Results for 'fairness'

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  1.  22
    Competton and Fair Play.Fair Play - 2007 - In William J. Morgan (ed.), Ethics in Sport. Human Kinetics. pp. 103.
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  2.  9
    Measuring Fairness in an Unfair World.Jonathan Herington - 2020 - Proceedings of AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society 2020:286-292.
    Computer scientists have made great strides in characterizing different measures of algorithmic fairness, and showing that certain measures of fairness cannot be jointly satisfied. In this paper, I argue that the three most popular families of measures - unconditional independence, target-conditional independence and classification-conditional independence - make assumptions that are unsustainable in the context of an unjust world. I begin by introducing the measures and the implicit idealizations they make about the underlying causal structure of the contexts in (...)
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  3. Fairly Meaningful: Mechanisms Linking Organizational Fairness to Perceived Meaningfulness.Wei Si, Jialing Xiao & Leni Chen - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-20.
    This research develops and tests a multiple-mediator model of the relationship between organizational fairness and employees’ perceived meaningfulness. Integrating (Rosso et al., Research in Organizational Behavior 30:91–127, 2010) theoretical framework on meaningfulness with theories on fairness, we examined four parallel mechanisms linking organizational fairness to perceived meaningfulness: organization-based self-esteem (OBSE), authenticity at work, moral identification, and organizational identification. We tested our model with three time-lagged studies. All of the studies found significant mediating effects of OBSE and authenticity (...)
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  4. Procedural Fairness and Jury Satisfaction : An Analysis of Relational Dimensions.Jane Goodman-Delahunty, David Tait & Natalie Martschuk - 2021 - In Meyerson Denise, Catriona Mackenzie & Therese MacDermott (eds.), Procedural Justice and Relational Theory: Empirical, Philosophical, and Legal Perspectives. Routledge.
     
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  5. Fairness, Equality, Proportionality and Parsimony : Towards a Comprehensive Jurisprudence of Just Punishment.Michael Tonry - 2019 - In Antje du Bois-Pedain & Anthony E. Bottoms (eds.), Penal censure: engagements within and beyond desert theory. Hart Publishing.
  6.  75
    Fairness And Performance-Enhancing Swimsuits AT The 2009 Swimming World Championships: The 'Asterisk' Championships.Brad Partridge - 2011 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 5 (1):63-74.
    The use of polyurethane swimsuits at the 2009 World Aquatics Championships resulted in world records being set for almost all swimming events. This paper explores the implications that the use of these performance-enhancing swimsuits had on fairness in relative and absolute outcomes in swimming. I claim that the use of ?super swimsuits? unfairly influenced relative outcomes within the competition because not all swimmers used, or had access to, the same types of swimsuit (some of which were clearly ?faster? than (...)
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  7.  21
    Fair Use, Efficiency, and Corrective Justice.Gideon Parchomovsky - 1997 - Legal Theory 3 (4):347-378.
    The fair use doctrine is at once the most significant and the most problematic qualification of the copyright owner's right to exclusivity. An affirmative defense against copyright liability, the fair use doctrine legitimates certain unauthorized reproductions of copyrighted materials that would otherwise be regarded as copyright infringements. Notwithstanding its importance, “fair use” continues to be “the most troublesome [doctrine] in the whole law of copyright.” Throughout its long history, neither courts nor legislatures have provided a useful definition of “fair use” (...)
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  8.  15
    Fair Trade in France: From Individual Innovators to Contemporary Networks.Nil Özçağlar-Toulouse, Amina Béji-Bécheur & Patrick E. Murphy - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 90 (S4):589-606.
    Fair trade aims at humanising the capitalist economy by serving the community, instead of simply striving for financial profit. The current fair trade sector is an excellent example of an innovation where networks based on ethical principles can help to effectively serve this market. Our analysis is based on 48 interviews amongst fair trade innovators in France and illustrates the advent of a new type of entrepreneur, one that is grounded in the social and solidarity economy (SSE). Based on a (...)
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  9.  8
    Fair is Fair: We Must Re-Allocate Livers for Transplant.Brendan Parent & Arthur L. Caplan - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):26.
