Results for 'fMRI'

448 found
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  1.  89
    Productive Theory-Ladenness in fMRI.Emrah Aktunc - forthcoming - Synthese.
    Several developments for diverse scientific goals, mostly in physics and physiology, had to take place, which eventually gave us fMRI as one of the central research paradigms of contemporary cognitive neuroscience. This technique stands on solid foundations established by the physics of magnetic resonance and the physiology of hemodynamics and is complimented by computational and statistical techniques. I argue, and support using concrete examples, that these foundations give rise to a productive theory-ladenness in fMRI, which enables researchers to (...)
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  2. New Research, Old Problems: Methodological and Ethical Issues in fMRI Research Examining Sex/Gender Differences in Emotion Processing.Robyn Bluhm - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (2):319-330.
    Neuroscience research examining sex/gender differences aims to explain behavioral differences between men and women in terms of differences in their brains. Historically, this research has used ad hoc methods and has been conducted explicitly in order to show that prevailing gender roles were dictated by biology. I examine contemporary fMRI research on sex/gender differences in emotion processing and argue that it, too, both uses problematic methods and, in doing so, reinforces gender stereotypes.
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  3.  49
    Neuroscience, Neuropolitics and Neuroethics: The Complex Case of Crime, Deception and fMRI.Stuart Henry & Dena Plemmons - 2012 - Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (3):573-591.
    Scientific developments take place in a socio-political context but scientists often ignore the ways their innovations will be both interpreted by the media and used by policy makers. In the rush to neuroscientific discovery important questions are overlooked, such as the ways: (1) the brain, environment and behavior are related; (2) biological changes are mediated by social organization; (3) institutional bias in the application of technical procedures ignores race, class and gender dimensions of society; (4) knowledge is used to the (...)
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  4.  40
    The Lie of Fmri: An Examination of the Ethics of a Market in Lie Detection Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. [REVIEW]Amy E. White - 2010 - HEC Forum 22 (3):253-266.
    In this paper, I argue that companies who use functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scans for lie detection encounter the same basic ethical stumbling blocks as commercial companies that market traditional polygraphs. Markets in traditional voluntary polygraphs are common and fail to elicit much uproar among ethicists. Thus, for consistency, if markets in polygraphs are ethically unproblematic, markets using fMRIs for lie detection are equally as acceptable. Furthermore, while I acknowledge two substantial differences between the ethical concerns involving polygraphs (...)
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  5. fMRI Reveals Reciprocal Inhibition Between Social and Physical Cognitive Domains.Anthony I. Jack, Abigail Dawson, Katelyn Begany, Regina Leckie, Kevin Barry, Angela Ciccia & Abraham Snyder - 2013 - NeuroImage.
  6. A Modest Intuitionist Reply to Greene's fMRI-Based Objections to Deontology.Dan Demetriou - 2009 - Southwest Philosophy Review 25 (1):107-117.
    I argue that Greene’s research, although fascinating for many reasons, doesn’t undermine deontological moral philosophy. This is because both sentimentalist and rationalist moral epistemologies, applied to deontological value, predict exactly the data Greene has found. My discussion proceeds in three steps. In the first section I summarize Greene’s brief against deontology. In the second section I draw on standard accounts of moral emotions to suggest that there are ‘deontological emotions’ made rational by appearances of ‘deontological value.’ Finally, I outline a (...)
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  7.  28
    Building a Science of Individual Differences From fMRI.Julien Dubois & Ralph Adolphs - 2016 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20 (6):425-443.
    To date, fMRI research has been concerned primarily with evincing generic principles of brain function through averaging data from multiple subjects. Given rapid developments in both hardware and analysis tools, the field is now poised to study fMRI-derived measures in individual subjects, and to relate these to psy- chological traits or genetic variations. We discuss issues of validity, reliability and statistical assessment that arise when the focus shifts to individual subjects and that are applicable also to other imaging (...)
