Results for 'fair benefits'

998 found
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  1.  89
    Fair Benefits’ Accounts of Exploitation Require a Normative Principle of Fairness: Response to Gbadegesin and Wendler, and Emanuel Et Al.Angela Ballantyne - 2008 - Bioethics 22 (4):239–244.
    In 2004 Emanuel et al. published an influential account of exploitation in international research, which has become known as the 'fair benefits account'. In this paper I argue that the thin definition of fairness presented by Emanuel et al, and subsequently endorsed by Gbadegesin and Wendler, does not provide a notion of fairness that is adequately robust to support a fair benefits account of exploitation. The authors present a procedural notion of fairness – the fair (...)
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  2.  36
    The Fair Benefits Approach Revisited.Reidar K. Lie - 2010 - Hastings Center Report 40 (4):3-3.
    In this issue, Alex London and Kevin Zollman provide an analysis of an influential approach to the ethics of international research, known as the “fair benefits” approach. According to them, the fair benefits approach suffers from a fatal flaw: it is either too vague to be useful, or worse, is internally inconsistent. The fair benefits approach was developed based on a presentation I gave at a workshop organized in Malawi in March 2001 by the (...)
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  3.  24
    Beyond Fair Benefits: Reconsidering Exploitation Arguments Against Organ Markets.Julian Koplin - 2018 - Health Care Analysis 26 (1):33-47.
    One common objection to establishing regulated live donor organ markets is that such markets would be exploitative. Perhaps surprisingly, exploitation arguments against organ markets have been widely rejected in the philosophical literature on the subject. It is often argued that concerns about exploitation should be addressed by increasing the price paid to organ sellers, not by banning the trade outright. I argue that this analysis rests on a particular conception of exploitation, and outline two additional ways that the charge of (...)
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  4. ""Moral Standards for Research in Developing Countries From" Reasonable Availability" to" Fair Benefits".Maged El Setouhy, Tsiri Agbenyega, Francis Anto, Christine Alexandra Clerk, Kwadwo A. Koram, Michael English, Rashid Juma, Catherine Molyneux, Norbert Peshu & Newton Kumwenda - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
     
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  5.  37
    Fair Play and Wrongful Benefits.Avia Pasternak - 2017 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 14 (5):515-534.
    _ Source: _Page Count 20 According to the fair play defense of political obligations citizens have a reciprocity-based duty to share the costs involved in the production of public goods. But sometimes, states produce collective goods through wrongdoing. For example, sometimes states’ wrongful immigration policies can contribute to the welfare of their own populations. Do citizens have duties of reciprocity in light of such wrongful benefits? I argue that the answer to this question is negative. Drawing on the (...)
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  6.  15
    Fair Play and Wrongful Benefits.Avia Pasternak - forthcoming - New Content is Available for Journal of Moral Philosophy.
    _ Source: _Page Count 20 According to the fair play defense of political obligations citizens have a reciprocity-based duty to share the costs involved in the production of public goods. But sometimes, states produce collective goods through wrongdoing. For example, sometimes states’ wrongful immigration policies can contribute to the welfare of their own populations. Do citizens have duties of reciprocity in light of such wrongful benefits? I argue that the answer to this question is negative. Drawing on the (...)
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  7.  40
    Research at the Auction Block: Problems for the Fair Benefits Approach to International Research.Alex John London & Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2010 - Hastings Center Report 40 (4):34-45.
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  8.  15
    Moral Standards for Research in Developing Countries From "Reasonable Availability" to "Fair Benefits".Maged El Setouhy, Tsiri Agbenyega, Francis Anto, Christine Alexandra Clerk, Kwadwo A. Koram, Michael English, Rashid Juma, Catherine Molyneux, Norbert Peshu, Newton Kumwenda, Joseph Mfutso-Bengu, Malcolm Molyneux, Terrie Taylor, Doumbia Aissata Diarra, Saibou Maiga, Mamadou Sylla, Dione Youssouf, Catherine Olufunke Falade, Segun Gbadegesin, Reidar Lie, Ferdinand Mugusi, David Ngassapa, Julius Ecuru, Ambrose Talisuna, Ezekiel Emanuel, Christine Grady, Elizabeth Higgs, Christopher Plowe, Jeremy Sugarman & David Wendler - 2004 - Hastings Center Report 34 (3):17.
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  9.  15
    Fair Benefits in Developing Countries: Maximin as a Good Start.Ruth Macklin - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):36-37.
