Results for 'first step'

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  1. A History of First Step Fallacies.Hubert L. Dreyfus - 2012 - Minds and Machines 22 (2):87-99.
    In the 1960s, without realizing it, AI researchers were hard at work finding the features, rules, and representations needed for turning rationalist philosophy into a research program, and by so doing AI researchers condemned their enterprise to failure. About the same time, a logician, Yehoshua Bar-Hillel, pointed out that AI optimism was based on what he called the “first step fallacy”. First step thinking has the idea of a successful last step built in. Limited early (...)
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  2.  23
    Formal Criteria for the Concept of Human Flourishing: The First Step in Defending Flourishing as an Ideal Aim of Education.Lynne S. Wolbert, Doret J. De Ruyter & Anders Schinkel - 2015 - Ethics and Education 10 (1):118-129.
    Human flourishing is the topic of an increasing number of books and articles in educational philosophy. Flourishing should be regarded as an ideal aim of education. If this is defended, the first step should be to elucidate what is meant by flourishing, and what exactly the concept entails. Listing formal criteria can facilitate reflection on the ideal of flourishing as an aim of education. We took Aristotelian eudaimonia as a prototype to construct two criteria for the concept of (...)
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  3.  65
    The First Step in the Case for Great Ape Equality: The Argument for Other Minds.Kristin Andrews - unknown
    A defense of equality for great apes must begin with an understanding of the opposition and an acknowledgement of the most basic point of disagreement. For great apes to gain status as persons in our community, we must begin by determining what the multitude of different definitions of "person" have in common. Finding that great apes fulfill the requirements of any one specific theory of personhood is insufficient, for these theories are highly controversial, and a critique of the theory will (...)
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  4.  74
    Modelling Trust in Artificial Agents, A First Step Toward the Analysis of E-Trust.Mariarosaria Taddeo - 2010 - Minds and Machines 20 (2):243-257.
    This paper provides a new analysis of e - trust , trust occurring in digital contexts, among the artificial agents of a distributed artificial system. The analysis endorses a non-psychological approach and rests on a Kantian regulative ideal of a rational agent, able to choose the best option for itself, given a specific scenario and a goal to achieve. The paper first introduces e-trust describing its relevance for the contemporary society and then presents a new theoretical analysis of this (...)
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  5.  16
    Does It Really Pay to Be Good, Everywhere? A First Step to Understand the Corporate Social and Financial Performance Link in Latin American Controversial Industries.Pablo Rodrigo, Ignacio J. Duran & Daniel Arenas - 2016 - Business Ethics: A European Review 25 (3):286-309.
    Most research studying the corporate social performance –corporate financial performance link has utilized developed country samples. Also, this literature has generally focused on a wide variety of industries, ignoring the fact that certain sectors – such as controversial industries – have graver social and environmental issues. Hence, a gap exists in this tradition when it comes to emerging markets and controversial industries. This paper attempts to fill this void by providing preliminary evidence and insight on the matter. Based on an (...)
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  6. Phenomenological Methods in Psychiatry: A Necessary First Step.Mona Gupta & L. Rex Kay - 2002 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 9 (1):93-96.
  7.  9
    A First Step Towardsmodeling Semistructured Data in Hybrid Multimodal Logic.Nicole Bidoit, Serenella Cerrito & Virginie Thion - 2004 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 14 (4):447-475.
  8.  28
    Beauty in Kant and Confucius: A First Step.Christian Helmut Wenzel - 2006 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 33 (1):95–107.
  9.  26
    First Step Toward a Computer Model of Human Behaviour.John H. King - 1971 - Theory and Decision 2 (2):141-173.
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  10.  6
    The First Step: DNAR Outside the Hospital and the Role of Pediatric Medical Care Providers.Julie Collier & Christy Sandborg - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (1):85-86.