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  8.  13
    Mixtures and Psychological Inference with Resting State fMRI.Joseph McCaffrey & David Danks - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    In this essay, we examine the use of resting state fMRI data for psychological inferences. We argue that resting state studies hold the paired promises of discovering novel functional brain networks, and of avoiding some of the limitations of task-based fMRI. However, we argue that the very features of experimental design that enable resting state fMRI to support exploratory science also generate a novel confound. We argue that seemingly key features of resting state functional connectivity networks may (...)
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  9. Integration of Local Features Into Global Shapes: Monkey and Human fMRI Studies.Zoe Kourtzi & Mark Augath - unknown
    was to test the role of both early and higher visual areas in the integration of local features into global shapes. To this end, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Although fMRI lacks the high spatial resolution of intracortical recordings, it allows simultaneous collection of responses to the same stimulus set from multiple visual areas that is not possible with standard recording techniques. We performed these studies in monkeys, where much is known about the properties of neurons in (...)
     
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  10.  33
    Motor Area Activity During Mental Rotation Studied by Time-Resolved Single-Trial fMRI.Wolfgang Richter, Randy Summers, Seong-Gi Kim & Carola Tegeler - unknown
    & The functional equivalence of overt movements and dynamic imagery is of fundamental importance in neuroscience. Here, we investigated the participation of the neocortical motor areas in a classic task of dynamic imagery, Shepard and Metzler's mental rotation task, by time-resolved single-trial functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). The subjects performed the mental-rotation task 16 times, each time with different object pairs. Functional images were acquired for each pair separately, and the onset times and..
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  11.  48
    Ethical Challenges and Interpretive Difficulties with Non-Clinical Applications of Pediatric fMRI.Andrew Fenton, Letitia Meynell & Françoise Baylis - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (1):3-13.
    In this article, we critically examine some of the ethical challenges and interpretive difficulties with possible future non-clinical applications of pediatric fMRI with a particular focus on applications in the classroom and the courtroom - two domains in which children come directly in contact with the state. We begin with a general overview of anticipated clinical and non-clinical applications of pediatric fMRI. This is followed by a detailed analysis of a range of ethical challenges and interpretive difficulties that (...)
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  12. Evaluating Methods of Correcting for Multiple Comparisons Implemented in SPM12 in Social Neuroscience fMRI Studies: An Example From Moral Psychology.Hyemin Han & Andrea L. Glenn - 2018 - Social Neuroscience 13 (3):257-267.
    In fMRI research, the goal of correcting for multiple comparisons is to identify areas of activity that reflect true effects, and thus would be expected to replicate in future studies. Finding an appropriate balance between trying to minimize false positives (Type I error) while not being too stringent and omitting true effects (Type II error) can be challenging. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of these types of errors may differ for different areas of study. In many areas of social (...)
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  13.  52
    By Heart An fMRI Study of Brain Activation by Poetry and Prose.Adam Zeman, Fraser Milton, Alicia Smith & Rick Rylance - 2013 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 20 (9-10):9-10.
    The experience of reading varies markedly between differing texts which may be, for example, primarily informative, musical, or moving.We asked whether these differences would correspond to widespread contrasts in brain activity. Using fMRI, we examined brain activation in expert participants reading passages of prose and poetry. Both prose and poetry activated previously identified reading areas. Their emotional power was related to activity in regions linked to the emotional response to music. 'Literariness'was related to activity in a predominantly left-sided set (...)
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  14.  17
    Observing One’s Hand Become Anarchic: An fMRI Study of Action Identification.Dirk T. Leube, Günther Knoblich, Michael Erb & Tilo T. J. Kircher - 2003 - Consciousness and Cognition 12 (4):597-608.
    The self seems to be a unitary entity remaining stable across time. Nevertheless, current theorizing conceptualizes the self as a number of interacting sub-systems involving perception, intention and action (self-model). One important function of such a self-model is to distinguish between events occurring as a result of one's own actions and events occurring as the result of somebody else's actions. We conducted an fMRI experiment that compared brain activation after an abrupt mismatch between one's own movement and its visual (...)
