborah Zion, Francois Nosten, Bebe Loff & Phaik Yeong Cheah - 2015 - Developing World Bioethics 15 (1):18-26.
    It has been suggested that community advisory boards can play a role in minimising exploitation in international research. To get a better idea of what this requires and whether it might be achievable, the paper first describes core elements that we suggest must be in place for a CAB to reduce the potential for exploitation. The paper then examines a CAB established by the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit under conditions common in resource-poor settings – namely, where individuals join (...)
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  13. Exploitation and Sweatshop Labor: Perspectives and Issues.Jeremy Snyder - 2010 - Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (2):187-213.
    In this review, I survey theoretical accounts of exploitation in business, chiefly through the example of low wage or sweatshop labor. This labor is associated with wages that fall below a living wage standard and include long working hours. Labor of this kind is often described as self-evidently exploitative and immoral (Van Natta 1995). But for those who defend sweatshop labor as the first rung on a ladder toward greater economic development, the charge that sweatshop labor is self-evidently exploitative (...)
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  14. Structural Exploitation.Matt Zwolinski - 2012 - Social Philosophy and Policy 29 (1):154-179.
    Research Articles Matt Zwolinski, Social Philosophy and Policy, FirstView Article.
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  15.  68
    Exploitation and Developing Countries: The Ethics of Clinical Research.Jennifer S. Hawkins & Ezekiel J. Emanuel - 2008 - Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton Univ Pr.
    This book was inspired originally by the debates at the turn of the century about placebo controlled trials of antiretrovirals in HIV positive pregnant women in developing countries. Moving forward from this one limited example, the book includes several additional controversial cases of clinical research conducted in developing countries, and asks probing philosophical questions about the ethics of such trials. All clinical research by its very nature uses people to acquire generalizable knowledge to help future people. But what sorts of (...)
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  16. Exploitation and the Vulnerability Clause.Hallie Liberto - 2014 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (4):619-629.
    What conditions of vulnerability must an individual face in order that we might ever correctly say that she or he has been wrongfully exploited? Mikhail Valdman has recently argued that wrongful exploitation is the extraction of excessive benefits from someone who cannot reasonably refuse one’s offer. So, ‘being unable to reasonably refuse an offer’ is Valdman’s answer to this question. I will argue that this answer is too narrow, but that other competing answers, like Alan Wertheimer’s, are too broad. (...)
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  17. The Exploitation Solution to the Non-Identity Problem.Hallie Liberto - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 167 (1):73-88.
    When discussing exploitation, we often say things like this, “sweatshop laborers have terrible working conditions and are paid almost nothing, but they are better off with that labor than with no labor.” Similarly, in describing the Non-Identity Problem, Derek Parfit points out: we cannot say that the individuals born in future generations are worse off because of our destructive environmental policies because the particular people living in those future generations wouldn’t even exist if it were not for these destructive (...)
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  18. Needs Exploitation.Jeremy C. Snyder - 2008 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 11 (4):389-405.
    Sweatshop labor is often cited as an example of the worst and most pervasive form of exploitation today, yet understanding what is meant by the charge has proven surprisingly difficult for philosophers. I develop an account of what I call “Needs Exploitation,” grounded in a specification of the duty of beneficence. In the case of sweatshop labor, I argue that employers face a duty to extend to employees a wage sufficient to meet their basic needs. This duty is (...)
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  19.  29
    Exploitation and Remedial Duties.Erik Malmqvist & András Szigeti - 2021 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 38 (1):55-72.
    The concept of exploitation and potentially exploitative real-world practices are the subject of increasing philosophical attention. However, while philosophers have extensively debated what exploitation is and what makes it wrong, they have said surprisingly little about what might be required to remediate it. By asking how the consequences of exploitation should be addressed, this article seeks to contribute to filling this gap. We raise two questions. First, what are the victims of exploitation owed by way of (...)
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  20. Exploitation.Alan Wertheimer & Matt Zwolinski - 1996 - Mind.
    What is the basis for arguing that a volunteer army exploits citizens who lack civilian career opportunities? How do we determine that a doctor who has sex with his patients is exploiting them? In this book, Alan Wertheimer seeks to identify when a transaction or relationship can be properly regarded as exploitative--and not oppressive, manipulative, or morally deficient in some other way--and explores the moral weight of taking unfair advantage. Among the first political philosophers to examine this important topic from (...)
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  21.  27
    Exploiting Injustice in Mutually Beneficial Market Exchange: The Case of Sweatshop Labor.András Miklós - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 156 (1):59-69.
