Results for 'feedback bias'

1000+ found
Order:
  1.  7
    A Little Bias Goes a Long Way: The Effects of Feedback on the Strategic Regulation of Accuracy on Formula-Scored Tests.Michelle M. Arnold, Philip A. Higham & Beatriz Martín-Luengo - 2013 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 19 (4):383-402.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  2. System Justification and Electrophysiological Responses to Feedback: Support for a Positivity Bias.Shona M. Tritt, Elizabeth Page-Gould, Jordan B. Peterson & Michael Inzlicht - 2014 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143 (3):1004-1010.
  3. Interactive Classification and Practice in the Social Sciences.Matt L. Drabek - 2010 - Poroi 6 (2):62-80.
    This paper examines the ways in which social scientific discourse and classification interact with the objects of social scientific investigation. I examine this interaction in the context of the traditional philosophical project of demarcating the social sciences from the natural sciences. I begin by reviewing Ian Hacking’s work on interactive classification and argue that there are additional forms of interaction that must be treated.
    Translate
      Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  4. A Neglected Aspect of Conscience: Awareness of Implicit Attitudes.Chloë Fitzgerald - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (1):24-32.
    The conception of conscience that dominates discussions in bioethics focuses narrowly on private regulation of behaviour resulting from explicit attitudes. It neglects to mention implicit attitudes and the role of social feedback in becoming aware of one's implicit attitudes. But if conscience is a way of ensuring that a person's behaviour is in line with her moral values, it must be responsive to all aspects of the mind that influence behaviour. There is a wealth of recent psychological work demonstrating (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  5.  11
    The Frontal Feedback Model of the Evolution of the Human Mind: Part 2, the Human Brain and the Frontal Feedback System.Raymond A. Noack - 2007 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 28 (3):233.
    The frontal feedback model argues that the sudden appearance of art and advancing technologies around 40,000 years ago in the hominid archaeological record was the end result of a recent fundamental change in the functional properties of the hominid brain, which occurred late in that brain's evolution. This change was marked by the switching of the driving mechanism behind the global, dynamic function of the brain from an "object-centered" bias, reflective of nonhuman primate and early hominid brains, to (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  6.  14
    Implicit Learning of Sequential Bias in a Guessing Task: Failure to Demonstrate Effects of Dopamine Administration and Paranormal Belief☆.J. Palmer, C. Mohr, P. Krummenacher & P. Brugger - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2):498-506.
    Previous research suggests that implicit sequence learning is superior for believers in the paranormal and individuals with increased cerebral dopamine. Thirty-five healthy participants performed feedback-guided anticipations of four arrow directions. A 100-trial random sequence preceded two 100-trial biased sequences in which visual targets on trial t tended to be displaced 90° clockwise or counter-clockwise from those on t − 1. ISL was defined as a positive change during the course of the biased run in the difference between pro-bias (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  7.  5
    Solving the “Human Problem”: The Frontal Feedback Model.Raymond A. Noack - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):1043-1067.
    This paper argues that humans possess unique cognitive abilities due to the presence of a functional system that exists in the human brain that is absent in the non-human brain. This system, the frontal feedback system, was born in the hominin brain when the great phylogenetic expansion of the prefrontal cortex relative to posterior sensory regions surpassed a critical threshold. Surpassing that threshold effectively reversed the preferred direction of information flow in the highest association regions of the neocortex, producing (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  8.  27
    Attributability, Accountability, and Implicit Bias.Zheng Robin - 2016 - In Jennifer Saul & Michael Brownstein (eds.), Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 2: Moral Responsibility, Structural Injustice, and Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 62-89.