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  15.  16
    Timing: A Missing Key Ingredient in Typical fMRI Studies of Emotion.Christian E. Waugh & James A. Schirillo - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (3):170-171.
    Lindquist et al. provide a compelling summary of the brain bases of the onset of emotion. Their conclusions, however, are constrained by typical fMRI techniques that do not assess a key ingredient in emotional experience – timing. We discuss the importance of timing in theories of emotion as well as the implications of neural temporal dynamics for psychological constructionism.
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  16.  23
    Aging Into Perceptual Control: A Dynamic Causal Modeling for fMRI Study of Bistable Perception.Ehsan Dowlati, Sarah E. Adams, Alexandra B. Stiles & Rosalyn J. Moran - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
    Aging is accompanied by stereotyped changes in functional brain activations, for example a cortical shift in activity patterns from posterior to anterior regions is one hallmark revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of aging cognition. Whether these neuronal effects of aging could potentially contribute to an amelioration of or resistance to the cognitive symptoms associated with psychopathology remains to be explored. We used a visual illusion paradigm to address whether aging affects the cortical control of perceptual beliefs and (...)
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  17.  25
    Synaesthetic Perception of Colour and Visual Space in a Blind Subject: An fMRI Case Study.Valentina Niccolai, Tessa M. van Leeuwen, Colin Blakemore & Petra Stoerig - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):889-899.
    In spatial sequence synaesthesia ordinal stimuli are perceived as arranged in peripersonal space. Using fMRI, we examined the neural bases of SSS and colour synaesthesia for spoken words in a late-blind synaesthete, JF. He reported days of the week and months of the year as both coloured and spatially ordered in peripersonal space; parts of the days and festivities of the year were spatially ordered but uncoloured. Words that denote time-units and triggered no concurrents were used in a control (...)
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  18. Observing One's Hand Become Anarchic: An fMRI Study of Action Identification.T. D., G. Knoblich, M. Erb & J. T. - 2003 - Consciousness and Cognition 12 (4):597-608.
    The self seems to be a unitary entity remaining stable across time. Nevertheless, current theorizing conceptualizes the self as a number of interacting sub-systems involving perception, intention and action (self-model). One important function of such a self-model is to distinguish between events occurring as a result of one's own actions and events occurring as the result of somebody else's actions. We conducted an fMRI experiment that compared brain activation after an abrupt mismatch between one's own movement and its visual (...)
     
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  19.  21
    An fMRI Investigation of Moral Cognition in Healthcare Decision Making.Timothy L. Hodgson, Lisa J. Smith, Paul Anand & Abdelmalek Benattayallah - unknown
    This study used fMRI to investigate the neural substrates of moral cognition in health resource allocation decision problems. In particular, it investigated the cognitive and emotional processes that underpin utilitarian approaches to health care rationing such as Quality Adjusted Life Years. Participants viewed hypothetical medical and nonmedical resource allocation scenarios which described equal or unequal allocation of resources to different groups. In addition, participants were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in which they either did or did not receive (...)
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  20. fMRI and its Interpretations: An Illustration on Directional Selectivity in Area V5/MT.Andreas Bartels - unknown
    fMRI is a tool to study brain function noninvasively that can reliably identify sites of neural involvement for a given task. However, to what extent can fMRI signals be related to measures obtained in electrophysiology? Can the blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal be interpreted as spatially pooled spiking activity? Here we combine knowledge from neurovascular coupling, functional imaging and neurophysiology to discuss whether fMRI has succeeded in demonstrating one of the most established functional properties in the visual brain, namely directional (...)
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  21.  65
    Minds, Persons, and Space: An fMRI Investigation Into the Relational Complexity of Higher-Order Intentionality.Anna Abraham, Markus Werning, Hannes Rakoczy, D. Yves von Cramon & Ricarda I. Schubotz - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (2):438-450.