    The 11 original regions for organ allocation in the United States were determined by proximity between hospitals that provided deceased donors and transplant programs. As liver transplants became more successful and demand rose, livers became a scarce resource. A national system has been implemented to prioritize liver allocation according to disease severity, but the system still operates within the original procurement regions, some of which have significantly more deceased donor livers. Although each region prioritizes its sickest patients to be liver (...)
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  10.  24
    Demystifying Fair Trade in France: The History of an Ambiguous Project.Nil Özçağlar-Toulouse, Amina Béji-Bécheur, Matthieu Gateau & Philippe Robert-Demontrond - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (S2):205-216.
    In France, Fair Trade arrived on the scene in the late twentieth century, and since then has passed through several experimental phases before becoming an enduring "realistic" economic alternative. To understand the transformation, this article defines Fair Trade as a social construct issues and tensions of which change depending on the point of entry. By conducting a secondary analysis of several data sets from varied sources, including documentary material, interviews, and observations, the authors trace the history of Fair Trade in (...)
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  11.  26
    Fairness, Fast and Slow: A Review of Dual Process Models of Fairness.Bjørn Hallsson, Hartwig R. Siebner & Oliver J. Hulme - 2018 - Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 89:49-60.
    Fairness, the notion that people deserve or have rights to certain resources or kinds of treatment, is a fundamental dimension of moral cognition. Drawing on recent evidence from economics, psychology, and neuroscience, we ask whether self-interest is always intuitive, requiring self-control to override with reasoning-based fairness concerns, or whether fairness itself can be intuitive. While we find strong support for rejecting the notion that self-interest is always intuitive, the literature has reached conflicting conclusions about the neurocognitive systems (...)
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  12. Fairness, Political Obligation, and the Justificatory Gap.Jiafeng Zhu - 2014 - Journal of Moral Philosophy (4):1-23.
    The moral principle of fairness or fair play is widely believed to be a solid ground for political obligation, i.e., a general prima facie moral duty to obey the law qua law. In this article, I advance a new and, more importantly, principled objection to fairness theories of political obligation by revealing and defending a justificatory gap between the principle of fairness and political obligation: the duty of fairness on its own is incapable of preempting the (...)
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  13.  28
    Fair Play and Wrongful Benefits.Avia Pasternak - 2017 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 14 (5):515-534.
    According to the fair play defense of political obligations citizens have a reciprocity-based duty to share the costs involved in the production of public goods. But sometimes, states produce collective goods through wrongdoing. For example, sometimes states’ wrongful immigration policies can contribute to the welfare of their own populations. Do citizens have duties of reciprocity in light of such wrongful benefits? I argue that the answer to this question is negative. Drawing on the observation that beneficiaries of wrongdoing incur compensatory (...)
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  14. Equality, Fairness, and Responsibility in an Unequal World.Thom Brooks - 2014 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 1 (2):147-153.
    Severe poverty is a major global problem about risk and inequality. What, if any, is the relationship between equality, fairness and responsibility in an unequal world? I argue for four conclusions. The first is the moral urgency of severe poverty. We have too many global neighbours that exist in a state of emergency and whose suffering is intolerable. The second is that severe poverty is a problem concerning global injustice that is relevant, but not restricted, to questions about responsibility. (...)
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  15. Fair Machine Learning Under Partial Compliance.Jessica Dai, Sina Fazelpour & Zachary Lipton - 2021 - In Proceedings of the 2021 AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society. pp. 55–65.
    Typically, fair machine learning research focuses on a single decision maker and assumes that the underlying population is stationary. However, many of the critical domains motivating this work are characterized by competitive marketplaces with many decision makers. Realistically, we might expect only a subset of them to adopt any non-compulsory fairness-conscious policy, a situation that political philosophers call partial compliance. This possibility raises important questions: how does partial compliance and the consequent strategic behavior of decision subjects affect the allocation (...)
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  16. Equal Justice: Fair Legal Systems in an Unfair World.Frederick Wilmot-Smith - 2019 - Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
    If someone assaults you, should they get a milder penalty if they are rich than if they are poor? We wouldn't dream of passing a law that formalized such an arrangement. But the design of our legal systems in the US, UK, and elsewhere, which permits people with sufficient money to pay for better lawyers, means that wealth often does make a difference to legal outcomes. Justice, then, depends not only on the substance of the laws we pass, but on (...)