    This chapter distinguishes between two concepts of moral responsibility. We are responsible for our actions in the first sense only when those actions reflect our identities as moral agents, i.e. when they are attributable to us. We are responsible in the second sense when it is appropriate for others to enforce certain expectations and demands on those actions, i.e. to hold us accountable for them. This distinction allows for an account of moral responsibility for implicit bias, defended here, on (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  9. The Heterogeneity of Implicit Bias.Jules Holroyd & Joseph Sweetman - forthcoming - In Michael Brownstein & Jennifer Saul (eds.), Implicit Bias and Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    The term 'implicit bias' has very swiftly been incorporated into philosophical discourse. Our aim in this paper is to scrutinise the phenomena that fall under the rubric of implicit bias. The term is often used in a rather broad sense, to capture a range of implicit social cognitions, and this is useful for some purposes. However, we here articulate some of the important differences between phenomena identified as instances of implicit bias. We caution against ignoring these differences: (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  10. Attitude, Inference, Association: On the Propositional Structure of Implicit Bias.Eric Mandelbaum - 2016 - Noûs 50 (3):629-658.
    The overwhelming majority of those who theorize about implicit biases posit that these biases are caused by some sort of association. However, what exactly this claim amounts to is rarely specified. In this paper, I distinguish between different understandings of association, and I argue that the crucial senses of association for elucidating implicit bias are the cognitive structure and mental process senses. A hypothesis is subsequently derived: if associations really underpin implicit biases, then implicit biases should be modulated by (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  11.  62
    Virtue, Social Knowledge, and Implicit Bias.Alex Madva - 2016 - In Jennifer Saul & Michael Brownstein (eds.), Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 1: Metaphysics and Epistemology. pp. 191-215.
    This chapter is centered around an apparent tension that research on implicit bias raises between virtue and social knowledge. Research suggests that simply knowing what the prevalent stereotypes are leads individuals to act in prejudiced ways—biasing decisions about whom to trust and whom to ignore, whom to promote and whom to imprison—even if they reflectively reject those stereotypes. Because efforts to combat discrimination obviously depend on knowledge of stereotypes, a question arises about what to do next. This chapter argues (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  12.  52
    A Virtue Ethics Response to Implicit Bias.Clea F. Rees - 2016 - In Michael Brownstein & Jennifer Saul (eds.), Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 2: Moral Responsibility, Structural Injustice, and Ethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 191-214.
    Virtue ethics faces two challenges based in ‘dual-process’ models of cognition. The classic situationist worry is that we just do not have reliable motivations at all. One promising response invokes an alternative model of cognition which can accommodate evidence cited in support of dual-process models without positing distinct systems for automatic and deliberative processing. The approach appeals to the potential of automatization to habituate virtuous motivations. This response is threatened by implicit bias which raises the worry that we cannot (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  13.  48
    Persistent Bias in Expert Judgments About Free Will and Moral Responsibility: A Test of the Expertise Defense.E. Schultz, E. T. Cokely & A. Feltz - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1722-1731.
    Many philosophers appeal to intuitions to support some philosophical views. However, there is reason to be concerned about this practice as scientific evidence has documented systematic bias in philosophically relevant intuitions as a function of seemingly irrelevant features (e.g., personality). One popular defense used to insulate philosophers from these concerns holds that philosophical expertise eliminates the influence of these extraneous factors. Here, we test this assumption. We present data suggesting that verifiable philosophical expertise in the free will debate-as measured (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   29 citations  
  14.  26
    Conceptual Centrality and Implicit Bias.Del Pinal Guillermo & Spaulding Shannon - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
    How are biases encoded in our representations of social categories? Philo- sophical and empirical discussions of implicit bias overwhelmingly focus on salient or statistical associations between target features and representations of social categories. These are the sorts of associations probed by the Implicit Association Test and various priming tasks. In this paper, we argue that these discussions systematically overlook an alternative way in which biases are encoded, i.e., in the dependency networks that are part of our representations of social (...)
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  15.  26
    Exploring Social Desirability Bias.Janne Chung & Gary S. Monroe - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 44 (4):291 - 302.