    Mental state reasoning or theory-of-mind has been the subject of a rich body of imaging research. Although such investigations routinely tap a common set of regions, the precise function of each area remains a contentious matter. With the help of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we sought to determine which areas are involved when processing mental state or intentional metarepresentations by focusing on the relational aspect of such representations. Using non-intentional relational representations such as spatial relations between persons and (...)
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  22.  10
    The Functional Architecture of the Face System: Integrating Evidence From fMRI and Patient Studies.Nancy Kanwisher & Jason Barton - 2011 - In Andy Calder, Gillian Rhodes, Mark Johnson & Jim Haxby (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Face Perception. Oxford University Press.
    This article examines the functions performed by each of the “core” face processing regions: the fusiform face area, occipital face area, and superior temporal sulcus. It reviews the data from two complementary sources: functional imaging in healthy subjects and behavioral data from neurological subjects with damage to these regions. Data from functional neuroimaging allows for the determination of which regions are specifically engaged by which stimuli and which tasks; functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation and pattern classification methods even allow for (...)
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  23.  19
    Visual Consciousness: Dissociating the Neural Correlates of Perceptual Transitions From Sustained Perception with fMRI.J. Eriksson, A. Larsson, K. Alstrom & Lars Nyberg - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):61-72.
    To investigate the possible dichotomy between the neurophysiological bases of perceptual transitions versus sustaining a particular percept over time, an fMRI study was conducted with subjects viewing fragmented pictures. Unlike most other perceptually unstable stimuli, fragmented pictures give rise to only one perceptual transition and a continuous period of sustained perception. Earlier research is inconclusive on the subject of which anatomical regions should be attributed to what temporal aspect of perception, and the aim of the present study was to (...)
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  24. fMRI Measurements of Color in Macaque and Human.Mark Augath - unknown
    We have used fMRI to measure responses to chromatic and achromatic contrast in retinotopically defined regions of macaque and human visual cortex. We make four observations. Firstly, the relative amplitudes of responses to color and luminance stimuli in macaque area V1 are similar to those previously observed in human fMRI experiments. Secondly, the dorsal and ventral subdivisions of macaque area V4 respond in a similar way to opponent (L j M)-cone chromatic contrast suggesting that they are part of (...)
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  25. Significance, Evidence, and the Uncomfortable Science of fMRI.Colin Klein - unknown
    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (or fMRI)1 is widely used to support hypotheses about brain function. Many find the images produced from fMRI data to be especially compelling evidence for scientific hypotheses [McCabe and Castel, 2008]. There are many problems with all of this; I want to start with two of them, and argue that they get us closer to an under-appreciated worry about many imaging experiments.
     
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  26.  17
    Activation of Sensory Cortex by Imagined Genital Stimulation: An fMRI Analysis.Nan J. Wise, Eleni Frangos & Barry R. Komisaruk - 2016 - Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology 6.
    BackgroundDuring the course of a previous study, our laboratory made a serendipitous finding that just thinking about genital stimulation resulted in brain activations that overlapped with, and differed from, those generated by physical genital stimulation.ObjectiveThis study extends our previous findings by further characterizing how the brain differentially processes physical ‘touch’ stimulation and ‘imagined’ stimulation.DesignEleven healthy women participated in an fMRI study of the brain response to imagined or actual tactile stimulation of the nipple and clitoris. Two additional conditions – (...)
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  27.  24
    Neural Correlates of Subliminal and Supraliminal Letter Processing—An Event-Related fMRI Study.A. Heinzel, H. Hautzel, T. D. Poeppel, F. Boers, M. Beu & H. -W. Mueller - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):699-713.
    One problem of interpreting research on subconscious processing is the possibility that participants are weakly conscious of the stimuli. Here, we compared the fMRI BOLD response in healthy adults to clearly visible single letters with the response to letters presented in the absence of any behavioural evidence of visibility . No letter catch trials served as a control condition. Forced-choice responses did not differ from chance when letter-to-background contrast was low, whereas they were almost 100% correct when contrast was (...)