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  11.  4
    Mind the First Step: The Intrapersonal Effects of Affect on the Decision to Initiate Negotiations Under Bargaining Power Asymmetry.Kapoutsis Ilias, Volkema Roger & Lampaki Antonia - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  12.  15
    Exploring the Garden: The First Step on the Shore of the Mythical Preparadigmatic Land Labeled “South Africa”.Zbigniew Bialas - 1997 - The European Legacy 2 (4):759-763.
  13.  18
    Multi-Interfaces Approach to Situated Knowledge Management for Complex Instruments: First Step Toward Industrial Deployment. [REVIEW]Loic Merckel & Toyoaki Nishida - 2010 - AI and Society 25 (2):211-223.
    This paper presents an approach to managing knowledge specific to a particular location for complex instruments. The goal is to improve the knowledge communication between experts and end-users of scientific instruments. We propose a computational framework that integrates augmented reality and augmented virtuality as interface for manipulating knowledge. The augmented virtuality-based interface can be produced and distributed without extra costs. It allows knowledge dissemination at a larger scale. The prominent feature of our model is that the knowledge representation is independent (...)
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  14.  10
    Semantic and Symbolic Elements in Architecture: Iconology as a First Step Towards an Architectural Semiotic.Mieczyslaw Wallis - 1973 - Semiotica 8 (3).
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  15. 6" It's Only the First Step That Costs.Sarah Kofman - 1994 - In Sonu Shamdasani & Michael Münchow (eds.), Speculations After Freud: Psychoanalysis, Philosophy, and Culture. Routledge. pp. 97.
     
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  16.  22
    Localism as a First Step Toward Symbolic Representation.John E. Hummel - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):480-481.
    Page argues convincingly for several important properties of localist representations in connectionist models of cognition. I argue that another important property of localist representations is that they serve as the starting point for connectionist representations of symbolic (relational) structures because they express meaningful properties independent of one another and their relations.
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  17.  2
    A First Step Toward a Practice-Based Theory of Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Secondary Economics.Cheryl A. Ayers - 2018 - Journal of Social Studies Research 42 (1):61-79.
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  18.  6
    Word Recognition as a First Step Towards Natural Language Processing with Artificial Neural Networks.Renate Deffner, Klaus Eder & Hans Geiger - 1990 - In G. Dorffner (ed.), Konnektionismus in Artificial Intelligence Und Kognitionsforschung. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. pp. 221--225.
  19.  2
    Experiencing Contingency and Agency: First Step Toward Self-Understanding in Making a Mind?Jacqueline Nadel, Ken Prepin & Mako Okanda - 2005 - Interaction Studies 6 (3):447-462.
  20. Fear and Conflicts. Admitting Their Existence as a First Step in Order to Rule Them.Fabrizio Battistelli - 2017 - Governare la Paura. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 10 (1).
    Sociology, being the science of social relations, has always been reluctant to enphasize conflicts. This may be politically a prudent stance but may also lead to undestimate the relevance and/or seriousness of conflict as a source of both social change and/or crisis. In _La sicurezza e la sua ombra_ the Author argues that in order to curb a perception and the opportunistic use of it by some actors we have to identify the sources not to blame the effects. As to (...)
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  21. Medicine: The First Step on the Road to Holiness? [REVIEW]Paulo Pacheco da Fontoura & Miguel Casimiro - 1995 - Journal of Medical Humanities 16 (2):105-119.
    The connections of Medicine and Religion are thoroughly documented in the primitive societies, and it comes as no surprise to see them together. Here we describe the true story of a Portuguese physician of the late 19th century whose image today is venerated in such a way as to compare him to a saint and to bestow upon him miraculous powers of healing. We propose that modern day physicians can learn from the example of this man that the role of (...)
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  22. Zen Masters of China: The First Step East: Zen Stories.Richard Bryan McDaniel & Albert Low (eds.) - 2012 - Tuttle Publishing.