    This study examines social desirability bias in the context of ethical decision-making by accountants. It hypothesizes a negative relation between social desirability bias and ethical evaluation. It also predicts an interaction effect between religiousness and gender on social desirability bias. An experiment using five general business vignettes was carried out on 121 accountants (63 males and 58 females). The results show that social desirability bias is higher (lower) when the situation encountered is more (less) unethical. The (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   43 citations  
  16. Bias and Values in Scientific Research.Torsten Wilholt - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 40 (1):92-101.
    When interests and preferences of researchers or their sponsors cause bias in experimental design, data interpretation or dissemination of research results, we normally think of it as an epistemic shortcoming. But as a result of the debate on science and values, the idea that all ‘extra-scientific’ influences on research could be singled out and separated from pure science is now widely believed to be an illusion. I argue that nonetheless, there are cases in which research is rightfully regarded as (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   25 citations  
  17. Pathogen Prevalence, Group Bias, and Collectivism in the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample.Elizabeth Cashdan & Matthew Steele - 2013 - Human Nature 24 (1):59-75.
    It has been argued that people in areas with high pathogen loads will be more likely to avoid outsiders, to be biased in favor of in-groups, and to hold collectivist and conformist values. Cross-national studies have supported these predictions. In this paper we provide new pathogen codes for the 186 cultures of the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample and use them, together with existing pathogen and ethnographic data, to try to replicate these cross-national findings. In support of the theory, we found that (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  18.  27
    Gender Differences in Ethics Research: The Importance of Controlling for the Social Desirability Response Bias[REVIEW]Derek Dalton & Marc Ortegren - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 103 (1):73-93.
    Gender is one of the most frequently studied variables within the ethics literature. In prior studies that find gender differences, females consistently report more ethical responses than males. However, prior research also indicates that females are more prone to responding in a socially desirable fashion. Consequently, it is uncertain whether gender differences in ethical decision-making exist because females are more ethical or perhaps because females are more prone to the social desirability response bias. Using a sample of 30 scenarios (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   13 citations  
  19. When, and How, Should Cognitive Bias Matter to Law.Govind Persad - 2014 - Law and Ineq 32:31.
    Recent work in the behavioral sciences asserts that we are subject to a variety of cognitive biases. For example, we mourn losses more than we prize equivalently sized gains; we are more inclined to believe something if it matches our previous beliefs; and we even relate more warmly or coldly to others depending on whether the coffee cup we are holding is warm or cold. Drawing on this work, case law and legal scholarship have asserted that we have reason to (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  20. Implicit Bias, Character and Control.Jules Holroyd & Dan Kelly - forthcoming - In Jonathan Webber & Alberto Masala (eds.), From Personality to Virtue.
    Our focus here is on whether, when influenced by implicit biases, those behavioural dispositions should be understood as being a part of that person’s character: whether they are part of the agent that can be morally evaluated.[4] We frame this issue in terms of control. If a state, process, or behaviour is not something that the agent can, in the relevant sense, control, then it is not something that counts as part of her character. A number of theorists have argued (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  21.  69
    Implicit Bias, Confabulation, and Epistemic Innocence.Ema Sullivan-Bissett - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:548-560.
    In this paper I explore the nature of confabulatory explanations of action guided by implicit bias. I claim that such explanations can have significant epistemic benefits in spite of their obvious epistemic costs, and that such benefits are not otherwise obtainable by the subject at the time at which the explanation is offered. I start by outlining the kinds of cases I have in mind, before characterising the phenomenon of confabulation by focusing on a few common features. Then I (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  22.  12
    Conceptual Centrality and Implicit Bias.Guillermo del Pinal & Shannon Spaulding - forthcoming - Mind & Language.
    How are biases encoded in our representations of social categories? Philosophical and empirical discussions of implicit bias overwhelmingly focus on salient or statistical associations between target features and representations of social categories. These are the sorts of associations probed by the Implicit Association Test and various priming tasks. In this paper, we argue that these discussions systematically overlook an alternative way in which biases are encoded, i.e., in the dependency networks that are part of our representations of social categories. (...)
