Results for 'extraterrestrial intelligence'

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  1. Unraveling Trie Enigma of Human Intelligence: Evolutionary Psychology and the Multimodular Mind.Of Intelligence - 2002 - In Robert J. Sternberg & J. Kaufman (eds.), The Evolution of Intelligence. Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 145.
     
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  2.  31
    The Evolutionary Psychology of Extraterrestrial Intelligence: Are There Universal Adaptations in Search, Aversion, and Signaling?Peter M. Todd & Geoffrey F. Miller - 2018 - Biological Theory 13 (2):131-141.
    To understand the possible forms of extraterrestrial intelligence, we need not only astrobiology theories about how life evolves given habitable planets, but also evolutionary psychology theories about how intelligence emerges given life. Wherever intelligent organisms evolve, they are likely to face similar behavioral challenges in their physical and social worlds. The cognitive mechanisms that arise to meet these challenges may then be copied, repurposed, and shaped by further evolutionary selection to deal with more abstract, higher-level cognitive tasks (...)
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  3.  26
    Big Numbers and Induction in the Case for Extraterrestrial Intelligence.Roy Mash - 1993 - Philosophy of Science 60 (2):204-222.
    Arguments favoring the existence of extraterrestrial intelligence nearly always contain an overt appeal to big numbers, often combined with a covert reliance on generalization from a single instance. In this paper I examine both motifs, and consider whether big numbers might actually make palatable otherwise implausible single-case inductions. In the end, the dispute between believers and skeptics is seen to boil down to a conflict of intuitions which can barely be engaged, let alone resolved, given our present state (...)
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  4.  42
    SETI: On the Prospects and Pursuitworthiness of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence.André Kukla - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 32 (1):31-67.
    My topic is extraterrestrial intelligence. Following current conventions, I use the abbreviation ‘ETI’ to stand for three related concepts: the abstract idea of extraterrestrial intelligence, individuals who are both extraterrestrial and intelligent , and the hypothesis that there are ETIs. SETI is the search for ETIs, and CETI is the attempt to communicate with ETIs. In this paper, I will try to answer the two most basic questions in extraterrestrial studies. First, what is the (...)
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  5. Seti: On the Prospects and Pursuitworthiness of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence.André Kukla - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 32 (1):31-67.
    My topic is extraterrestrial intelligence. Following current conventions, I use the abbreviation ‘ETI’ to stand for three related concepts: the abstract idea of extraterrestrial intelligence, individuals who are both extraterrestrial and intelligent, and the hypothesis that there are ETIs. SETI is the search for ETIs, and CETI is the attempt to communicate with ETIs. In this paper, I will try to answer the two most basic questions in extraterrestrial studies. First, what is the status (...)
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  6.  14
    Wittgenstein and Communicating with an Extraterrestrial Intelligence.Jason Waller - 2008 - Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations 7.
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  7.  23
    The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence.Edward Ingram - 2003 - Philosophy Now 41:42-43.
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  8.  2
    Lawrence Squeri. Waiting for Contact: The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. X + 233 Pp., Bibl., Index. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2016. $26.95. [REVIEW]David H. DeVorkin - 2017 - Isis 108 (4):882-883.
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    Philosophy and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence.David Lamb - 1994 - Cogito 8 (2):127-134.
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  10.  5
    Human Pattern Detection and Recognition in the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence.John C. Baird, Tyler Blake, Timothy Healy & James Schimandle - 1982 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 20 (2):74-76.
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  11.  4
    The Evolutionary Communication Model for Extraterrestrial Intelligence.V. Csanyi & Gy Kampis - 1990 - In Kishor Gandhi (ed.), The Odyssey of Science, Culture, and Consciousness. Abhinav Publications. pp. 216.
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  12.  2
    Philosophy and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence.David Lamb - 1994 - Cogito 8 (2):127-134.
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  13.  2
    Radio Astronomy as Epistemology: Some Philosophical Reflections on the Contemporary Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence.Anthony Weston - 1988 - The Monist 71 (1):88-100.
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  14. Science, Religion, and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence.David Wilkinson - 2017 - Oxford University Press UK.