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  10. Fair Benefits in International Medical Research (Vol 34, Pg 3, 2004).J. D. Arras - 2004 - Hastings Center Report 34 (4):6-6.
     
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  11.  16
    Justice in the Application of Science: Beyond Fair Benefits.Alex John London - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):54-56.
  12.  9
    Canadian Research Ethics Board Members’ Attitudes Toward Benefits From Clinical Trials.Kori Cook, Jeremy Snyder & John Calvert - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):1-7.
    BackgroundWhile ethicists have for many years called for human subject trial participants and, in some cases, local community members to benefit from participation in pharmaceutical and other intervention-based therapies, little is known about how these discussions are impacting the practice of research ethics boards that grant ethical approval to many of these studies.MethodsTelephone interviews were conducted with 23 REB members from across Canada, a major funder country for human subject research internationally. All interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. After (...)
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  13.  39
    Justifying Community Benefit Requirements in International Research.Robert C. Hughes - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (8):397-404.
    It is widely agreed that foreign sponsors of research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are morally required to ensure that their research benefits the broader host community. There is no agreement, however, about how much benefit or what type of benefit research sponsors must provide, nor is there agreement about what group of people is entitled to benefit. To settle these questions, it is necessary to examine why research sponsors have an obligation to benefit the broader host community, (...)
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  14.  55
    Fairness, Self-Deception and Political Obligation.Massimo Renzo - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 169 (3):467-488.
    I offer a new account of fair-play obligations for non-excludable benefits received from the state. Firstly, I argue that non-acceptance of these benefits frees recipients of fairness obligations only when a counterfactual condition is met; i.e. when non-acceptance would hold up in the closest possible world in which recipients do not hold motivationally-biased beliefs triggered by a desire to free-ride. Secondly, I argue that because of common mechanisms of self-deception there will be recipients who reject these (...) without meeting the counterfactual condition. For this reason, I suggest that those who reject non-excludable benefits provided by the state have a duty to support their rejection with adequate reasons. Failing that, they can be permissibly treated as if they had fair-play obligations (although in fact they might not have them). Thus, I claim that there is a distinction, largely unappreciated, between the question of whether we have a duty of fairness to obey the law and the question of whether we can be permissibly treated as if we had one. (shrink)
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  15.  32
    Alliances and Networks: Creating Success in the UK Fair Trade Market.Iain A. Davies - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 86 (S1):109 - 126.
    Data from a longitudinal study into the key management success factors in the fair trade industry provide insights into the essential nature of inter-organizational alliances and networks in creating the profitable and growing fair trade market in the UK. Drawing on three case studies and extensive industry interviews, we provide an interpretive perspective on the organizational relationships and business networks and the way in which these have engendered success for UK fair trade companies. Three types of benefit (...)
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  16.  40
    Fair Trade: What Does It Mean and Why Does It Matter?David Miller - forthcoming - New Content is Available for Journal of Moral Philosophy.
    _ Source: _Page Count 21 The paper begins by locating the issue of trade within the broader literature on international and global justice. It then sets out eight different conceptions of ‘fair trade’, and examines the principles that lie behind them. They fall into three broad categories: _procedural fairness_ accounts, which apply principles of equal treatment to the international rules under which trade takes place; _producers’ entitlement_ accounts, which claim that trade must be structured so that all participants are (...)
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  17.  47
    Fair Trade: What Does It Mean and Why Does It Matter?David Miller - 2017 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 14 (3):249-269.
    _ Source: _Page Count 21 The paper begins by locating the issue of trade within the broader literature on international and global justice. It then sets out eight different conceptions of ‘fair trade’, and examines the principles that lie behind them. They fall into three broad categories: _procedural fairness_ accounts, which apply principles of equal treatment to the international rules under which trade takes place; _producers’ entitlement_ accounts, which claim that trade must be structured so that all participants are (...)
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  18. Rescuing Fair-Play as a Justification for Punishment.Matt K. Stichter - 2010 - Res Publica 16 (1):73-81.
    The debate over whether ‘fair-play’ can serve as a justification for legal punishment has recently resumed with an exchange between Richard Dagger and Antony Duff. According to the fair-play theorist, criminals deserve punishment for breaking the law because in so doing the criminal upsets a fair distribution of benefits and burdens, and punishment rectifies this unfairness. Critics frequently level two charges against this idea. The first is that it often gives the wrong explanation of what makes (...)