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  28.  23
    Temporal Lobe Speech Perception Systems Are Part of the Verbal Working Memory Circuit: Evidence From Two Recent fMRI Studies.Gregory Hickok & Bradley Buchsbaum - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):740-741.
    In the verbal domain, there is only very weak evidence favoring the view that working memory is an active state of long-term memory. We strengthen existing evidence by reviewing two recent fMRI studies of verbal working memory, which clearly demonstrate activation in the superior temporal lobe, a region known to be involved in processing speech during comprehension tasks.
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  29.  22
    FMRI Evidence for and Behavioral Evidence Against the Planning–Control Model.Jos J. Adam & Ron F. Keulen - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (1):24-24.
    Consistent with the planning–control model, recent fMRI data reveal that the inferior parietal lobe, the frontal lobes, and the basal ganglia are involved in motor planning. Inconsistent with the planning–control model, however, recent behavioral data reveal a spatial repulsion effect, indicating that the visual context surrounding the target can sometimes influence the on-line control of goal-directed action.
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  30. Productive Theory-Ladenness in fMRI.M. Emrah Aktunc - forthcoming - Synthese:1-17.
    Several developments for diverse scientific goals, mostly in physics and physiology, had to take place, which eventually gave us fMRI as one of the central research paradigms of contemporary cognitive neuroscience. This technique stands on solid foundations established by the physics of magnetic resonance and the physiology of hemodynamics and is complimented by computational and statistical techniques. I argue, and support using concrete examples, that these foundations give rise to a productive theory-ladenness in fMRI, which enables researchers to (...)
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  31. Beyond Mind-Reading: Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis of fMRI Data.Kenneth A. Norman, Sean M. Polyn, Greg J. Detre & James V. Haxby - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (9):424-430.
  32.  15
    Advances in fMRI Real-Time Neurofeedback.Takeo Watanabe, Yuka Sasaki, Kazuhisa Shibata & Mitsuo Kawato - 2017 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 21 (12):997-1010.
  33. FMRI Reveals Large-Scale Network Activation in Minimally Conscious Patients.Nicholas D. Schiff, D. Rodriguez-Moreno & A. Kamal - 2005 - Neurology 64:514-523.
  34.  6
    Are Abstract Action Words Embodied? An fMRI Investigation at the Interface Between Language and Motor Cognition.Katrin Sakreida, Claudia Scorolli, Mareike M. Menz, Stefan Heim, Anna M. Borghi & Ferdinand Binkofski - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  35.  10
    Inner Experience in the Scanner: Can High Fidelity Apprehensions of Inner Experience Be Integrated with fMRI?Simone Kühn, Charles Fernyhough, Benjamin Alderson-Day & Russell T. Hurlburt - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  36.  32
    The fMRI Signal, Slow Cortical Potential and Consciousness.Biyu J. He & Marcus E. Raichle - 2009 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (7):302-309.
  37.  36
    Functional Connectomics From Resting-State fMRI.Stephen M. Smith, Diego Vidaurre, Christian F. Beckmann, Matthew F. Glasser, Mark Jenkinson, Karla L. Miller, Thomas E. Nichols, Emma C. Robinson, Gholamreza Salimi-Khorshidi & Mark W. Woolrich - 2013 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (12):666-682.
  38.  7
    Role of the Cingulate Cortex in Dyskinesias-Reduced-Self-Awareness: An fMRI Study on Parkinson’s Disease Patients.Sara Palermo, Leonardo Lopiano, Rosalba Morese, Maurizio Zibetti, Alberto Romagnolo, Mario Stanziano, Mario Giorgio Rizzone, Giuliano Carlo Geminiani, Maria Consuelo Valentini & Martina Amanzio - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  39.  10
    The Role of Arousal in the Spontaneous Regulation of Emotions in Healthy Aging: A fMRI Investigation.Sanda Dolcos, Yuta Katsumi & Roger A. Dixon - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  40.  46
    Real-Time fMRI Links Subjective Experience with Brain Activity During Focused Attention.Kathleen Garrison, Scheinost A., Worhunsky Dustin, D. Patrick, Hani Elwafi, Thornhill M., A. Thomas, Evan Thompson, Clifford Saron, Gaëlle Desbordes, Hedy Kober, Michelle Hampson, Jeremy Gray, Constable R., Papademetris R. Todd & Brewer Xenophon - 2013 - NeuroImage 81:110--118.