    No categories
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  23.  33
    Merging Information in Speech Recognition: Feedback is Never Necessary.Dennis Norris, James M. McQueen & Anne Cutler - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (3):299-325.
    Top-down feedback does not benefit speech recognition; on the contrary, it can hinder it. No experimental data imply that feedback loops are required for speech recognition. Feedback is accordingly unnecessary and spoken word recognition is modular. To defend this thesis, we analyse lexical involvement in phonemic decision making. TRACE (McClelland & Elman 1986), a model with feedback from the lexicon to prelexical processes, is unable to account for all the available data on phonemic decision making. The (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   23 citations  
  24.  18
    Associations Between Hofstede's Cultural Constructs and Social Desirability Response Bias.Richard A. Bernardi - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 65 (1):43 - 53.
    This paper examines the associations among social desirability response bias, cultural constructs and gender. The study includes the responses of 1537 students from 12 countries including Australia, Canada, China, Colombia, Ecuador, Hong Kong, Ireland, Japan, Nepal, South Africa, Spain, and the United States. The results of the analysis indicate that, on average, social desirability response bias decreases (increases) as a country’s Individualism (Uncertainty Avoidance) increases. The analysis also indicates that women scored significantly higher on Paulhus’ Image Management Subscale (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   15 citations  
  25. Cognitive Bias, the Axiological Question and the Probability of Theistic Belief.Daniel Linford & Jason Megill - forthcoming - In Miroslaw Szatkowski (ed.), Ontology of Theistic Beliefs: Meta-Ontological Perspectives. De Gruyter.
    Some recent work in philosophy of religion addresses what can be called the “axiological question,” i.e., regardless of whether God exists, would it be good or bad if God exists? Would the existence of God make the world a better or a worse place? Call the view that the existence of God would make the world a better place “Pro-Theism.” We argue that Pro-Theism is not implausible, and moreover, many Theists, at least, (often implicitly) think that it is true. That (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  26.  52
    Fairness as 'Appropriate Impartiality' and the Problem of the Self Serving Bias.Charlotte A. Newey - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (3):695-709.
    Garrett Cullity contends that fairness is appropriate impartiality (See Cullity (2004) Chapters 8 and 10 and Cullity (2008)). Cullity deploys his account of fairness as a means of limiting the extreme moral demand to make sacrifices in order to aid others that was posed by Peter Singer in his seminal article ‘Famine, Affluence and Morality’. My paper is founded upon the combination of (1) the observation that the idea that fairness consists in appropriate impartiality is very vague and (2) the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  27.  65
    Ad Hominem Fallacies, Bias, and Testimony.Audrey Yap - 2013 - Argumentation 27 (2):97-109.
    An ad hominem fallacy is committed when an individual employs an irrelevant personal attack against an opponent instead of addressing that opponent’s argument. Many discussions of such fallacies discuss judgments of relevance about such personal attacks, and consider how we might distinguish those that are relevant from those that are not. This paper will argue that the literature on bias and testimony can helpfully contribute to that analysis. This will highlight ways in which biases, particularly unconscious biases, can make (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  28.  18
    Potential for Bias in the Context of Neuroethics.Stephanie J. Bird - 2012 - Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (3):593-600.
    Neuroscience research, like all science, is vulnerable to the influence of extraneous values in the practice of research, whether in research design or the selection, analysis and interpretation of data. This is particularly problematic for research into the biological mechanisms that underlie behavior, and especially the neurobiological underpinnings of moral development and ethical reasoning, decision-making and behavior, and the other elements of what is often called the neuroscience of ethics. The problem arises because neuroscientists, like most everyone, bring to their (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  29.  3
    Reasonable Mistakes and Regulative Norms: Racial Bias in Defensive Harm.Renée Jorgensen Bolinger - 2017 - Journal of Political Philosophy 25 (1).