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  19. Empowering Coffee Traders? The Coffee Value Chain From Nicaraguan Fair Trade Farmers to Finnish Consumers.Joni Valkila, Pertti Haaparanta & Niina Niemi - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 97 (2):257 - 270.
    This article analyzes the distribution of benefits from Fair Trade between producing and consuming countries. Fair Trade and conventional coffee production and trade were examined in Nicaragua in 2005-2006 and 2008. Consumption of the respective coffees was assessed in Finland in 2006-2009. The results indicate that consumers paid considerably more for Fair Trade-certified coffee than for the other alternatives available. Although Fair Trade provided price premiums to producer organizations, a larger share of the retail prices (...)
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  20.  59
    Noble Goals and Challenging Terrain: Organic and Fair Trade Coffee Movements in the Global Marketplace. [REVIEW]Robert A. Rice - 2001 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14 (1):39-66.
    Social relations associated with conventional agricultural exports find their origins in long term associations based on business, family, and class alliances. Working outside these boundaries presents a host of challenges, especially where small producers with little economic or political power are concerned. Yet, in many developing countries, alternative trade organizations (ATOs) based on philosophies of social justice and/or environmental well-being are carving out spaces alongside traditional agricultural export sectors by establishing new channels of trade and marketing. Coffee provides a case (...)
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  21.  16
    A Role of Fair Trade Certification for Environmental Sustainability.Rie Makita - 2016 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 29 (2):185-201.
    Although most studies on the Fair Trade initiative are, to some extent, cognizant of its contribution to environmental sustainability, what the environmental aspect means to Fair Trade has not yet been explored fully. A review of environmental issues in the Fair Trade literature suggests that Fair Trade might influence participant producers’ farming practices even if it does not directly impact natural resources. This paper attempts to interpret Fair Trade certification as an intermediary institution that links (...)
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  22.  12
    Fair Trade: An Imperfect Obligation?Nicole Hassoun - 2017 - Global Justice: Theory Practice Rhetoric 10 (2).
    Fair Trade is under fire. Some critics argue, for instance, that there is no obligation to purchase Fair Trade certified products and that doing so may even be counter-productive. Others worry that well-justified conceptions of what makes trade fair can conflict. Yet others suggest that the common arguments for Fair Trade cannot justify purchasing Fair Trade certified goods, in particular. This paper starts by sketching one common argument for Fair Trade and defends it against (...)
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  23.  2
    Fair Trade: An Imperfect Obligation?Nicole Hassoun - 2018 - Global Justice : Theory Practice Rhetoric 10 (2).
    Fair Trade is under fire. Some critics argue, for instance, that there is no obligation to purchase Fair Trade certified products and that doing so may even be counter-productive. Others worry that well-justified conceptions of what makes trade fair can conflict. Yet others suggest that the common arguments for Fair Trade cannot justify purchasing Fair Trade certified goods, in particular. This paper starts by sketching one common argument for Fair Trade and defends it against (...)
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  24.  29
    Protecting Communities in Health Research From Exploitation.Segun Gbadegesin & David Wendler - 2006 - Bioethics 20 (5):248-253.
    Guidelines for health research focus on protecting individual research subjects. It is also vital to protect the communities involved in health research. In particular, a number of studies have been criticized on the grounds that they exploited host communities. The present paper attempts to address these concerns by providing an analysis of community exploitation and, based on this analysis, determining what safeguards are needed to protect communities in health research against exploitation. (edited).
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  25.  11
    Benefits and Payments for Research Participants: Experiences and Views From a Research Centre on the Kenyan Coast. [REVIEW]Sassy Molyneux, Stephen Mulupi, Lairumbi Mbaabu & Vicki Marsh - 2012 - BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):13-.
    BackgroundThere is general consensus internationally that unfair distribution of the benefits of research is exploitative and should be avoided or reduced. However, what constitutes fair benefits, and the exact nature of the benefits and their mode of provision can be strongly contested. Empirical studies have the potential to contribute viewpoints and experiences to debates and guidelines, but few have been conducted. We conducted a study to support the development of guidelines on benefits and payments for (...)
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  26. EI principio de acceso posinvestigación en la revisión 2008 de la Declaración de Helsinki.Ignacio Mastroleo - 2008 - Perspectivas Bioéticas 13 (24-25):140-157.
    El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la nueva formulación del principio de acceso posinvestigación en la más reciente (2008) revisión de la Declaración de Helsinki. Se identifican los artículos relevantes de la Declaración y se presentan dos interpretaciones posibles del principio de acceso posinvestigación: una interpretación robusta y otra permisiva, inspiradas cada una por modelos de justicia distintos. Luego, se hace una evaluación crítica de dichas interpretaciones y se intenta avanzar argumentos en contra de la interpretación permisiva. [The objective (...)