  41.  11
    Beyond Noise: Using Temporal ICA to Extract Meaningful Information From High-Frequency fMRI Signal Fluctuations During Rest.Roland N. Boubela, Klaudius Kalcher, Wolfgang Huf, Claudia Kronnerwetter, Peter Filzmoser & Ewald Moser - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  42. fMRI Evidence for Objects as the Units of Attentional Selection.K. M. O'Craven, P. E. Downing & N. Kanwisher - 1999 - Nature 401 (6753):584-587.
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  43.  3
    I See What You Are Saying: Action as Cognition in fMRI Brain Mapping Practice.Morana Alač & Edwin Hutchins - 2004 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 4 (3-4):629-661.
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  44.  20
    Prediction and Unconscious Attention Operate Synergistically to Facilitate Stimulus Processing: An fMRI Study.Guangming Ran, Xu Chen, Xiaojun Cao & Qi Zhang - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 44:41-50.
  45.  28
    Neural Response to Emotional Faces with and Without Awareness; Event-Related fMRI in a Parietal Patient with Visual Extinction and Spatial Neglect.Patrik Vuilleumier, J. L. Armony, Karen Clarke, Masud Husain, Julia Driver & Raymond J. Dolan - 2002 - Neuropsychologia 40 (12):2156-2166.
  46. An fMRI Study Measuring Analgesia Enhanced by Religion as a Belief System.Katja Wiech, Miguel Farias, Guy Kahane, Nicholas Shackel, Wiebke Tiede & Irene Tracey - unknown
    Although religious belief is often claimed to help with physical ailments including pain, it is unclear what psychological and neural mechanisms underlie the influence of religious belief on pain. By analogy to other top-down processes of pain modulation we hypothesized that religious belief helps believers reinterpret the emotional significance of pain, leading to emotional detachment from it. Recent findings on emotion regulation support a role for the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, a region also important for driving top-down pain inhibitory circuits. (...)
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  47.  59
    Confirmation, Refutation, and the Evidence of fMRI.Christopher Mole & Colin Klein - 2010 - In Stephen Hanson & Martin Bunzl (eds.), Foundational Issues in Human Brain Mapping. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. 99.
    This chapter focuses on evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging data, and discusses the application of neuroimaging techniques to various fields, including cognitive sciences. It considers the role of neuroimaging data in providing informative evidence regarding hypotheses in cognitive science, and explains differences in data, high-level null hypotheses, and ways to accommodate null hypotheses. Finally, the chapter looks into the scope of neuroimaging data in the cognitive sciences.
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  48. Brain Activations During Conscious Self-Monitoring of Speech Production with Delayed Auditory Feedback: An fMRI Study.Yasuki Hashimoto & Kuniyoshi L. Sakai - 2003 - Human Brain Mapping 20 (1):22-28.
  49.  8
    Between-Hand Difference in Ipsilateral Deactivation is Associated with Hand Lateralization: fMRI Mapping of 284 Volunteers Balanced for Handedness.N. Tzourio-Mazoyer, L. Petit, L. Zago, F. Crivello, N. Vinuesa, M. Joliot, G. Jobard, E. Mellet & B. Mazoyer - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
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  50.  31
    Sustained Extrastriate Cortical Activation Without Visual Awareness Revealed by fMRI Studies in Hemianopic Patients.Rainer Goebel, Lars Muckli, Friedhelm E. Zanella, Wolf Singer & Petra Stoerig - 2001 - Vision Research 41 (10):1459-1474.
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