    A regulative norm for permissible defense distinguishes the conditions under which we will hold defenders to be innocent of any wrongdoing from those in which we hold them responsible for assault or manslaughter. The norm must strike a fair balance between defenders' security, on the one hand, and other agents’ legitimate claim to live without fear of suffering mistaken defensive harm, on the other. Since agents must make defensive decisions under high pressure and on only partial information, they will sometimes (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  30.  20
    Bias in Algorithmic Filtering and Personalization.Engin Bozdag - 2013 - Ethics and Information Technology 15 (3):209-227.
    Online information intermediaries such as Facebook and Google are slowly replacing traditional media channels thereby partly becoming the gatekeepers of our society. To deal with the growing amount of information on the social web and the burden it brings on the average user, these gatekeepers recently started to introduce personalization features, algorithms that filter information per individual. In this paper we show that these online services that filter information are not merely algorithms. Humans not only affect the design of the (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  31.  36
    Social Desirability Response Bias, Gender, and Factors Influencing Organizational Commitment: An International Study.Richard A. Bernardi & Steven T. Guptill - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (4):797-809.
    This research is an extension of Walker Information’s (Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making and Cases, pp. 235–255, 1999) study on employees’ job attitudes that was conducted exclusively in the United States. Walker Information found that the reputation of the organization, fairness at work, care, and concern for employees, trust in employees, and resources available at work were important factors in an employee’s decision to remain with his or her company. Our sample includes 713 students from seven countries: Canada, Colombia, Ecuador, (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  32.  9
    Publication Bias in Animal Welfare Scientific Literature.Agnes A. van der Schot & Clive Phillips - 2013 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (5):945-958.
    Animal welfare scientific literature has accumulated rapidly in recent years, but bias may exist which influences understanding of progress in the field. We conducted a survey of articles related to animal welfare or well being from an electronic database. From 8,541 articles on this topic, we randomly selected 115 articles for detailed review in four funding categories: government; charity and/or scientific association; industry; and educational organization. Ninety articles were evaluated after unsuitable articles were rejected. The welfare states of animals (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  33.  65
    Positive Confirmation Bias in the Acquisition of Information.Martin Jones & Robert Sugden - 2001 - Theory and Decision 50 (1):59-99.
    An experiment is reported which tests for positive confirmation bias in a setting in which individuals choose what information to buy, prior to making a decision. The design – an adaptation of Wason's selection task – reveals the use that subjects make of information after buying it. Strong evidence of positive confirmation bias, in both information acquisition and information use, is found; and this bias is found to be robust to experience. It is suggested that the (...) results from a pattern of reasoning which, although producing sub-optimal decisions, is internally coherent and which is self-reinforcing. (shrink)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  34.  11
    PATRIARCHY Quantum Bias Skilled Deceit Split Values.Louise Goueffic - manuscript
    Describes my book from the first bias creating belief in male superiority, to developing language with a massive number of names embedding male bias to guarantee patriarchy's survival, creating belief supplanting knowledge. Suggests changing language with evidence-based, neutral, inclusive and specific names reducing, and perhaps, eliminating male dominance.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  35.  5
    Avoiding Bias in Medical Ethical Decision-Making. Lessons to Be Learnt From Psychology Research.Albisser Schleger Heidi, R. Oehninger Nicole & Reiter-Theil Stella - 2011 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (2):155-162.
    When ethical decisions have to be taken in critical, complex medical situations, they often involve decisions that set the course for or against life-sustaining treatments. Therefore the decisions have far-reaching consequences for the patients, their relatives, and often for the clinical staff. Although the rich psychology literature provides evidence that reasoning may be affected by undesired influences that may undermine the quality of the decision outcome, not much attention has been given to this phenomenon in health care or ethics consultation. (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  36.  53
    Is Egocentric Bias Evidence for Simulation Theory?Annika Wallin - 2011 - Synthese 178 (3):503-514.