    Mutually beneficial exchanges in markets can be exploitative because one party takes advantage of an underlying injustice. For instance, employers of sweatshop workers are often accused of exploiting the desperate conditions of their employees, although the latter accept the terms of their employment voluntarily. A weakness of this account of exploitation is its tendency for over-inclusiveness. Certainly, given the prevalence of global and domestic socioeconomic inequalities, not all exchanges that take place against background injustices should be considered exploitative. This (...)
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  22.  90
    Exploitation, Solidarity, and Dignity.Pablo Gilabert - 2019 - Journal of Social Philosophy 50 (4):465-494.
    This paper offers a normative exploration of what exploitation is and of what is wrong with it. The focus is on the critical assessment of the exploitation of workers in capitalist societies. Such exploitation is wrongful when it involves a contra-solidaristic use of power to benefit oneself at the expense of others. Wrongful exploitation consists in using your greater power, and sometimes even in making other less powerful than you, in order to get them to benefit (...)
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  23.  57
    Exploitation as Domination: A Response to Arneson.Nicholas Vrousalis - 2016 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 54 (4):527-538.
    In a recent paper in this journal, Richard Arneson criticizes the domination account of exploitation and attributes it to me and Allen Wood. In this paper, I defend the domination account against Arneson's criticisms. I begin by showing that the domination view is distinct from the vulnerability-based view defended by Wood. I also show that Alan Wertheimer's influential account of exploitation is congenial to the domination view. I then argue that Arneson's own fairness-based view of exploitation generates (...)
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  24.  98
    Exploitation.Nancy Holmstrom - 1977 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 7 (2):353 - 369.
    According to Marx one of the primary evils of capitalism is that it is exploitative-and necessarily so. Socialist and communist societies will not be exploitative and this is one of the reasons why they will in some sense be better. To understand such claims we have to determine exactly what Marx means by “exploitation” and what it is about exploitation that Marx finds to be bad. Neither of these questions is as simple as it might seem.A common misunderstanding (...)
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  25.  52
    Exploitation*: ALLEN W. WOOD.Allen W. Wood - 1995 - Social Philosophy and Policy 12 (2):136-158.
    It is commonly thought that exploitation is unjust; some think it is part of the very meaning of the word ‘exploitation’ that it is unjust. Those who think this will suppose that the just society has to be one in which people do not exploit one another, at least on a large scale. I will argue that exploitation is not unjust by definition, and that a society might be fundamentally just while nevertheless being pervasively exploitative. I do (...)
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  26.  56
    Exploitation in Payments to Research Subjects.Trisha Phillips - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (4):209-219.
    Offering cash payments to research subjects is a common recruiting method but there is significant debate about whether and in what amount such payments are appropriate. This paper is concerned with exploitation and whether there should be a lower limit on the amount researchers can pay their subjects. When subjects participate in research as a way to make money, fairness requires that researchers pay them a fair wage. This call for the establishment of a lower limit meets resistance in (...)
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  27. Sweatshops, Choice, and Exploitation.Matt Zwolinski - 2007 - Business Ethics Quarterly 17 (4):689-727.
    This paper argues that a sweatshop worker's choice to accept the conditions of his or her employment is morally significant, both as an exercise of autonomy and as an expression of preference. This fact establishes a moral claim against interference in the conditions of sweatshop labor by third parties such as governments or consumer boycott groups. It should also lead us to doubt those who call for MNEs to voluntarily improve working conditions, at least when their arguments are based on (...)
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  28.  61
    Exploitations and Their Complications: The Necessity of Identifying the Multiple Forms of Exploitation in Pharmaceutical Trials.Jeremy Snyder - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (5):251-258.
    Human subject trials of pharmaceuticals in low and middle income countries have been associated with the moral wrong of exploitation on two grounds. First, these trials may include a placebo control arm even when proven treatments for a condition are in use in other parts of the world. Second, the trial researchers or sponsors may fail to make a successful treatment developed through the trial available to either the trial participants or the host community following the trial.Many commentators have (...)
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  29.  91
    Exploitation in Biomedical Research.David B. Resnik - 2003 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (3):233--259.
    This essay analyzesexploitation in biomedical research in terms ofthree basic elements: harm, disrespect, orinjustice. There are also degrees ofexploitation, ranging from highly exploitationto minimally exploitation. Althoughexploitation is prima facie wrongful,some exploitative research studies are morallyjustified, all things considered. The reasonan exploitative study can still be ethical isthat other moral considerations, such as theautonomy of the research subject or the socialbenefits of research, may sometimes justifystudies that are minimally exploitative. Calling a research project exploitative doesnot end the debate about the (...)