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  15.  55
    Searching for Another Earth: The Recent History of the Discovery of Exoplanets.David Wilkinson - 2016 - Zygon 51 (2):414-430.
    The discovery of exoplanets is a small part of the array of scientific arguments for and against the existence of extraterrestrial intelligence. Yet the recent stunning achievement of this program of observational astronomy has had a significant effect on scientific opinion and public interest. It also raises some key theological questions. New observing techniques are leading to the discovery of extrasolar planets daily. Earth-like planets outside of our Solar System can now be identified and in future years explored (...)
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  16.  27
    Evolutionary Contingency and SETI Revisited.Milan M. Ćirković - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (4):539-557.
    The well-known argument against the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) due to George Gaylord Simpson is re-analyzed almost half a century later, in the light of our improved understanding of preconditions for the emergence of life and intelligence brought about by the ongoing “astrobiological revolution”. Simpson’s argument has been enormously influential, in particular in biological circles, and it arguably fueled the most serious opposition to SETI programmes and their funding. I argue that both proponents and opponents of (...)
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  17.  61
    Too Early? On the Apparent Conflict of Astrobiology and Cosmology.Milan M. Ćirković - 2006 - Biology and Philosophy 21 (3):369-379.
    An interesting consequence of the modern cosmological paradigm is the spatial infinity of the universe. When coupled with naturalistic understanding of the origin of life and intelligence, which follows the basic tenets of astrobiology, and with some fairly incontroversial assumptions in the theory of observation selection effects, this infinity leads, as Ken Olum has recently shown, to a paradoxical conclusion. Olum's paradox is related, to the famous Fermi's paradox in astrobiology and “SETI” studies. We, hereby, present an evolutionary argument (...)
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  18.  10
    From Earth to the Universe: Life, Intelligence, and Evolution.Linda Billings - 2018 - Biological Theory 13 (2):93-102.
    While the scientific discourse on astrobiology—the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the universe—leans toward optimism about the possibility of extraterrestrial life, optimistic thinking is tempered by the limits of evidence and observations gathered thus far. Most astrobiologists assume that “first contact” with extraterrestrial life, if it is ever to occur, will likely be the discovery of microbial life elsewhere in our solar system. But in popular culture, “first contact” tends to be characterized as (...)
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  19.  30
    Biosemiotic Knowledge — a Prerequisite for Valid Explorations of Extraterrestrial Intelligent Life.Elling Ulvestad - 2002 - Sign Systems Studies 30 (1):283-291.
    The scientific search for extraterrestrial intelligent life is probably one of the most ambitious projects ever taken in biology. The article discusses methodological problems associated with the search. It is emphasized that investigators of extraterrestrial intelligence, in contrast to investigators of terrestrial matters, have no valid pre-understanding of their subject matter. In this barren setting, utilization of semiotic knowledge is shown to be a prerequisite for achievement of valid data. Owing to methodological shortcomings, it is concluded that (...)
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  20.  16
    Nightmare and Utopia: Extraterrestrial Worlds From Galileo To Goethe.Karl S. Guthke - 2003 - Early Science and Medicine 8 (3):173-195.
    Present-day speculation on extraterrestrial intelligence, taking its cue from a number of programmes currently "listening" for electro-magnetic signals from space, have a prehistory dating back to the immediate aftermath of the Copernican Revolution. Throughout the centuries of the Early Modern Period, it was not only theological but also more or less secular philosophical concerns that informed the hopes and the fears that writers of all stripes associated with the tentative notion that "We are not alone." It was not (...)
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  21. Karl Rahner and the Intelligence Question.Christopher L. Fisher & David Fergusson - 2006 - Heythrop Journal 47:275-290.
    Throughout his writings, Karl Rahner remained open to the prospect that the process of cosmic evolution had yielded sentient life form in other galaxies. He argued against any theological veto on this notion, while also distinguishing the existential significance of such life forms from that of angles. Furthermore, the possibility of multiple incarnations is raised though not affirmed. With its Christological intensity, his theology seems to militate against any repetition of the incarnation. This essay examines some of the arguments for (...)
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  22.  9
    On Strategy in the Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations.N. S. Kardashev - 1978 - Russian Studies in Philosophy 17 (1):33-53.