    Revised simulation theory allows mental state attributions containing some or all of the attributor's genuine, non-simulated mental states. It is thought that this gives the revised theory an empirical advantage, because unlike theory theory and rationality theory, it can explain egocentric bias. I challenge this view, arguing that theory theory and rationality theory can explain egocentricity by appealing to heuristic mindreading and the diagnosticity of attributors' own beliefs, and that these explanations are as simple and consistent as those provided (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  37.  25
    The Influence of Probabilities on the Response Mode Bias in Utility Elicitation.Christopher Schwand, Rudolf Vetschera & Lea M. Wakolbinger - 2010 - Theory and Decision 69 (3):395-416.
    The response mode bias, in which subjects exhibit different risk attitudes when assessing certainty equivalents versus indifference probabilities, is a well-known phenomenon in the assessment of utility functions. In this empirical study, we develop and apply a cardinal measure of risk attitudes to analyze not only the existence, but also the strength of this phenomenon. Since probability levels involved in decision problems are already known to have a strong impact on behavior, we use this approach to study the impact (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  38.  42
    Commensuration Bias in Peer Review.Carole J. Lee - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):1272-1283,.
    To arrive at their final evaluation of a manuscript or grant proposal, reviewers must convert a submission’s strengths and weaknesses for heterogeneous peer review criteria into a single metric of quality or merit. I identify this process of commensuration as the locus for a new kind of peer review bias. Commensuration bias illuminates how the systematic prioritization of some peer review criteria over others permits and facilitates problematic patterns of publication and funding in science. Commensuration bias also (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  39.  59
    The Ratio Bias Phenomenon: Fact or Artifact? [REVIEW]Mathieu Lefebvre, Ferdinand M. Vieider & Marie Claire Villeval - 2011 - Theory and Decision 71 (4):615-641.
    The ratio bias—according to which individuals prefer to bet on probabilities expressed as a ratio of large numbers to normatively equivalent or superior probabilities expressed as a ratio of small numbers—has recently gained momentum, with researchers especially in health economics emphasizing the policy importance of the phenomenon. Although the bias has been replicated several times, some doubts remain about its economic significance. Our two experiments show that the bias disappears once order effects are excluded, and once salient (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  40.  26
    Probability Judgments of Agency: Rational or Irrational?Thomas Schmidt & Vera C. Heumüller - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):1-11.
    We studied how people attribute action outcomes to their own actions under conditions of uncertainty. Participants chose between left and right keypresses to produce an action effect , while a computer player made a simultaneous keypress decision. In each trial, a random generator determined which of the players controlled the action effect at varying probabilities, and participants then judged which player had produced it. Participants’ effect control ranged from 20% to 80%, varied blockwise, and they could use trial-by-trial feedback (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  41.  23
    Integration of Social Information by Human Groups.Boris Granovskiy, Jason M. Gold, David J. T. Sumpter & Robert L. Goldstone - 2015 - Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (3):469-493.
    We consider a situation in which individuals search for accurate decisions without direct feedback on their accuracy, but with information about the decisions made by peers in their group. The “wisdom of crowds” hypothesis states that the average judgment of many individuals can give a good estimate of, for example, the outcomes of sporting events and the answers to trivia questions. Two conditions for the application of wisdom of crowds are that estimates should be independent and unbiased. Here, we (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  42.  18
    Lifesizing Entrepreneurship: Lonergan, Bias and The Role of Business in Society.Robert A. Miller - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 58 (1-3):219-225.
    . In an era of downsizing and disposable ethics, there is a need to redefine the role of business in society. Central to such a discussion is the frame of reference of the entrepreneur. A traditional business model defines entrepreneurship based on endowing resources with new wealth producing capabilities. This paper defines entrepreneurship as a calling to endow resources with new value. In support of the impact such a distinction would have on repositioning the role of business in society, the (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  43.  21
    Clinical Decision-Making, Gender Bias, Virtue Epistemology, and Quality Healthcare.James A. Marcum - forthcoming - Topoi:1-8.