     
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  23. Experiencing Contingency and Agency: First Step Toward Self-Understanding in Making a Mind?Jacqueline Nadel, Ken Prepin & Mako Okanda - 2005 - Interaction Studiesinteraction Studies Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 6 (3):447-462.
  24.  6
    To Obtain the Formal Resolution of the Liar Paradox That Can Be Considered as the Common Generalization of the Theorems Concerned, We Shall Reformu-Late It in a Step–by–Step Manner in Four Main Stages. First We Shall Seek an Ordinary Language Equivalent of the Paradox in a Form That Shows Clearly its Logical Structure, and Then We Shall Directly Translate the Expression We Have.Gy Orgy Ser Ény - 2003 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 9 (1).
  25. Theory and Philosophy of AI (Minds and Machines, 22/2 - Special Volume).Vincent C. Müller (ed.) - 2012 - Springer.
    Invited papers from PT-AI 2011. - Vincent C. Müller: Introduction: Theory and Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence - Nick Bostrom: The Superintelligent Will: Motivation and Instrumental Rationality in Advanced Artificial Agents - Hubert L. Dreyfus: A History of First Step Fallacies - Antoni Gomila, David Travieso and Lorena Lobo: Wherein is Human Cognition Systematic - J. Kevin O'Regan: How to Build a Robot that Is Conscious and Feels - Oron Shagrir: Computation, Implementation, Cognition.
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  26.  62
    Extensions of First Order Logic.María Manzano - 1996 - Cambridge University Press.
    Classical logic has proved inadequate in various areas of computer science, artificial intelligence, mathematics, philosopy and linguistics. This is an introduction to extensions of first-order logic, based on the principle that many-sorted logic (MSL) provides a unifying framework in which to place, for example, second-order logic, type theory, modal and dynamic logics and MSL itself. The aim is two fold: only one theorem-prover is needed; proofs of the metaproperties of the different existing calculi can be avoided by borrowing them (...)
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  27.  19
    First-Order Glue.Miltiadis Kokkonidis - 2008 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 17 (1):43-68.
    Glue has evolved significantly during the past decade. Although the recent move to type-theoretic notation was a step in the right direction, basing the current Glue system on System F (second-order λ-calculus) was an unfortunate choice. An extension to two sorts and ad hoc restrictions were necessary to avoid inappropriate composition of meanings. As a result, the current system is unnecessarily complicated. A first-order Glue system is hereby proposed as its replacement. This new system is not only simpler (...)
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  28.  72
    The Second Step of the B‐Deduction.Frederick Rauscher - 2014 - European Journal of Philosophy 22 (3):396-419.
    This paper offers a new interpretation of Kant's puzzling claim that the B-Deduction in the Critique of Pure Reason should be considered as having two main steps. Previous commentators have tended to agree in general on the first step as arguing for the necessity of the categories for possible experience, but disagree on what the second step is and whether Kant even needs a second step. I argue that the two parts of the B-Deduction correspond to (...)
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  29.  24
    Infobase Change: A First Approximation. [REVIEW]Thomas Andreas Meyer, Willem Adrian Labuschagne & Johannes Heidema - 2000 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (3):353-377.
    Generalisations of theory change involving operations on arbitrary sets ofwffs instead of on belief sets (i.e., sets closed under a consequencerelation), have become known as base change. In one view, a base should bethought of as providing more structure to its generated belief set, whichmeans that it can be employed to determine the theory contraction operationassociated with a base contraction operation. In this paper we follow suchan approach as the first step in defining infobase change. We think of (...)
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  30. The First Public Dispute in Hungarian Philosophy: Disagreement About Kant's Philosophy at the Turn of the 18 (Th) Century.Ondrej Meszaros - 2010 - Filozofia 65 (10):965-978.
    The paper describes that period of the Hungarian philosophy, in which it became professionalized, namely the Kant argument, which was the first step the Hungarian philosophy took towards its being public. The question has to be answered whether Kant’s thought could become a part of it. Due to political developments as well as the pressure of the church the turn of the century witnessed the shift from epistemology to the issues of moral philosophy and theology. Thus the conditions (...)