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  27.  28
    Benefits and Payments for Research Participants: Experiences and Views From a Research Centre on the Kenyan Coast.M. Marsh Vicki, M. Kamuya Dorcas, M. Mlamba Albert, N. Williams Thomas & S. Molyneux Sassy - 2010 - BMC Medical Ethics (1):13-.
    Background: There is general consensus internationally that unfair distribution of the benefits of research is exploitative and should be avoided or reduced. However, what constitutes fair benefits, and the exact nature of the benefits and their mode of provision can be strongly contested. Empirical studies have the potential to contribute viewpoints and experiences to debates and guidelines, but few have been conducted. We conducted a study to support the development of guidelines on benefits and payments (...)
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  28. Rethinking the Principle of Fair Play.Justin Tosi - 2018 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 4 (99):612-631.
    The principle of fair play is widely thought to require simply that costs and benefits be distributed fairly. This gloss on the principle, while not entirely inaccurate, has invited a host of popular objections based on misunderstandings about fair play. Central to many of these objections is a failure to treat the principle of fair play as a transactional principle—one that allocates special obligations and rights among persons as a result of their interactions. I offer an (...)
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  29. Wild Justice and Fair Play: Cooperation, Forgiveness, and Morality in Animals. [REVIEW]Marc Bekoff - 2004 - Biology and Philosophy 19 (4):489-520.
    In this paper I argue that we can learn much about wild justice and the evolutionary origins of social morality – behaving fairly – by studying social play behavior in group-living animals, and that interdisciplinary cooperation will help immensely. In our efforts to learn more about the evolution of morality we need to broaden our comparative research to include animals other than non-human primates. If one is a good Darwinian, it is premature to claim that only humans can be empathic (...)
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  30.  15
    Punishment, Fair Play and the Burdens of Citizenship.Piero Moraro - 2019 - Law and Philosophy 38 (3):289-311.
    The fair-play theory of punishment claims that the state is justified in imposing additional burdens on law-breakers, to remove the unfair advantage the latter have enjoyed by disobeying the law. From this perspective, punishment reestablishes a fair distribution of benefits and burdens among all citizens. In this paper, I object to this view by focusing on the case of civil disobedience. I argue that the mere illegality of this conduct is insufficient to establish the agent’s unfair advantage (...)
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  31.  17
    Involving Communities in Deciding What Benefits They Receive in Multinational Research.David Wendler & Seema Shah - 2015 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (5):584-600.
    There is wide agreement that communities in lower-income countries should benefit when they participate in multinational research. Debate now focuses on how and to what extent these communities should benefit. This debate has identified compelling reasons to reject the claim that whatever benefits a community agrees to accept are necessarily fair. Yet, those who conduct clinical research may conclude from this rejection that there is no reason to involve communities in the process of deciding how they benefit. Against (...)
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  32. On the Social Benefits of Knowledge.Vihren Bouzov - 2016 - Analele Universitatii Din Craiova, Seria Filosofie 37 (1).
    Knowledge is one of the most important factors determining the development of global economy and overcoming the present existing inequalities. Humankind needs a fair distribution of the potential of knowledge because its big social problems and difficulties today are due to the existence of deep‐going differences in its possession and use. This paper is an attempt to analyze and present certain philosophical arguments and conceptions justifying cooperative decision‐making in the searching for fair distribution of the benefits of (...)
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  33.  22
    Fair-Play Obligations and Distributive Injustice.Göran Duus-Otterström - forthcoming - European Journal of Political Theory:147488511877862.
    This article investigates the relationship between distributive injustice and political obligation within the confines of the fair-play theory of political obligation. More specifically, it asks how the distribution of benefits and burdens of a cooperative scheme affects people’s fair-play obligations to that scheme. It argues that neither a sufficiency-based nor a proportionality-based approach is capable of answering that question singlehandedly. However, the two approaches can be combined in a plausible way. Noting that some of the duties that (...)
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  34.  40
    What is Fair and Equitable Benefit-Sharing?Bram De Jonge - 2011 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24 (2):127-146.
    Fair and equitable benefit-sharing” is one of the objectives of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity and the FAO International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. In essence, benefit-sharing holds that countries, farmers, and indigenous communities that grant access to their plant genetic resources and/or traditional knowledge should share in the benefits that users derive from these resources. But what exactly is understood by “fair” and “equitable” in this context? Neither term is defined in (...)