     
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  17. Against Fairness.Stephen T. Asma - 2012 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    From the school yard to the workplace, there’s no charge more damning than “you’re being unfair!” Born out of democracy and raised in open markets, fairness has become our de facto modern creed. The very symbol of American ethics—Lady Justice—wears a blindfold as she weighs the law on her impartial scale. In our zealous pursuit of fairness, we have banished our urges to like one person more than another, one thing over another, hiding them away as dirty secrets (...)
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  18. Fairness in International Law and Institutions.Thomas M. Franck - 1995 - Oxford University Press UK.
    This book is based on Professor Franck's highly acclaimed Hague Academy General Course. In it he offers a compelling view of the future of international legal reasoning and legal theory. The author offers a critical analysis of the prescriptive norms and institutions of modern international law and argues that international law has the capacity to advance, in practice, the abstract social values shared by the community of states and persons. This book is both thought-provoking and original and as such is (...)
     
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  19.  42
    Fairness as Mutual Advantage? A Comment on Buchanan and Gauthier.Hans-Peter Weikard - 1994 - Economics and Philosophy 10 (1):59-72.
    The concept of fairness as mutual advantage has been developed in the tradition of social contract theory. In this framework society is seen as an enterprise that coordinates the activities of its members in order to advance their interests. All acceptable social rules are in the interest of each member of society. Rules are agreed unanimously – no rules can be enforced against the interest of someone. It is assumed that individuals are basically self-interested and rational. Radical libertarianism claims (...)
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  20.  52
    Fairness Versus Welfare.Louis Kaplow - 2002 - Harvard University Press.
    Summary of, and response to criticism of, the authors' book, Fairness versus welfare (Harvard University Press, 2002).
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  21.  1
    Fair Subject Selection in Clinical and Social Scientific Research.Douglas MacKay - forthcoming - In Ana S. Iltis & Douglas MacKay (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Research Ethics.
    This chapter provides a critical overview and interpretation of fair subject selection in clinical and social scientific research. It first provides an analytical framework for thinking about the problem of fair subject selection. It then argues that fair subject selection is best understood as a set of four subprinciples, each with normative force and each with distinct and often conflicting implications for the selection of participants: fair inclusion, fair burden sharing, fair opportunity, and fair distribution of third-party risks. It then (...)
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  22. Making Fair Choices on the Path to Universal Health Coverage.Ole Frithjof Norheim, Trygve Ottersen, Bona Chitah, Richard Cookson, Norman Daniels, Nir Eyal, Walter Flores, Axel Gosseries, Daniel Hausman, Samia Hurst, Lydia Kapiriri, Toby Ord, Shlomi Segall, Frehiwot Defaye, Alex Voorhoeve & Alicia Yamin - 2014 - World Health Organisation.
    This report by the WHO Consultative Group on Equity and Universal Health Coverage addresses how countries can make fair progress towards the goal of universal coverage. It explains the relevant tradeoffs between different desirable ends and offers guidance on how to make these tradeoffs.
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  23.  37
    Fairness, Political Obligation, and the Justificatory Gap.Jiafeng Zhu - 2015 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 12 (3):290-312.
    The moral principle of fairness or fair play is widely believed to be a solid ground for political obligation, i.e., a general prima facie moral duty to obey the law qua law. In this article, I advance a new and, more importantly, principled objection to fairness theories of political obligation by revealing and defending a justificatory gap between the principle of fairness and political obligation: the duty of fairness on its own is incapable of preempting the (...)
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  24.  3
    Fair Governance: Paternalism and Perfectionism.Francis H. Buckley - 2009 - Oup Usa.
    Fair Governance: The Enforcement of Morals is a study of legal interference with individual preferences and will canvass the interdisciplinary literature in economics, psychology, philosophy, and law. It discusses the particular conditions necessary for the state to legally interfere with our freedom of choice, whether it be to either satisfy our individual pursuit of happiness or to prevent us from making immoral choices. Relatively few philosophers know much of the parallel literature on this central problem of ethics; while many legal (...)
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  25. Fairness in Distributive Justice by 3- and 5-Year-Olds Across Seven Cultures.Philippe Rochat, Maria D. G. Dias, Guo Liping, Tanya Broesch, Claudia Passos-Ferreira, Ashley Winning & Britt Berg - 2009 - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 40 (3):416-442.