    The problem of finding and studying extraterrestrial civilizations is a problem of exceptional importance to human experience, culture, and philosophy. For the information obtained as a result of the discovery of intelligence in the cosmos may point the path to development of our civilizations over astronomically long periods of time. Utilization of such information could fundamentally change our entire way of life and functioning. Interest in the solution of this superproblem grows with each passing year and involves a (...)
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  23.  38
    Alone in the Universe.Howard Smith - 2016 - Zygon 51 (2):497-519.
    We are probably alone in the universe—a conclusion based on observations of over 4,000 exoplanets and fundamental physical constraints. This article updates earlier arguments with the latest astrophysical results. Since the discovery of exoplanets, theologians have asked with renewed urgency what the presence of extraterrestrial intelligence says about salvation and human purpose, but this is the wrong question. The more urgent question is what their absence says. The “Misanthropic Principle” is the observation that, in a universe fine-tuned for (...)
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  24. The Anthropic Cosmological Principle.John D. Barrow - 1986 - Oxford University Press.
    Ever since Copernicus, scientists have continually adjusted their view of human nature, moving it further and further from its ancient position at the center of Creation. But in recent years, a startling new concept has evolved that places it more firmly than ever in a special position. Known as the Anthropic Cosmological Principle, this collection of ideas holds that the existence of intelligent observers determines the fundamental structure of the Universe. In its most radical version, the Anthropic Principle asserts that (...)
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  25. Future Progress in Artificial Intelligence: A Survey of Expert Opinion.Vincent C. Müller & Nick Bostrom - 2016 - In Fundamental Issues of Artificial Intelligence. Springer. pp. 553-571.
    There is, in some quarters, concern about high–level machine intelligence and superintelligent AI coming up in a few decades, bringing with it significant risks for humanity. In other quarters, these issues are ignored or considered science fiction. We wanted to clarify what the distribution of opinions actually is, what probability the best experts currently assign to high–level machine intelligence coming up within a particular time–frame, which risks they see with that development, and how fast they see these developing. (...)
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  26.  43
    AAAI: An Argument Against Artificial Intelligence.Sander Beckers - 2018 - In Vincent C. Müller (ed.), Philosophy and theory of artificial intelligence 2017. Berlin: Springer. pp. 235-247.
    The ethical concerns regarding the successful development of an Artificial Intelligence have received a lot of attention lately. The idea is that even if we have good reason to believe that it is very unlikely, the mere possibility of an AI causing extreme human suffering is important enough to warrant serious consideration. Others look at this problem from the opposite perspective, namely that of the AI itself. Here the idea is that even if we have good reason to believe (...)
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  27. Uncommon Sense: The Heretical Nature of Science.Alan H. Cromer - 1993 - Oxford University Press.
    Most people believe that science arose as a natural end-product of our innate intelligence and curiosity, as an inevitable stage in human intellectual development. But physicist and educator Alan Cromer disputes this belief. Cromer argues that science is not the natural unfolding of human potential, but the invention of a particular culture, Greece, in a particular historical period. Indeed, far from being natural, scientific thinking goes so far against the grain of conventional human thought that if it hadn't been (...)
     
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  28.  5
    Is Contact a Process?Milan M. Cirkovic - unknown
    Both “optimists” and “sceptics” in regard to extraterrestrial intelligence tend to hold the view that we are entitled to an epistemically clear position: either there will be a signal, in the sufficiently general sense, proving the existence of extraterrestrial intelligence, or no such signal is forthcoming. The distinction, I wish to argue here, is not at all so clear-cut. On the contrary, there are arguments, intrinsic to the subject matter, to the effect that the detection of (...)
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  29. Three Frequently Asked Questions About Intelligent Design.William A. Dembski - unknown
    Intelligent design is the science that studies how to detect intelligence. Recall astronomer Carl Sagan’s novel Contact about the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (or SETI). Sagan based the SETI researchers’ methods of design detection on scientific practice. Real-life SETI researchers have thus far failed to detect designed signals from distant space. But if they encountered such a signal, as the astronomers in Sagan’s novel did, they too would infer design. Intelligent design research currently focuses on developing reliable (...)