     
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  31. Step by Step-Building Representations in Algebraic Logic.Robin Hirsch & Ian Hodkinson - 1997 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 62 (1):225-279.
    We consider the problem of finding and classifying representations in algebraic logic. This is approached by letting two players build a representation using a game. Homogeneous and universal representations are characterized according to the outcome of certain games. The Lyndon conditions defining representable relation algebras (for the finite case) and a similar schema for cylindric algebras are derived. Finite relation algebras with homogeneous representations are characterized by first order formulas. Equivalence games are defined, and are used to establish whether (...)
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  32.  74
    Privileges of First-Person Reference and of Third-Person Reference.Guido Melchior - 2011 - Acta Analytica 26 (1):37-52.
    It is a widely held view that persons have privileged knowledge about their own minds, although numerous different views on what this privilege exactly consists of exist. One possible way of interpreting it is to claim that persons can refer to their own mental states in a privileged way. I will argue that this view has to be extended. Our common-sense view about reference to mental states implies that besides privileges of first-person reference to one's own mental states, there (...)
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  33. Step by Step-Building Representations in Algebraic Logic.Robin Hirsch & Ian Hodkinson - 1997 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 62 (1):225-279.
    We consider the problem of finding and classifying representations in algebraic logic. This is approached by letting two players build a representation using a game. Homogeneous and universal representations are characterized according to the outcome of certain games. The Lyndon conditions defining representable relation algebras and a similar schema for cylindric algebras are derived. Finite relation algebras with homogeneous representations are characterized by first order formulas. Equivalence games are defined, and are used to establish whether an algebra is $\omega$-categorical. (...)
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  34.  11
    The Failing of Meaning: A Few Steps Into a First-Person Phenomenological Practice.Natalie Depraz - 2009 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 16 (10-12):10-12.
    The experience I am going to go into refers to a process of emergence of meaning in consciousness. More particularly, what was given to me in terms of 'meaning' was the very lack of meaning of what was happening to me in the very moment. There is a crucial hypothesis here: this is the discovery of one's own experience and the production of a personal description of it within the framework of a disciplined practice. It is the only way to (...)
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  35.  8
    Parkinsonian Rigidity: The First Hundred-and-One Years 1817-1918.Francis Schiller - 1986 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 8 (2):221 - 236.
    Between James Parkinson's 'shaking palsy' and the first report of the post-encephalitic manifestation — initially not recognizable as a complication of that incipient 'Spanish flu' epidemic — it took over a hundred years to arrive at a clear appreciation and differentiation of its most disabling feature: rigidity. This paper traces the development, step by hesitant or bold step, of the pertinent ideas and terms regarding muscle tone before and after Parkinson, their basis in neuropathological advances as they (...)
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  36. Experience and Community: Twelve Step Program Theory, American Pragmatism, and Christian Theology.R. Michael Wyatt - 1996 - Dissertation, Emory University
    This dissertation contends that the inarticulate but implicit philosophical substructure of Twelve-Step Programs is congruent with American Pragmatism developed by Charles Peirce and William James, and that attempts by current Christian writers to assimilate the insights of Twelve-Step Programs fail because they do not take that substructure into account. At its conclusion, it proposes more integral ways of bringing Twelve-Step Program Theory and Christian Theology into conversation. ;Current Christian appropriations tend to proceed by renaming the Higher Power (...)
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  37.  39
    Perspective-Taking and Depth of Theory-of-Mind Reasoning in Sequential-Move Games.Jun Zhang, Trey Hedden & Adrian Chia - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (3):560-573.