    This research investigates 3- and 5-year-olds' relative fairness in distributing small collections of even or odd numbers of more or less desirable candies, either with an adult experimenter or between two dolls. The authors compare more than 200 children from around the world, growing up in seven highly contrasted cultural and economic contexts, from rich and poor urban areas, to small-scale traditional and rural communities. Across cultures, young children tend to optimize their own gain, not showing many signs of (...)
     
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  26.  14
    Fairness as Equal Concession: Critical Remarks on Fair AI.Christopher Yeomans & Ryan van Nood - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (6):1-14.
    Although existing work draws attention to a range of obstacles in realizing fair AI, the field lacks an account that emphasizes how these worries hang together in a systematic way. Furthermore, a review of the fair AI and philosophical literature demonstrates the unsuitability of ‘treat like cases alike’ and other intuitive notions as conceptions of fairness. That review then generates three desiderata for a replacement conception of fairness valuable to AI research: It must provide a meta-theory for understanding (...)
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  27.  49
    Explaining Fairness in Complex Environments.Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2008 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 7 (1):81-97.
    This article presents the evolutionary dynamics of three games: the Nash bargaining game, the ultimatum game, and a hybrid of the two. One might expect that the probability that some behavior evolves in an environment with two games would be near the probability that the same behavior evolves in either game alone. This is not the case for the ultimatum and Nash bargaining games. Fair behavior is more likely to evolve in a combined game than in either game taken individually. (...)
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  28.  1
    Exploring Fair Decision-Making Rules in Nursing: A Qualitative Study.Hosein Zahednezhad, Mohammadali Hosseini, Abbas Ebadi, Asghar Dalvandi & Kian Nourozi Tabrizi - 2018 - Nursing Ethics:096973301879131.
    Background:The decision-making process should be done according to a set of rules and principles so as to be fairly understood.Objectives:The aim of this study was to identify the basic principles and rules used by nurses to understand justice in nurse managers’ decision-making processes based on a procedural justice model.Research design and participants:This research was a qualitative study based on directed content analysis, which was performed on a group of 15 nurses working in different hospitals in Tehran, Iran. An in-depth semi-structured (...)
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  29. Algorithmic Fairness From a Non-Ideal Perspective.Sina Fazelpour & Zachary C. Lipton - 2020 - Proceedings of the AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society.
    Inspired by recent breakthroughs in predictive modeling, practitioners in both industry and government have turned to machine learning with hopes of operationalizing predictions to drive automated decisions. Unfortunately, many social desiderata concerning consequential decisions, such as justice or fairness, have no natural formulation within a purely predictive framework. In efforts to mitigate these problems, researchers have proposed a variety of metrics for quantifying deviations from various statistical parities that we might expect to observe in a fair world and offered (...)
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  30.  16
    A Fair Trade ATO in a Period of Transition.Eeva Laine & Matias Laine - 2008 - Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 19:113-124.
    The popularity of Fair Trade is increasing swiftly in many parts of the World. However, there is still a paucity of research analysing the northern fair trade actors outside the Anglo-American communities. This paper contributes by presenting a qualitative study of how the Finnish World Shop movements’ key actors understand the movement’s role and position in the rapidly changing operating environment. The study depicts the polyphonic nature of this particular democratic social movement and discusses how success, public trust and the (...)
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  31.  14
    Fairness, Responsibility, and Welfare.Marc Fleurbaey - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
    What is a fair distribution of resources and other goods when individuals are partly responsible for their achievements? This book develops a theory of fairness incorporating a concern for personal responsibility, opportunities and freedom. With a critical perspective, it makes accessible the recent developments in economics and philosophy that define social justice in terms of equal opportunities. It also proposes new perspectives and original ideas. The book separates mathematical sections from the rest of the text, so that the main (...)
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  32.  42
    Fair Equality of Opportunity: John Rawls’ Forgotten Principle.Larry A. Alexander - 1985 - Philosophy Research Archives 11:197-208.
    Although discussions of John Rawls’ A Theory of Justice generally refer to Rawls’ two principles of justice, and although Rawls himself labels his principles “the two principles of justice”, Rawls actually sets forth three distinct principles in the following lexical order: the liberty principle, the fair equality of opportunity principle, and the difference principle. Rawls argues at some length for the priority of the liberty principle over the other two. On the other hand, Rawls offers hardly any argument at all (...)