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  30. Intelligent Design: The Bridge Between Science & Theology.John Angus Campbell - unknown
    In the movie Contact, an astronomer played by Jodie Foster discovers a radio signal with a discernable pattern, a sequence representing prime numbers from 2 to 101. Because the pattern is too specifically arranged to be mere random space noise, the scientists infer from this data that an extraterrestrial intelligence has transmitted this signal on purpose.
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  31.  12
    In Kubrick's Crypt, a Derrida/Deleuze Monster, on 2001: A Space Odyssey.Richard I. Pope - 2003 - Film-Philosophy 7 (3).
    On the origin of the cinematic odyssey Kubrick remarks: 'I do not remember when I got the idea to do the film. I became interested in extraterrestrial intelligence in the universe, and was convinced that the universe was *full* of intelligent life, and so it seemed time to make a film'. But as to the confusion surrounding the film upon its release, and in particular many thinking Floyd had gone to the 'planet' Clavius he said: 'Why they think (...)
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  32. The Design Inference: Eliminating Chance Through Small Probabilities.John Angus Campbell & John Mark Reynolds - unknown
    The design inference uncovers intelligent causes by isolating the key trademark of intelligent causes: specified events of small probability. Just about anything that happens is highly improbable, but when a highly improbable event is also specified (i.e., conforms to an independently given pattern) undirected natural causes lose their explanatory power. Design inferences can be found in a range of scientific pursuits from forensic science to research into the origins of life to the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
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  33. The Design Inference: Eliminating Chance Through Small Probabilities.William A. Dembski - 2006 - Cambridge University Press.
    The design inference uncovers intelligent causes by isolating their key trademark: specified events of small probability. Just about anything that happens is highly improbable, but when a highly improbable event is also specified undirected natural causes lose their explanatory power. Design inferences can be found in a range of scientific pursuits from forensic science to research into the origins of life to the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. This challenging and provocative 1998 book shows how incomplete undirected causes are (...)
     
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  34. The Design Inference: Eliminating Chance Through Small Probabilities.William A. Dembski - 1998 - Cambridge University Press.
    The design inference uncovers intelligent causes by isolating their key trademark: specified events of small probability. Just about anything that happens is highly improbable, but when a highly improbable event is also specified undirected natural causes lose their explanatory power. Design inferences can be found in a range of scientific pursuits from forensic science to research into the origins of life to the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. This challenging and provocative 1998 book shows how incomplete undirected causes are (...)
     
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  35. Cosmic Apprentice: Dispatches From the Edges of Science.Dorion Sagan - 2013 - Univ of Minnesota Press.
    In the pursuit of knowledge, Dorion Sagan argues in this dazzlingly eclectic, rigorously crafted, and deliciously witty collection of essays, scientific authoritarianism and philosophical obscurantism are equally formidable obstacles to discovery. As science has become more specialized and more costly, its questing spirit has been constrained by dogma. And philosophy, perhaps the discipline best placed to question orthodoxy, has retreated behind dense theoretical language and arcane topics of learning. Guided by a capacious, democratic view of science inspired by the examples (...)
     
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  36. Editorial: Risks of General Artificial Intelligence.Vincent C. Müller - 2014 - Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 26 (3):297-301.
    This is the editorial for a special volume of JETAI, featuring papers by Omohundro, Armstrong/Sotala/O’Heigeartaigh, T Goertzel, Brundage, Yampolskiy, B. Goertzel, Potapov/Rodinov, Kornai and Sandberg. - If the general intelligence of artificial systems were to surpass that of humans significantly, this would constitute a significant risk for humanity – so even if we estimate the probability of this event to be fairly low, it is necessary to think about it now. We need to estimate what progress we can expect, (...)
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  37.  14
    The Facets of Artificial Intelligence: A Framework to Track the Evolution of AI.Fernando Martínez-Plumed, Bao Sheng Loe, Peter Flach, Sean O. O. HEigeartaigh, Karina Vold & José Hernández-Orallo - 2018 - In Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence Evolution of the contours of AI. pp. 5180-5187.