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  35.  68
    Sharing the Benefits of Genetic Resources: From Biodiversity to Human Genetics.Doris Schroeder & Carolina Lasen-Diaz - 2006 - Developing World Bioethics 6 (3):135–143.
    Benefit sharing aims to achieve an equitable exchange between the granting of access to a genetic resource and the provision of compensation. The Convention on Biological Diversity, adopted at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, is the only international legal instrument setting out obligations for sharing the benefits derived from the use of biodiversity. The CBD excludes human genetic resources from its scope, however, this article considers whether it should be expanded to include those resources, so as (...)
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  36.  57
    Benefits, Intentions, and the Principle of Fairness.Idil Boran - 2006 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 36 (1):95-115.
    In its simplest form, the principle of fairness tells us the following. If a number of people are producing a public good that we benefit from, it is not morally acceptable to free ride on their backs, enjoying the benefits without paying the costs. We owe them our fair share of the costs of the production of that good. The principle of fairness, defended by Rawls in A Theory of Justice and widely discussed subsequently, is sometimes invoked in (...)
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  37.  85
    Punishment and the Principle of Fair Play.Anthony Ellis - 1997 - Utilitas 9 (1):81.
    What I call the Just Distribution theory of punishment holds that the justification of punishment is that it rectifies the social distribution of benefits and burdens which has been upset by the offender. I argue that a recent version of this theory is no more viable than earlier versions. Like them, it fails in its avowed intention to deliver fundamental intuitions about crime and punishment. The root problem is its foundation in Hart's Principle of Fair Play, a foundation (...)
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  38.  41
    Fair Drug Prices and the Patent System.David B. Resnik - 2004 - Health Care Analysis 12 (2):91-115.
    This paper uses John Rawls' theory of justice to defend the patent system against charges that it has an unfair effect on access to medications, from the perspective of national and international justice. The paper argues that the patent system is fair in a national context because it respects intellectual property rights and it benefits the least advantaged members of society by providing incentives for inventors, investors, and entrepreneurs. The paper also argues that the patent system is (...) in an international context, provided that developed nations take steps to help disease-stricken countries secure internal justice. Fairness in a national or international context also requires that the patent system should include emergency exceptions to deal with short-term inequities. (shrink)
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  39.  13
    The Costs and Benefits of Adjunct Justice: A Critique of Brennan and Magness.Steven Shulman - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 155 (1):163-171.
    In their controversial 2016 paper in this journal, Brennan and Magness argue that fair pay for part-time, adjunct faculty would be unaffordable for most colleges and universities and would harm students as well as many adjunct faculty members. In this critique, I show that their cost estimates fail to take account of the potential benefits of fair pay for adjunct faculty and are based on implausible assumptions. I propose that pay per course for new adjunct faculty members (...)
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  40.  10
    A Good Samaritan Inspired Foundation for a Fair Health Care System.Elmar H. Frangenberg - 2011 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (1):73-79.
    Distributive justice on the income and on the service aspects is the most vexing modern day problem for the creation and maintenance of an all inclusive health care system. A pervasive problem of all current schemes is the lack of effective cost control, which continues to result in increasing burdens for all public and private stakeholders. This proposal posits that the responsibility and financial obligation to achieve an ideal outcome of equal and affordable access and benefits for all citizens (...)
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  41.  21
    Fair Subject Selection in Clinical Research: Formal Equality of Opportunity.Douglas MacKay - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (10):672-677.
    In this paper, I explore the ethics of subject selection in the context of biomedical research. I reject a key principle of what I shall refer to as the standard view. According to this principle, investigators should select participants so as to minimise aggregate risk to participants and maximise aggregate benefits to participants and society. On this view, investigators should exclude prospective participants who are more susceptible to risk than other prospective participants. I argue instead that investigators should select (...)
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  42.  11
    Qui Bono? Justice in the Distribution of the Benefits and Burdens of Avoided Deforestation.Ed Page - 2016 - Res Publica 22 (1):83-97.
    In this paper, I explore the question of how the costs of undertaking an important type of climate change mitigation should be shared amongst states seeking an environmentally effective and equitable response to global climate change. While much of the normative literature on climate mitigation has focused on burden sharing within the context of reductions in emissions of greenhouse gas, I explore the question of how the costs of protecting tropical forests in order to harness their climate mitigation potential should (...)