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  33.  1
    Fairness Issues in Educational Assessment.Hossein Karami (ed.) - 2016 - Routledge.
    Fairness and ethicality have been at the center of the debates on the appropriate use of educational tests since the 1960s. Particularly in high-stakes contexts, it is clear that fairness should be a major concern to both the test developers, and to those being tested, given that the fairness of a test is so intertwined with its validity. Fairness Issues in Educational Assessment aims to shed more light on the issue and bring to sight some of (...)
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  34.  9
    Fairness in Practice: A Social Contract for a Global Economy.Aaron James - 2012 - Oup Usa.
    If the global economy seems unfair, how should we understand what a fair global economy would be? What ideas of fairness, if any, apply, and what significance do they have for policy and law? Working within the social contract tradition, this book argues that fairness is best seen as a kind of equity in practice.
  35.  19
    Fair Play, Übelnehmen Und der Sinn Für Gerechtigkeit: Kritische Überlegungen Zu Adam Smith.Hans-Peter Schütt & Christel Fricke - 2005 - In Hans-Peter Schütt & Christel Fricke (eds.), Adam Smith Als Moralphilosoph. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 128-159.
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  36. A Fairness Doctrine for the Twenty-First Century.Julian Friedland - 2021 - Areo.
    Michael Goldhaber, who popularized the term the attention economy, said of the US Capitol insurrection: “It felt like an expression of a world in which everyone is desperately seeking their own audience and fracturing reality in the process. I only see that accelerating.” If we don’t do something about this, American democracy may not survive. For when there is no longer any common ground of evidence and reason, history shows that misinformation will eventually overwhelm public discourse and authoritarianism can take (...)
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  37.  13
    Fair Social Orderings.Marc Fleurbaey & F. Maniquet - unknown
    In a model of private good allocation, we construct social orderings which depend only on ordinal non-comparable information about individual preferences. In order to avoid Arrovian-type impossibilities, we let those social preferences take account of the shape of individual indifference curves. This allows us to introduce equity and cross-economy robustness properties, inspired by the theory of fair allocation. Combining such properties, we characterize two families of fair social orderings.
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  38.  1
    Faire L'Idiot: La Politique de Deleuze.Philippe Mengue - 2013 - Germina.
    Quelle politique peut-on faire quand on est un idiot? Loin d'être saugrenue, c'est bien la question qu'on est conduit à se poser inévitablement en lisant l'oeuvre de Gilles Deleuze. L'"idiot" joue, en effet, un rôle incontournable et essentiel dans la philosophie de Deleuze. Il est le personnage conceptuel qui fait tenir cette philosophie dans sa consistance propre. Il se situe à la charnière de l'image de la pensée que le philosophe invoque et suppose plus ou moins implicitement et de la (...)
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  39.  2
    Playing Fair: Political Obligation and the Problems of Punishment.Richard Dagger - 2018 - Oup Usa.
    In Playing Fair, Richard Dagger provides a unified theory of political obligation and the justification of punishment that takes its bearings from the principle of fair play. Dagger argues that members of a just polity have an obligation to obey its laws because they have an obligation of reciprocity or fair play to one another.
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  40. Fair Equality of Opportunity in Global Justice.Mark Navin - 2008 - Social Philosophy Today 24:39-52.
    Many political philosophers argue that a principle of ‘fair equality of opportunity’ ought to extend beyond national borders. I agree that there is a place for FEO in a theory of global justice. However, I think that the idea of cross-border FEO is indeterminate between three different principles. Part of my work in this paper is methodological: I identify three different principles of cross-border fair equality of opportunity and I distinguish them from each other. The other part of my work (...)
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  41. Family Fairness.Edna Ullmann-Margalit - 2006 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 73 (2):575-596.
    In this paper I take up the notion of family fairness and contrast it with justice. In particular I take issue with Susan Okin's notion of the just family and develop, instead, the notion of the not-unjust fair family. Driving a wedge between justice and fairness, I propose that family fairness is partial and sympathetic rather than impartial and empathic, and that it is particular and internal rather than universalizable. Furthermore, I claim that family fairness is (...)
     
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  42. Fairness: Theory & Practice of Distributive Justice.Nicholas Rescher - 2002 - Routledge.