    Theory-of-mind (ToM) involves modeling an individual’s mental states to plan one’s action and to anticipate others’ actions through recursive reasoning that may be myopic (with limited recursion) or predictive (with full recursion). ToM recursion was examined using a series of two-player, sequential-move matrix games with a maximum of three steps. Participants were assigned the role of Player I, controlling the initial and the last step, or of Player II, controlling the second step. Appropriate for the assigned role, participants (...)
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  38.  19
    Identifying Argumentative Patterns: A Vital Step in the Development of Pragma-Dialectics.Frans H. Van Eemeren - 2016 - Argumentation 30 (1):1-23.
    This paper serves as an introduction to the special issue on argumentative patterns in discourse, more in particular on argumentative patterns with pragmatic argumentation as a main argument that are prototypical of argumentative discourse in certain communicative activity types in the political, the legal, the medical, and the academic domain. It situates the studies of argumentative patterns reported in these papers in the pragma-dialectical research program. In order to be able to do so, it is first explained in which (...)
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  39.  21
    An Epistemic Step for Anti-Presuppositions.E. Chemla - 2008 - Journal of Semantics 25 (2):141-173.
    Sentence (1) strongly suggests that the speaker does not have a sister:(1)John believes that I have a sister.a.Alternative:John knows that I have a sister.b.Actual inference:The speaker does not have a sister.c.Predicted inference:It is not common belief that the speaker has a sister.According to Heim (1991), Percus (2006), and Sauerland (2006), this inference should follow from the comparison of (1) to (1a). However, such an analysis would only predict a very weak implicature: it is not common belief that the speaker has (...)
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  40.  8
    Relativism of Distance - a Step in the Naturalization of Meta-Ethics.Antonio Gaitán & Hugo Viciana - 2018 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 21 (2):311-327.
    Bernard Williams proposed his relativism of distance based on the recognition “that others are at varying distances from us”. Recent work in moral psychology and experimental philosophy highlights the prevalence of folk relativism in relation to spatial and temporal distance. However, Williams’ relativism of distance as well as recent empirical findings which seem to support some of Williams’ main ideas on this issue have received scant attention. In this article, we would like to focus on the phenomenon of moral relativism (...)
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  41.  18
    The Rationalizability of Two-Step Choices.Ruth Poproski - 2010 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 39 (6):713 - 743.
    This paper presents a formal characterization of a two stage decision rule. This characterization involves three conditions which, together, are satisfied by any choice function that can be represented as a two-tier choice function. And any choice function satisfying these three conditions can be represented as a two-tier choice function. The first condition identifies particular features of two-tier choice functions when they violate Property α. The other two conditions are essentially existence claims, required to ensure that the two tiers (...)
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  42. The Logico-Linguistic Mind-Brain Problem and a Proposed Step Towards its Solution.Herbert G. Bohnert - 1974 - Philosophy of Science 41 (1):1-14.
    This paper argues that if a person's beliefs are idealized as a set of sentences (theoretical, observational, and mixed) then the device of Ramsey sentences provides a treatment, of the mind-brain problem, that has at least four noteworthy characteristics. First, sentences asserting correlations between one's own brain state and one's own "private" experiences are, on such treatment, reconstrued as neither causal, coreferential, nor as meaning postulates, but as clauses in an overall hypothesis (Ramsey sentence) whose only nonlogical constants have (...)
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  43.  56
    The Inessential Indexical: On the Philosophical Insignificance of Perspective and the First Person By Herman Cappelen and Josh Dever. [REVIEW]Philip Atkins - 2016 - Analysis 76 (1):99-102.
    Due largely to the influence of Perry (1979) and Lewis (1979), many philosophers now believe that certain attitudes are ‘essentially indexical’, and that this fact is philosophically significant. Going against the conventional wisdom, Cappelen and Dever (2013) (henceforth ‘C&D’) have two goals. The modest goal is to show that Perry, Lewis and their followers have failed to establish any clear ‘essential indexicality’ thesis. The ambitious goal is to show that indexicality is ‘shallow’, in that it does not play any interesting (...)