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  30.  23
    Avoiding Exploitation in Phase I Clinical Trials: More Than (Un)Just Compensation.Matt Lamkin & Carl Elliott - 2018 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 46 (1):52-63.
    Lowering compensation to research subjects to protect them from “undue inducement” is a misguided attempt to shoehorn a concern about exploitation into the framework of autonomy. We suggest that oversight bodies should be less concerned about undue influence than about exploitation of subjects. Avoiding exploitation in human subjects research requires not only increasing compensation, but enhancing the dignity of research participation.
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  31. Exploitation and the Sweatshop Quandary - ExploitationAlan Wertheimer Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996 - The Sweatshop Quandary: Corporate Responsibility on the Global FrontierPamela Varley, Editor Washington, D.C.: Investor Responsibility Research Center, 1998. [REVIEW]Denis G. Arnold - 2003 - Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (2):243-256.
  32.  74
    Sweatshops, Exploitation, and the Case for a Fair Wage.Michael Kates - 2019 - Journal of Political Philosophy 27 (1):26-47.
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  33. Exploitation and Economic Justice in the Liberal Capitalist State.Mark R. Reiff - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    Exploitation and Economic Justice in the Liberal Capitalist State offers the first new, liberal theory of economic justice to appear in more than 30 years. The theory presented is designed to offer an alternative to the most popular liberal egalitarian theories of today and aims to be acceptable to both right and left libertarians too.
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  34.  74
    Exploitation and Outcome.Richard Arneson - 2013 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 12 (4):392-412.
    Exploitation is interacting with another in a way that takes unfair advantage of that person. Exploitation is thought to be morally wrong even when it would bring about the best attainable outcome, hence conflicts with the consequentialist morality that holds one ought always to do whatever would bring about the best outcome. This essay aims to reconcile norms against exploitation and act consequentialism. A puzzle about exploitation is raised and resolved.
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  35.  71
    The Exploitation Problem.Joe Horton - 2019 - Journal of Political Philosophy 27 (4):469-479.
    Many of us believe that exploitation is wrong, and that it is wrong even when, because the exploited would otherwise suffer, they consent to the exploitation. Does it follow that we should leave people to suffer rather than exploit them? This conclusion might seem difficult to accept, but avoiding it seems to require accepting a counterintuitively demanding view about our obligations to vulnerable people. In this paper, I offer a new solution to this problem.
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  36. Exploitation and Injustice.Mikhail Valdman - 2008 - Social Theory and Practice 34 (4):551--572.
    When is it immoral to take advantage of another person for one's own benefit? For some, such as Ruth Sample, John Roemer, and Will Kymlicka, the answer at least partly depends on whether what one takes advantage of is the fact that this person is, or has been, the victim of injustice. I argue, however, that whether person A wrongly exploits person B is wholly unrelated to whether A takes advantage of the fact that B is, or was, the victim (...)
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  37.  76
    Exploitation as a Path to Development: Sweatshop Labour, Micro-Unfairness, and the Non-Worseness Claim.Michael Randall Barnes - 2013 - Ethics and Economics.
    Sweatshop labour is sometimes defended from critics by arguments that stress the voluntariness of the worker’s choice, and the fact that sweatshops provide a source of income where no other similar source exists. The idea is if it is exploitation—as their opponents charge—it is mutually beneficial and consensual exploitation. This defence appeals to the non-worseness claim (NWC), which says that if exploitation is better for the exploited party than neglect, it cannot be seriously wrong. The NWC renders (...)
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  38. The Exploitation Argument Against Commercial Surrogacy.Stephen Wilkinson - 2003 - Bioethics 17 (2):169–187.
    It is argued that there are good reasons for believing that commercial surrogacy is often exploitative. However, even if we accept this, the exploitation argument for prohibiting (or otherwise legislatively discouraging) commercial surrogacy remains quite weak. One reason for this is that prohibition may well 'backfire' and lead to potential surrogates having to do other things that are more exploitative and/or more harmful than paid surrogacy. It is concluded, therefore, that those who oppose exploitation should concentrate on: (a) (...)
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  39.  30
    Exploiting Spatial and Temporal for Point of Interest Recommendation.Jinpeng Chen, Wen Zhang, Pei Zhang, Pinguang Ying, Kun Niu & Ming Zou - 2018 - Complexity 2018:1-16.