    In theory and practice, the notion of fairness is far from simple. The principle is often elusive and subject to confusion, even in institutions of law, usage, and custom. In Fairness, Nicholas Rescher aims to liberate this concept from misunderstandings by showing how its definitive characteristics prevent it from being absorbed by such related conceptions as paternalistic benevolence, radical egalitarianism, and social harmonization. Rescher demonstrates that equality before the state is an instrument of justice, not of social utility (...)
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  43. Faire Des Choix Justes Pour Une Couverture Sanitaire Universelle.Ole Frithjof Norheim, Trygve Ottersen, Bona Chitah, Richard Cookson, Norman Daniels, Frehiwot Defaye, Nir Eyal, Walter Flores, Axel Gosseries, Daniel Hausman, Samia Hurst, Lydia Kapiriri, Toby Ord, Shlomi Segall, Gita Sen, Alex Voorhoeve, Daniel Wikler, Alicia Yamin, Tessa T. T. Edejer, Andreas Reis, Ritu Sadana & Carla Saenz - 2015 - World Health Organization.
    This report from the WHO Consultative Group on Equity and Universal Health Coverage offers advice on how to make progress fairly towards universal health coverage.
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  44.  14
    Fairness and Accountability of AI in Disaster Risk Management: Opportunities and Challenges.Caroline Gevaert, Mary Carman, Benjamin Rosman, Yola Georgiadou & Robert Soden - 2021 - Patterns 11 (2).
    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is increasingly being used in disaster risk management applications to predict the effect of upcoming disasters, plan for mitigation strategies, and determine who needs how much aid after a disaster strikes. The media is filled with unintended ethical concerns of AI algorithms, such as image recognition algorithms not recognizing persons of color or racist algorithmic predictions of whether offenders will recidivate. We know such unintended ethical consequences must play a role in DRM as well, yet there is (...)
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  45.  64
    When Fair Betting Odds Are Not Degrees of Belief.T. Seidenfeld, M. J. Schervish & J. B. Kadane - 1990 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:517-524.
    The "Dutch Book" argument, tracing back to Ramsey and to deFinetti, offers prudential grounds for action in conformity with personal probability. Under several structural assumptions about combinations of stakes, your betting policy is coherent only if your fair odds are probabilities. The central question posed here is the following one: Besides providing an operational test of coherent betting, does the "Book" argument also provide for adequate measurement of the agents degrees of beliefs? That is, are an agent's fair odds also (...)
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  46. Fair Play: The Ethics of Sport.Robert L. Simon - 2010 - Westview Press.
    Addressing both collegiate and professional sports, the updated edition of Fair Play explores the ethical presuppositions of competitive athletics and their ...
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  47.  12
    Fair Play : The Ethics of Sport.Robert L. Simon, Cesar R. Torres & Peter F. Hager - 2015 - Boulder, CO: Westview Pres.
    Addressing both collegiate and professional sports, the updated edition of Fair Play: The Ethics of Sport explores the ethical presuppositions of competitive athletics and their connection both to ethical theory and to concrete moral dilemmas that arise in actual athletic competition. This fourth edition has been updated with new examples, including a discussion of Spygate by the New England Patriots and recent discoveries on the use of performance enhancing drugs by top athletes. Two additional authors, Cesar R. Torres and Peter (...)
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  48.  45
    A Fairly Persuasive Case. [REVIEW]Michael Whitby - 1995 - The Classical Review 45 (1):110-111.
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  49. Fairness, Public Good, and Emotional Aspects of Punishment Behavior.Klaus Abbink, Abdolkarim Sadrieh & Shmuel Zamir - 2004 - Theory and Decision 57 (1):25-57.
    We report an experiment on two treatments of an ultimatum minigame. In one treatment, responders’ reactions are hidden to proposers. We observe high rejection rates reflecting responders’ intrinsic resistance to unfairness. In the second treatment, proposers are informed, allowing for dynamic effects over eight rounds of play. The higher rejection rates can be attributed to responders’ provision of a public good: Punishment creates a group reputation for being “tough” and effectively “educate” proposers. Since rejection rates with informed proposers drop to (...)
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  50. Faire de l'histoire de la philosophie, ou, Les présents du passé.Chantal Jaquet (ed.) - 2020 - Paris: Classiques Garnier.
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