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  44. Discovering the Relativity of Simultaneity How Did Einstein Take "the Step"?John D. Norton - unknown
    It is routinely assumed that Einstein discovered the relativity of simultaneity by thinking about how clocks can be synchronized by light signals, much in accord with the analysis he gave in his 1905 special relativity paper. Yet that is just supposition. We have no real evidence that it actually happened this way. In later recollections, Einstein stressed the importance of several thought experiments in the thinking that led up to the final theory. They include his chasing a light beam thought (...)
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  45.  21
    A Fundamental Form of the Schrodinger Equation.Muhammad Adeel Ajaib - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (12):1586-1598.
    We propose a first order equation from which the Schrodinger equation can be derived. Matrices that obey certain properties are introduced for this purpose. We start by constructing the solutions of this equation in one dimension and solve the problem of electron scattering from a step potential. We show that the sum of the spin up and down, reflection and transmission coefficients, is equal to the quantum mechanical results for this problem. Furthermore, we present a three dimensional version (...)
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    Davidson's Interpretations: The Step Not Taken.Eli Dresner - 2015 - Noûs 49 (4):698-712.
    In the first section of this paper I follow an important trajectory in the development of Davidson's notion of radical interpretation: From being interpretationally concerned only with language, like Quine's radical translation that precedes it, through involving the ascription of belief in increasingly complex ways, to finally incorporating desire and preference. In the second section of the paper I show that Davidson falls short of incorporating non-linguistic action in radical interpretation, I assess his motivations for doing so, and I (...)
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    Explaining Terrorism.Kristin Andrews - 2006 - The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 9:167-171.
    The official explanations the US gave for the September 11th terrorist attacks are not in fact explanatory, and there has been popular condemnation of those who attempt to offer causal explanations for the attacks. This paper is an investigation of the difficulty people have with finding and accepting explanations for acts they strongly condemn. Using research in the philosophy of mind and moral psychology, I distinguish between explanations for actual immoral behavior and explanations for fictional immoral behavior. The difficulty with (...)
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  48.  3
    Semantic Shifts in Argumentative Processes: A Step Beyond the 'Fallacy of Equivocation'.Arnulf Deppermann - 2000 - Argumentation 14 (1):17-30.
    In naturally occuring argumentation, words which play a crucial role in the argument often acquire different meanings on subsequent occasions of use. Traditionally, such semantic shifts have been dealt with by the ‘fallacy of equivocation’. In my paper, I would like to show that there is considerably more to semantic shifts during arguments than their potentially being fallacious. Based on an analysis of a debate on environmental policy, I will argue that shifts in meaning are produced by a principle I (...)
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  49.  19
    Do the Solvolysis Reactions of Secondary Substrates Occur by the S N 1 or S N 2 Mechanism: Or Something Else? [REVIEW]Richard Pagni - 2011 - Foundations of Chemistry 13 (2):131-143.
    Primary and methyl aliphatic halides and tosylates undergo substitution reactions with nucleophiles in one step by the classic S N 2 mechanism, which is characterized by second-order kinetics and inversion of configuration at the reaction center. Tertiary aliphatic halides and tosylates undergo substitution reactions with nucleophiles in two (or more) steps by the classic S N 1 mechanism, which is characterized by first-order kinetics and incomplete inversion of configuration at the reaction center due to the presence of ion (...)
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  50.  8
    Consider the Source: One Step in Assessing Premise Acceptability. [REVIEW]James B. Freeman - 1996 - Argumentation 10 (4):453-460.
    Premise acceptability is conceptually connected to presumption. To say that a premise is acceptable just when there is a presumption in its favor is to give a first approximation to this connection. A number of popular principles of presumption suggest that whether there is a presumption for a premise, belief, or claim depends on the sources which vouch for it. Sources consist of internal belief-generating mechanisms and external testimony. Alvin Plantinga's notion of warrant lays down four conditions upon a (...)
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