    We present nine facets for the analysis of the past and future evolution of AI. Each facet has also a set of edges that can summarise different trends and contours in AI. With them, we first conduct a quantitative analysis using the information from two decades of AAAI/IJCAI conferences and around 50 years of documents from AI topics, an official database from the AAAI, illustrated by several plots. We then perform a qualitative analysis using the facets and edges, locating AI (...)
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  38.  81
    A Multi-INT Semantic Reasoning Framework for Intelligence Analysis Support.Janssen Terry, Basik Herbert, Dean Mike & Barry Smith - 2010 - In L. Obrst, Terry Janssen & W. Ceusters (eds.), Ontologies and Semantic Technologies for the Intelligence Community. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press. pp. 57-69.
    Lockheed Martin Corp. has funded research to generate a framework and methodology for developing semantic reasoning applications to support the discipline oflntelligence Analysis. This chapter outlines that framework, discusses how it may be used to advance the information sharing and integrated analytic needs of the Intelligence Community, and suggests a system I software architecture for such applications.
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  39. Social Intelligence: How to Integrate Research? A Mechanistic Perspective.Marcin Miłkowski - 2014 - Proceedings of the European Conference on Social Intelligence (ECSI-2014).
    Is there a field of social intelligence? Many various disciplines ap-proach the subject and it may only seem natural to suppose that different fields of study aim at explaining different phenomena; in other words, there is no spe-cial field of study of social intelligence. In this paper, I argue for an opposite claim. Namely, there is a way to integrate research on social intelligence, as long as one accepts the mechanistic account to explanation. Mechanistic inte-gration of different (...)
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  40. One Decade of Universal Artificial Intelligence.Marcus Hutter - 2012 - In Pei Wang & Ben Goertzel (eds.), Theoretical Foundations of Artificial General Intelligence. Springer. pp. 67--88.
    The first decade of this century has seen the nascency of the first mathematical theory of general artificial intelligence. This theory of Universal Artificial Intelligence (UAI) has made significant contributions to many theoretical, philosophical, and practical AI questions. In a series of papers culminating in book (Hutter, 2005), an exciting sound and complete mathematical model for a super intelligent agent (AIXI) has been developed and rigorously analyzed. While nowadays most AI researchers avoid discussing intelligence, the award-winning PhD (...)
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  41. Artificial Intelligence: Its Scope and Limits.James H. Fetzer - 1990 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    1. WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE? One of the fascinating aspects of the field of artificial intelligence (AI) is that the precise nature of its subject ..
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  42. On the Artificiality of Artificial Intelligence.Hans F. M. Crombag - 1993 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 2 (1):39-49.
    In this article the question is raised whether artificial intelligence has any psychological relevance, i.e. contributes to our knowledge of how the mind/brain works. It is argued that the psychological relevance of artificial intelligence of the symbolic kind is questionable as yet, since there is no indication that the brain structurally resembles or operates like a digital computer. However, artificial intelligence of the connectionist kind may have psychological relevance, not because the brain is a neural network, but (...)
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  43.  40
    IAO-Intel: An Ontology of Information Artifacts in the Intelligence Domain.Barry Smith, Tatiana Malyuta, Ron Rudnicki, William Mandrick, David Salmen, Peter Morosoff, Danielle K. Duff, James Schoening & Kesny Parent - 2013 - In Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Semantic Technologies for Intelligence, Defense, and Security (STIDS), CEUR, vol. 1097. pp. 33-40.
    We describe on-going work on IAO-Intel, an information artifact ontology developed as part of a suite of ontologies designed to support the needs of the US Army intelligence community within the framework of the Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS-A). IAO-Intel provides a controlled, structured vocabulary for the consistent formulation of metadata about documents, images, emails and other carriers of information. It will provide a resource for uniform explication of the terms used in multiple existing military dictionaries, thesauri and metadata (...)
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  44.  51
    Three Philosophical Lessons for the Analysis of Criminal and Military Intelligence.Christopher Mole - 2012 - Intelligence and National Security 27 (4):441-58.