    An increasing number of users have been attracted by location-based social networks in recent years. Meanwhile, user-generated content in online LBSNs like spatial, temporal, and social information provides an ever-increasing chance to study the human behavior movement from their spatiotemporal mobility patterns and spawns a large number of location-based applications. For instance, one of such applications is to produce personalized point of interest recommendations that users are interested in. Different from traditional recommendation methods, the recommendations in LBSNs come with two (...)
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  40.  51
    Exploitation in International Paid Surrogacy Arrangements.Stephen Wilkinson - 2016 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2):125-145.
    Many critics have suggested that international paid surrogacy is exploitative. Taking such concerns as its starting point, this article asks: how defensible is the claim that international paid surrogacy is exploitative and what could be done to make it less exploitative? In the light of the answer to, how strong is the case for prohibiting it? Exploitation could in principle be dealt with by improving surrogates' pay and conditions. However, doing so may exacerbate problems with consent. Foremost amongst these (...)
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  41. Sweatshops, Exploitation, and Moral Responsibility.Robert Mayer - 2007 - Journal of Social Philosophy 38 (4):605–619.
  42.  9
    Exploiting Bi-Directional Self-Organizing Tendencies in Team Sports: The Role of the Game Model and Tactical Principles of Play.João Ribeiro, Keith Davids, Duarte Araújo, José Guilherme, Pedro Silva & Júlio Garganta - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
  43. Exploitation, Autonomy, and the Case for Organ Sales.Paul M. Hughes - 1998 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 12 (1):89-95.
    A recent argument in favor of a free market in human organs claims that such a market enhances personal autonomy. I argue here that such a market would, on the contrary, actually compromise the autonomy of those most likely to sell their organs, namely, the least well off members of society. A Marxian-inspired notion of exploitation is deployed to show how, and in what sense, this is the case.
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  44.  34
    Exploitation and Demeaning Choices.Jeremy Snyder - 2013 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 12 (4):345-360.
    Scholarship aiming to describe the wrongness of exploitation, especially when it is voluntary and mutually beneficial, has increased greatly in recent years. In this paper, I expand the scope of this discussion by highlighting a set of additional ethical concerns associated with many cases of mutually voluntary and beneficial exploitation. Specifically, I argue that the phenomenon of persons desperately seeking out and gratefully accepting exploitative interactions raises special moral concerns. The element of voluntariness is key to understanding how (...)
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  45.  36
    Avoiding Exploitation in Clinical Research.Solomon R. Benatar - 2000 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (4):562-565.
    Clinical research has become a burgeoning activity in recent years, largely stimulated by the pharmaceutical industry's interest in new drugs with high marketing profiles. Several other forces fuel this thrust: the increasing dependence of academic medical institutions on research funding from industry; the need for large, efficient multicenter trials to obtain reliable and statistically significant results in the shortest possible time for drug registration purposes; and access to research subjects in countries. The intense interest in HIV/AIDS research and recent controversies (...)
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  46.  32
    Exploitation, Intentionality and Injustice.Hillel Steiner - 2018 - Economics and Philosophy 34 (3):369-379.
    :This paper argues that, inasmuch as exploitation is a form of injustice, exploitative acts need not be performed intentionally.
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  47.  99
    Exploitation, Alienation, and Injustice.Allen Buchanan - 1979 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 9 (1):121 - 139.
    The concept of exploitation plays a key role in Marx's attack on capitalism. No one denies this. Yet there is much confusion as to just what Marx's concept of exploitation is.Recent discussions tend to fall into two groups. In the first are those which offer extensive analyses of Marx's concept of alienation, but seldom mention ‘exploitation’. When writers in this first group do mention ‘exploitation’ they mistakenly assume that the concept is transparent and unproblematic.The second group (...)
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  48.  34
    Exploitation, Domination, Competitive Markets, and Unfair Division.Richard Arneson - 2016 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 54 (S1):9-30.
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  49.  9
    Stopping Exploitation: Properly Remunerating Healthcare Workers for Risk in the COVID‐19 Pandemic.Alberto Giubilini & Julian Savulescu - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (4):372-379.
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  50.  51
    Rethinking Exploitation: A Process-Centered Account.Lynn A. Jansen & Steven Wall - 2013 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 23 (4):381-410.
    The term “exploitation” has gained wide currency in recent discussions of biomedical and research ethics. This is due in no small measure to the influence of Alan Wertheimer’s path-breaking work on the topic (Wertheimer 1999, 2011). Wertheimer presented a clear and compelling non-Marxist account of the concept of exploitation—one that stressed the connection between exploitation and unfair distributive outcomes. On this account, when one party exploits another, she takes advantage of the other to gain unfairly. A number (...)
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