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  43.  6
    The Benefit Sharing Vision of H3Africa.Bege Dauda & Steven Joffe - 2018 - Developing World Bioethics 18 (2):165-170.
    One of the central ethical tenets of research in developing countries is the sponsor's obligation to benefit host participants and communities. Two known models of benefits provision dominate the ethical discourse of research in developing countries. The first model, known as the “reasonable availability,” endorses the obligation to provide interventions proven to be effective at the end of a study. This contrasts with the second model, known as “fair benefits,” which endorses other forms of benefits that (...)
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  44. Fairness, Political Obligation, and the Justificatory Gap.Jiafeng Zhu - 2014 - Journal of Moral Philosophy (4):1-23.
    The moral principle of fairness or fair play is widely believed to be a solid ground for political obligation, i.e., a general prima facie moral duty to obey the law qua law. In this article, I advance a new and, more importantly, principled objection to fairness theories of political obligation by revealing and defending a justificatory gap between the principle of fairness and political obligation: the duty of fairness on its own is incapable of preempting the citizen‟s liberty to (...)
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  45.  31
    The Approval of Over-the-Counter HIV Tests: Playing Fair When Making the Rules. [REVIEW]Melissa Whellams - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 77 (1):5 - 15.
    This paper looks at some of the ethical concerns regarding a recent application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for approval of the sale of HIV tests over-the-counter (OTC) directly to consumers. The concept of at-home HIV testing is not new, but OraSure Technologies Inc., a U.S. manufacturer of rapid HIV tests, is now seeking FDA approval to take at-home testing one step further to enable consumers to test themselves and interpret the results without the assistance of an (...)
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  46.  4
    The Approval of Over-the-Counter HIV Tests: Playing Fair When Making the Rules.Melissa Whellams - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 77 (1):5-15.
    This paper looks at some of the ethical concerns regarding a recent application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for approval of the sale of HIV tests over-the-counter directly to consumers. The concept of at-home HIV testing is not new, but OraSure Technologies Inc., a U.S. manufacturer of rapid HIV tests, is now seeking FDA approval to take at-home testing one step further to enable consumers to test themselves and interpret the results without the assistance of an outside party. (...)
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  47.  44
    Fair Shares: A Preliminary Framework and Case Analyzing the Ethics of Offshoring.Cameron Gordon & Alan Zimmerman - 2010 - Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (2):325-353.
    Much has been written about the offshoring phenomenon from an economic efficiency perspective. Most authors have attempted to measure the net economic effects of the strategy and many purport to show that “in the long run” that benefits will outweigh the costs. There is also a relatively large literature on implementation which describes the best way to manage the offshoring process. But what is the morality of offshoring? What is its “rightness” or “wrongness?” Little analysis of the ethics of (...)
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  48.  36
    Making Fair Funding Decisions for High Cost Cancer Care: The Case of Herceptin in New Zealand.E. Fenton - 2010 - Public Health Ethics 3 (2):137-146.
    In 2008 New Zealand's pharmaceutical management agency, PHARMAC, made its final decision on the funding of trastuzumab (Herceptin) for HER2-positive early stage breast cancer. PHARMAC declined to fund the 12-month Herceptin regimen requested by the drug's manufacturer, funding instead a 9-week treatment regimen. The decision was justified on the grounds that there was insufficient evidence of additional long-term health benefits from the longer treatment course, which, coupled with the high cost of the drug, did not make the 12-month regimen (...)
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  49.  7
    Sharing the Costs of Fighting Justly.Sara Van Goozen - 2018 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-21.
    Combatants who attempt to obey the laws of war often have to take considerable risks in order to effectively discriminate between legitimate and illegitimate targets. Sometimes this task is made even more complicated by systemic factors which influence their ability to discriminate effectively without unduly risking their lives or the mission. If they fail to do so, civilians often pay the price. In this paper, I argue that to the extent that non-combatants benefit from the attempt to fight justly, and (...)
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  50.  50
    How to Do Research Fairly in an Unjust World.Angela J. Ballantyne - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):26-35.
    International research, sponsored by for-profit companies, is regularly criticised as unethical on the grounds that it exploits research subjects in developing countries. Many commentators agree that exploitation occurs when the benefits of cooperative activity are unfairly distributed between the parties. To determine whether international research is exploitative we therefore need an account of fair distribution. Procedural accounts of fair bargaining have been popular solutions to this problem, but I argue that they are insufficient to protect against exploitation. (...)
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