    Robust clinical decision-making depends on valid reasoning and sound judgment and is essential for delivering quality healthcare. It is often susceptible, however, to a clinician’s biases such as towards a patient’s age, gender, race, or socioeconomic status. Gender bias in particular has a deleterious impact, which frequently results in cognitive myopia so that a clinician is unable to make an accurate diagnosis because of a patient’s gender—especially for female patients. Virtue epistemology provides a means for confronting gender bias (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  44.  9
    Video Feedback in Philosophy.Andy Lamey - 2015 - Metaphilosophy 46 (4-5):691-702.
    Marginal comments on student essays are a near-universal method of providing feedback in philosophy. Widespread as the practice is, however, it has well-known drawbacks. Commenting on students' work in the form of a video has the potential to improve the feedback experience for both instructors and students. The advantages of video feedback can be seen by examining it from both the professor's and the student's perspective. In discussing the professor's perspective, this article shares observations based on the (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  45. Accounting for Belief Bias in a Mental Model Framework: Comment on Klauer, Musch, and Naumer.Alan Garnham & Jane V. Oakhill - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (2):509-517.
    K. C. Klauer, J. Musch, and B. Naumer (2000) presented a general multinomial model of belief bias effects in syllogistic reasoning. They claimed to map a particular mental model account of belief bias (J. V. Oakhill, P. N. Johnson-Laird, & A. Garnham, 1989) onto this model and to show empirically that it is incorrect. The authors argue that this mental model account does not map onto the multinomial model and that it can account for the data presented by (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  46.  20
    On the Sharpness and Bias of Quantum Effects.Paul Busch - 2009 - Foundations of Physics 39 (7):712-730.
    The question of quantifying the sharpness (or unsharpness) of a quantum mechanical effect is investigated. Apart from sharpness, another property, bias, is found to be relevant for the joint measurability or coexistence of two effects. Measures of bias will be defined and examples given.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  47.  20
    The Influence of Activation Level on Belief Bias in Relational Reasoning.Adrian P. Banks - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (3):544-577.
    A novel explanation of belief bias in relational reasoning is presented based on the role of working memory and retrieval in deductive reasoning, and the influence of prior knowledge on this process. It is proposed that belief bias is caused by the believability of a conclusion in working memory which influences its activation level, determining its likelihood of retrieval and therefore its effect on the reasoning process. This theory explores two main influences of belief on the activation levels (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  48.  20
    Publication Bias in Animal Welfare Scientific Literature.Agnes A. Schot & Clive Phillips - 2013 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (5):945-958.
    Animal welfare scientific literature has accumulated rapidly in recent years, but bias may exist which influences understanding of progress in the field. We conducted a survey of articles related to animal welfare or well being from an electronic database. From 8,541 articles on this topic, we randomly selected 115 articles for detailed review in four funding categories: government; charity and/or scientific association; industry; and educational organization. Ninety articles were evaluated after unsuitable articles were rejected. The welfare states of animals (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  49.  28
    On the Number of Experiments Sufficient and in the Worst Case Necessary to Identify All Causal Relations Among N Variables.Clark Glymour & Richard Scheines - unknown
    We show that if any number of variables are allowed to be simultaneously and independently randomized in any one experiment, log2(N ) + 1 experiments are sufficient and in the worst case necessary to determine the causal relations among N ≥ 2 variables when no latent variables, no sample selection bias and no feedback cycles are present. For all K, 0 < K <.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  50.  7
    Can UK NHS Research Ethics Committees Effectively Monitor Publication and Outcome Reporting Bias?Rasheda Begum & Simon Kolstoe - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):1-5.
    BackgroundPublication and outcome reporting bias is often caused by researchers selectively choosing which scientific results and outcomes to publish. This behaviour is ethically significant as it distorts the literature used for future scientific or clinical decision-making. This study investigates the practicalities of using ethics applications submitted to a UK National Health Service research ethics committee to monitor both types of reporting bias.MethodsAs part of an internal audit we accessed research ethics database records for studies submitting an end of (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
1 — 50 / 1000