    It has recently been suggested that philosophy – in particular epistemology – has a contribution to make to the analysis of criminal and military intelligence. The present article pursues this suggestion, taking three phenomena that have recently been studied by philosophers, and showing that they have important implications for the gathering and sharing of intelligence, and for the use of intelligence in the determining of military strategy. The phenomena discussed are: (1) Simpson's Paradox, (2) the distinction between (...)
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  45. ODNI as an Analytic Ombudsman: Is Intelligence Community Directive 203 Up to the Task?Alexandru Marcoci, Ans Vercammen & Mark Burgman - forthcoming - Intelligence and National Security.
    In the wake of 9/11 and the assessment of Iraq's WMD, several inquiries placed the blame primarily on the Intelligence Community. Part of the reform that followed was a codification of analytic tradecraft standards into Intelligence Community Directive (ICD) 203 and the appointment of an analytic ombudsman in the newly created Office of the Director of National Intelligence charged with monitoring the quality of analytic products from across the intelligence community. In this paper we identify three (...)
     
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  46. Science is Not Always “Self-Correcting” : Fact–Value Conflation and the Study of Intelligence.Nathan Cofnas - 2016 - Foundations of Science 21 (3):477-492.
    Some prominent scientists and philosophers have stated openly that moral and political considerations should influence whether we accept or promulgate scientific theories. This widespread view has significantly influenced the development, and public perception, of intelligence research. Theories related to group differences in intelligence are often rejected a priori on explicitly moral grounds. Thus the idea, frequently expressed by commentators on science, that science is “self-correcting”—that hypotheses are simply abandoned when they are undermined by empirical evidence—may not be correct (...)
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  47.  86
    Intelligence Vs. Wisdom: The Love of Money, Machiavellianism, and Unethical Behavior Across College Major and Gender.Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Yuh-Jia Chen - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (1):1-26.
    This research investigates the efficacy of business ethics intervention, tests a theoretical model that the love of money is directly or indirectly related to propensity to engage in unethical behavior (PUB), and treats college major (business vs. psychology) and gender (male vs. female) as moderators in multi-group analyses. Results suggested that business students who received business ethics intervention significantly changed their conceptions of unethical behavior and reduced their propensity to engage in theft; while psychology students without intervention had no such (...)
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  48.  32
    Money is Power: Monetary Intelligence—Love of Money and Temptation of Materialism Among Czech University Students. [REVIEW]Soňa Lemrová, Eva Reiterová, Renáta Fatěnová, Karel Lemr & Thomas Li-Ping Tang - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 125 (2).
    In this study, we develop a theoretical model of monetary intelligence (MI), explore the extent to which individuals’ meaning of money is related to the pursuit of materialistic purposes, and test our model using the whole sample and across college major and gender. We select the 15-item love of money (LOM) construct—Factors Good, Evil (Affective), Budget (Behavioral), Achievement, and Power (Cognitive)—from the Money Ethic Scale and Factors Success and Centrality and two indicators—from the Materialism Scale. Based on our data (...)
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  49.  25
    Falling or Not Falling Into Temptation? Multiple Faces of Temptation, Monetary Intelligence, and Unethical Intentions Across Gender.Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Toto Sutarso - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 116 (3):529-552.
    We develop a theoretical model, explore the relationship between temptation (both reflective and formative) and unethical intentions by treating monetary intelligence (MI) as a mediator, and examine the direct (temptation to unethical intentions) and indirect (temptation to MI to unethical intentions) paths simultaneously based on multiple-wave panel data collected from 340 part-time employees and university (business) students. The positive indirect path suggested that yielding to temptation (e.g., high cognitive impairment and lack of self-control) led to poor MI (low stewardship (...)
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  50.  29
    Temptation, Monetary Intelligence (Love of Money), and Environmental Context on Unethical Intentions and Cheating.Jingqiu Chen, Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Ningyu Tang - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 123 (2):1-23.
    In Study 1, we test a theoretical model involving temptation, monetary intelligence (MI), a mediator, and unethical intentions and investigate the direct and indirect paths simultaneously based on multiple-wave panel data collected in open classrooms from 492 American and 256 Chinese students. For the whole sample, temptation is related to low unethical intentions indirectly. Multi-group analyses reveal that temptation predicts unethical intentions both indirectly and directly for male American students only; but not for female American students. For Chinese students, (...)
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